Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: Rachel Matar

84 The Use of Medical Biotechnology to Treat Genetic Disease

Authors: Rachel Matar, Maxime Merheb

Abstract:

Chemical drugs have been used for many centuries as the only way to cure diseases until the novel gene therapy has been created in 1960. Gene therapy is based on the insertion, correction, or inactivation of genes to treat people with genetic illness (1). Gene therapy has made wonders in Parkison’s, Alzheimer and multiple sclerosis. In addition to great promises in the healing of deadly diseases like many types of cancer and autoimmune diseases (2). This method implies the use of recombinant DNA technology with the help of different viral and non-viral vectors (3). It is nowadays used in somatic cells as well as embryos and gametes. Beside all the benefits of gene therapy, this technique is deemed by some opponents as an ethically unacceptable treatment as it implies playing with the genes of living organisms.

Keywords: gene therapy, genetic disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
83 "Black Book": Dutch Prototype or Jewish Outsider

Authors: Eyal Boers

Abstract:

This paper shall demonstrate how films can offer a valuable and innovative approach to the study of images, stereotypes, and national identity. "Black Book" ("Zwartboek", 2006), a World War Two film directed by Paul Verhoeven, tells the story of Rachel Stein, a young Jewish woman who becomes a member of a resistance group in the Netherlands. The main hypothesis in this paper maintains that Rachel's character possesses both features of the Dutch prototype (a white, secular, sexual, freedom-loving individualist who seems "Dutch" enough to be accepted into a Dutch resistance group and even infiltrate the local Nazi headquarters) and features which can be defined as specifically Jewish (a black-haired victim persecuted by the Nazis, transforming herself into a gentile, while remaining loyal to her fellow Jews and ultimately immigrating to Israel and becoming a Hebrew teacher in a Kibbutz). Finally, this paper claims that Rachel's "Dutchness" is symptomatic of Dutch nostalgia in the 21st century for the Jews as "others" who blend into dominant Dutch culture, while Rachel's "Jewish Otherness" reflects a transnational identity – one that is always shifting and traverses cultural and national boundaries. In this sense, a film about Dutch Jews in the Second World War reflects on issues of identity in the 21st Century.

Keywords: Dutch, film, stereotypes, identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
82 Enzymatic Repair Prior To DNA Barcoding, Aspirations, and Restraints

Authors: Maxime Merheb, Rachel Matar

Abstract:

Retrieving ancient DNA sequences which in return permit the entire genome sequencing from fossils have extraordinarily improved in recent years, thanks to sequencing technology and other methodological advances. In any case, the quest to search for ancient DNA is still obstructed by the damage inflicted on DNA which accumulates after the death of a living organism. We can characterize this damage into three main categories: (i) Physical abnormalities such as strand breaks which lead to the presence of short DNA fragments. (ii) Modified bases (mainly cytosine deamination) which cause errors in the sequence due to an incorporation of a false nucleotide during DNA amplification. (iii) DNA modifications referred to as blocking lesions, will halt the PCR extension which in return will also affect the amplification and sequencing process. We can clearly see that the issues arising from breakage and coding errors were significantly decreased in recent years. Fast sequencing of short DNA fragments was empowered by platforms for high-throughput sequencing, most of the coding errors were uncovered to be the consequences of cytosine deamination which can be easily removed from the DNA using enzymatic treatment. The methodology to repair DNA sequences is still in development, it can be basically explained by the process of reintroducing cytosine rather than uracil. This technique is thus restricted to amplified DNA molecules. To eliminate any type of damage (particularly those that block PCR) is a process still pending the complete repair methodologies; DNA detection right after extraction is highly needed. Before using any resources into extensive, unreasonable and uncertain repair techniques, it is vital to distinguish between two possible hypotheses; (i) DNA is none existent to be amplified to begin with therefore completely un-repairable, (ii) the DNA is refractory to PCR and it is worth to be repaired and amplified. Hence, it is extremely important to develop a non-enzymatic technique to detect the most degraded DNA.

Keywords: ancient DNA, DNA barcodong, enzymatic repair, PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
81 Masonry Blocks with Recycled Aggregates and Recycled Glass

Authors: Pierre Y. Matar, Louay S. El Hassanieh, Marleine F. Bayssary

Abstract:

The demolished concrete is a major component of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the demolished concrete can be used as a substitute of natural aggregates. Another major C&D waste is the flat glass. This glass can be also recycled and used as an aggregate substitute. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of the use of recycled concrete aggregates and recycled glass on the compressive strength and fire resistance of precast concrete masonry blocks. Tests are carried out on four series of blocks whose compositions include different percentages of recycled aggregates and recycled glass and one series of reference blocks whose composition consists of exclusively natural aggregates. The recycled coarse aggregates and recycled glass have 6.3/12.5 mm fraction and the natural aggregates have 0/6.3 mm fraction; no recycled fine aggregates are included in concrete mixes.

Keywords: compressive strength, precast concrete blocks, recycled aggregates, recycled glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
80 The Involvement of Viruses and Fungi in the Pathogenesis of Dental Infections

Authors: Wael Khalil, Elias Rahal, Ghassan Matar

Abstract:

Tooth related infections or commonly named dental infections have been described as the most common causes of tooth loss in adults. These pathologies were mostly periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. The involvement of various bacteria in the pathogenesis of these pathologies has been thoroughly mentioned and approved in the literature. However, the variability in the severity and prognosis of these lesions among patients suggests the association of other pathogens, like viruses and fungi, in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Several studies in the literature investigated the association of multiple viruses and fungi with the above-mentioned lesions, yet, a vast controversy was reached concerning this subject.Aim: Our study aims to fill the gap in the literature concerning the contribution of adenovirus, HPV-16, EBV, fungi, and candida in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. For this purpose, we utilized the quantitative PCR for pathogen detection in saliva, gingival, and lesions samples of involved subjects. Results: Some of these pathogens appeared to have an association with the investigated dental pathologies, while others showed no contribution to the pathogenesis of these lesions. Further investigation is required in order to identify the subtype of the involved pathogens in these tooth related oral pathology.

Keywords: periodontitis, pericoronitis, dental abscess, PCR, microbiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
79 The Feasibility of Online, Interactive Workshops to Facilitate Anatomy Education during the UK COVID-19 Lockdowns

Authors: Prabhvir Singh Marway, Kai Lok Chan, Maria-Ruxandra Jinga, Rachel Bok Ying Lee, Matthew Bok Kit Lee, Krishan Nandapalan, Sze Yi Beh, Harry Carr, Christopher Kui

Abstract:

We piloted a structured series of online workshops on the 3D segmentation of anatomical structures from CT scans. 33 participants were recruited from four UK universities for two-day workshops between 2020 and 2021. Open-source software (3D-Slicer) was used. We hypothesized that active participation via real-time screen-sharing and voice-communication via Discord would enable improved engagement and learning, despite national lockdowns. Written feedback indicated positive learning experiences, with subjective measures of anatomical understanding and software confidence improving.

Keywords: medical education, workshop, segmentation, anatomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
78 Is School Misbehavior a Decision: Implications for School Guidance

Authors: Rachel C. F. Sun

Abstract:

This study examined the predictive effects of moral competence, prosocial norms and positive behavior recognition on school misbehavior among Chinese junior secondary school students. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that students were more likely to misbehave in school when they had lower levels of moral competence and prosocial norms, and when they perceived their positive behavior being less likely recognized. Practical implications were discussed on how to guide students to make the right choices to behave appropriately in school. Implications for future research were also discussed.

Keywords: moral competence, positive behavior recognition, prosocial norms, school misbehavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
77 Mental Health Clinicians’ Perceptions of Nature-Based Interventions Within Community Mental Health Services: Evidence from Australia

Authors: Rachel Tambyah, Katarzyna Olcoń, Julaine Allan, Pete Destry, Thomas Astell-Burt

Abstract:

The rising social and financial burden of mental illness indicates an urgent need to explore interventions that can be used as well as or instead of traditional treatments. Although there is growing evidence of the positive mental health outcomes of spending time in nature, the implementation of nature-based interventions (NBIs) within mental health services remains minimal. Based on interviews with mental health clinicians in Australia, this study demonstrated that clinicians supported the use of NBIs and would promote them to their clients.

Keywords: nature, nature-based interventions, mental health, mental health services, mental health clinicians

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
76 Rural Education in Saudi Arabia School Leaders’ and Teachers’ Experiences and Perceptions

Authors: Emad Matar Alotaibi

Abstract:

In line with other Arabic countries, Saudi Arabia is currently undergoing large scale school reform in response to key factors brought about by globalization. While there is a growing body of research exploring these systemic changes in urban environments, there is very little published research regarding rural schools. In fact, rural schools are still under-examined globally comparing to their urban and suburban counterparts over a range of reform dimensions. In Saudi Arabia, there are around 1128 rural areas that contain about 3200 schools. Several challenges face rural schools, especially in relation to recruitment, retention, and professional development opportunities for teachers and school leaders. However, there is very little in depth research which explores these issues “on the ground”. The aim of this research is fill this knowledge gap and explore teachers’ and leaders’ perceptions and experiences of working in rural schools in KSA. In Saudi Arabia, there is a growing body of research into school leadership. However, there is very little published research specifically exploring rural schools. By using an in-depth case study approach and adopting an analytical framework based on the interlinking concepts of leadership practices, culture, and CPD, this study offers and significant and original contribution to knowledge in this area. This study also will adopt a qualitative multiple case studies, which is going to employ semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and documentary analysis.

Keywords: leadership practice, school culture, continuing professional development, rural school

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
75 Experimental Model for Instruction of Pre-Service Teachers in ICT Tools and E-Learning Environments

Authors: Rachel Baruch

Abstract:

This article describes the implementation of an experimental model for teaching ICT tools and digital environments in teachers training college. In most educational systems in the Western world, new programs were developed in order to bridge the digital gap between teachers and students. In spite of their achievements, these programs are limited due to several factors: The teachers in the schools implement new methods incorporating technological tools into the curriculum, but meanwhile the technology changes and advances. The interface of tools changes frequently, some tools disappear and new ones are invented. These conditions require an experimental model of training the pre-service teachers. The appropriate method for instruction within the domain of ICT tools should be based on exposing the learners to innovations, helping them to gain experience, teaching them how to deal with challenges and difficulties on their own, and training them. This study suggests some principles for this approach and describes step by step the implementation of this model.

Keywords: ICT tools, e-learning, pre-service teachers, new model

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
74 Survey of American Women to Promote Social Citizenship among White, African American, and Muslim American Women

Authors: Rachel Turney

Abstract:

American Woman is a discussion of being a woman in American through the lens of intersectionality, critical race theory, Muslim American identities, and social citizenship. The survey design and resulting paper are based on the researcher’s personal experience studying intersectionality and Muslim American identities through National Endowment for the Humanities. The researcher poses three questions to White, African American, and Muslim American women about female identify in America. Results are coded and analyzed in their meaning in the context of American society. Results show the similarities, primarily the idea of motherhood and fighting in society. Results also examine differences like those related to faith and family identifies in responses. The researcher examines the specific overlap in responses in the context of social citizenship.

Keywords: women, Muslim women, intersectionality, feminism

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
73 Teachers’ and Students’ Causal Explanations for Classroom Misbehavior: Similarities and Differences

Authors: Rachel C. F. Sun

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine the similarities and differences between teachers’ and students’ causal explanations of classroom misbehavior. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve teachers and eighteen Grade 7-9 students. The qualitative data were analyzed, in which the attributed causes of classroom misbehavior were categorized into student, family, school, and peer factors. Findings showed that both interviewed teachers and students shared similarity in attributing to student factors, such as ‘fun and pleasure seeking’ and ‘attention seeking’ as the leading causes of misbehavior. However, the students accounted to school factors, particularly ‘boring lessons’ as the next attributed causes, while the teachers accounted to family factors, such as ‘lack of parent demandingness’. By delineating the factors at student, family, school, and peer levels, these findings help drawing corresponding implications for preventing and mitigating misbehavior in school.

Keywords: causal explanation, misbehavior, student, teacher

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
72 A Comparative Study of the Evolution of Disparities in Salaries of Hospital Executives

Authors: Lesley Clack, Rachel Ellison, Elizabeth Chambers

Abstract:

A belief exists that there are huge gender and racial disparities among hospital CEO’s in the United States, and historically, male, Caucasian healthcare executives have made significantly larger salaries than females and other races. With a recent focus on reducing barriers and disparities in healthcare, it remains to be seen whether there have been changes in these disparities over time. The purpose of this study was to explore disparities among salaries of hospital executives in the United States. Analysis of salary data was conducted utilizing online hospital salary databases. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine the significance of the differences. Results indicated that there had been improvements in disparities among some ethnicities. Gender disparities remain the largest gap. The implications of this study are significant for the field of healthcare management as disparities can affect both social dynamics and organizational culture. Understanding where disparities lie is the first step towards bridging the gap and reducing barriers for cultural diversity within healthcare management.

Keywords: health care, disparities, management, executives

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
71 Violence against Women: Exploring Discursive Resistance in the Frames of Gender Violence in South Africa

Authors: Kunle Oparinde, Rachel Matteau-Matsha, Felix Awung

Abstract:

In recent times, the issue of gender-based violence against women in South Africa is prevalent in headlines due to the high rate of attacks directed towards women. Ranging from teenagers to adults, women are continuously targeted indiscriminately in what is seemingly becoming a prolonged cycle in the country. To this end, human rights activists, organisations, and political leaders have managed to somewhat verbally condemn the atrocious acts. Further, interested people in South Africa, through walks and protests, have continued to speak against the swinging violence against women in the country. The thrust in this study is to explore and analyse how discourse (language) has been employed as a resounding voice against gender violence in the country. Through a purposive sampling of materials employed during walks and protests, collected from online sources, we examine how language is being used to combat and confront the issue of gender violence viz-a-viz how it continues to serve as a crucial tool in repelling gender violence.

Keywords: gender, violence, language, discourse, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
70 Elitism: Navigating Professional Diversity Barriers

Authors: Rachel Nir, Tina Mckee

Abstract:

In the UK, reliance has been placed on the professions to ‘heal themselves’ in improving equality and diversity. This approach has faltered, in part due to the global economic climate, and stimulus is needed to make faster equality progress. Recent empirical evidence has identified specific diversity barriers, namely: the cost of training; the use of high school grades as a primary selection criteria; the significance of prior work experience in recruitment decisions; and recruitment from elite universities. Students from majority groups and affluent backgrounds are advantaged over their counterparts. We as educators are passionate about resisting this. We believe that education can be a key agent of change. As part of this belief, the presenters have recently designed learning and teaching materials for the 2015/16 academic year. These are aimed at undergraduate law students for the purpose of 1) educating them on career barriers; 2) helping them to develop personal strategies to overcome them; and 3) encouraging them to address their own biases, both conscious and implicit, so that they, themselves, may be fairer employers and managers in the future.

Keywords: career barriers, challenging professional bias, education, elitism, personal student strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
69 Multidimensional Study on the Deprivations Faced by Women in India

Authors: Ramya Rachel S.

Abstract:

For women in a developing country like India, poverty is an ever-clinging problem which has rooted itself without any trace of absolute abolition. Poverty is a deprivation of many imminent needs and must be measured accordingly. Therefore, it is important to study the dimensions of education, health, and standard of living to understand the true nature of the impoverished. The study focused on studying the deprivation on these aspects using the Alkire-Foster methodology to estimate the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The study has utilized the individual data of women aged 15 to 49 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) for the year 2015-16. Findings reveal that women in India still face extreme levels of deprivation in various dimensions. More than one-third of the total women aged 15 to 24 in India were multidimensionally poor. Dimensional breakdown of the levels of multidimensional poverty indicates that the dimension of Education is the highest contributor to poverty. Decomposition of the multidimensional poverty among various demographic sub-groups, reveals that the multidimensional poverty level increases with age. Results point out that deprivations were higher among widowed and married women, and among women who lived alone. There was also a huge rural-urban divide with respect to poverty. The basic needs of these women must be targeted and met so that they are withdrawn from all forms of poverty.

Keywords: deprivations, multidimensional poverty, sub-group decomposition, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
68 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Binary Systems for Hydrogen Storage

Authors: Gauthier Lefevre, Holger Kohlmann, Sebastien Saitzek, Rachel Desfeux, Adlane Sayede

Abstract:

Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, compatible with the sustainable energy concept. In this context, solid-state hydrogen-storage is the key challenge in developing hydrogen economy. The capability of absorption of large quantities of hydrogen makes intermetallic systems of particular interest. In this study, efforts have been devoted to the theoretical investigation of binary systems with constraints consideration. On the one hand, besides considering hydrogen-storage, a reinvestigation of crystal structures of the palladium-arsenic system shows, with experimental validations, that binary systems could still currently present new or unknown relevant structures. On the other hand, various binary Mg-based systems were theoretically scrutinized in order to find new interesting alloys for hydrogen storage. Taking the effect of pressure into account reveals a wide range of alternative structures, changing radically the stable compounds of studied binary systems. Similar constraints, induced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, have been applied to binary systems, and results are presented.

Keywords: binary systems, evolutionary algorithm, first principles study, pulsed laser deposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
67 Task Evoked Pupillary Response for Surgical Task Difficulty Prediction via Multitask Learning

Authors: Beilei Xu, Wencheng Wu, Lei Lin, Rachel Melnyk, Ahmed Ghazi

Abstract:

In operating rooms, excessive cognitive stress can impede the performance of a surgeon, while low engagement can lead to unavoidable mistakes due to complacency. As a consequence, there is a strong desire in the surgical community to be able to monitor and quantify the cognitive stress of a surgeon while performing surgical procedures. Quantitative cognitiveload-based feedback can also provide valuable insights during surgical training to optimize training efficiency and effectiveness. Various physiological measures have been evaluated for quantifying cognitive stress for different mental challenges. In this paper, we present a study using the cognitive stress measured by the task evoked pupillary response extracted from the time series eye-tracking measurements to predict task difficulties in a virtual reality based robotic surgery training environment. In particular, we proposed a differential-task-difficulty scale, utilized a comprehensive feature extraction approach, and implemented a multitask learning framework and compared the regression accuracy between the conventional single-task-based and three multitask approaches across subjects.

Keywords: surgical metric, task evoked pupillary response, multitask learning, TSFresh

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
66 A Nanosensor System Based on Disuccinimydyl – CYP2E1 for Amperometric Detection of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug, Pyrazinamide

Authors: Rachel F. Ajayi, Unathi Sidwaba, Usisipho Feleni, Samantha F. Douman, Ezo Nxusani, Lindsay Wilson, Candice Rassie, Oluwakemi Tovide, Priscilla G.L. Baker, Sibulelo L. Vilakazi, Robert Tshikhudo, Emmanuel I. Iwuoha

Abstract:

Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line pro-drugs in the tuberculosis (TB) combination chemotherapy used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Numerous reports have suggested that hepatotoxicity due to pyrazinamide in patients is due to inappropriate dosing. It is therefore necessary to develop sensitive and reliable techniques for determining the PZA metabolic profile of diagnosed patients promptly and at point-of-care. This study reports the determination of PZA based on nanobiosensor systems developed from disuccinimidyl octanedioate modified Cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) electrodeposited on gold substrates derivatised with (poly(8-anilino-1-napthalene sulphonic acid) PANSA/PVP-AgNPs nanocomposites. The rapid and sensitive amperometric PZA detection gave a dynamic linear range of 2 µM to 16 µM revealing a limit of detection of 0.044 µM and a sensitivity of 1.38 µA/µM. The Michaelis-Menten parameters; KM, KMapp and IMAX were also calculated and found to be 6.0 µM, 1.41 µM and 1.51 µA respectively indicating a nanobiosensor suitable for use in serum.

Keywords: tuberculosis, cytochrome P450-2E1, disuccinimidyl octanedioate, pyrazinamide

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
65 Anthraquinone Labelled DNA for Direct Detection and Discrimination of Closely Related DNA Targets

Authors: Sarah A. Goodchild, Rachel Gao, Philip N. Bartlett

Abstract:

A novel detection approach using immobilized DNA probes labeled with Anthraquinone (AQ) as an electrochemically active reporter moiety has been successfully developed as a new, simple, reliable method for the detection of DNA. This method represents a step forward in DNA detection as it can discriminate between multiple nucleotide polymorphisms within target DNA strands without the need for any additional reagents, reporters or processes such as melting of DNA strands. The detection approach utilizes single-stranded DNA probes immobilized on gold surfaces labeled at the distal terminus with AQ. The effective immobilization has been monitored using techniques such as AC impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Simple voltammetry techniques (Differential Pulse Voltammetry, Cyclic Voltammetry) are then used to monitor the reduction potential of the AQ before and after the addition of complementary strand of target DNA. A reliable relationship between the shift in reduction potential and the number of base pair mismatch has been established and can be used to discriminate between DNA from highly related pathogenic organisms of clinical importance. This indicates that this approach may have great potential to be exploited within biosensor kits for detection and diagnosis of pathogenic organisms in Point of Care devices.

Keywords: Anthraquinone, discrimination, DNA detection, electrochemical biosensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
64 Themes in Aesthetic Perceptions of Restorative Urban Landscapes

Authors: Rachel Bechtold, Catherine Shoulders, Donald Johnson, Jennie Popp, Elena Garcia, Lisa Wood

Abstract:

Creating successfully restored urban landscapes involves both the sound design of natural resources and the incorporation of human perceptions of landscape. Moving forward with an invested interest from society is a challenge for the efficacy of reclaimed landscape design. In particular, urban areas present a dynamic environment wherein society and nature compete for resources and space. This review is meant to examine how perceptions of urban community members, the stakeholders for the plant species that share their environment, are reflected in aesthetic considerations. Findings from this literature review include themes of (1) aesthetic perceptions of stakeholders in rehabilitated landscapes and (2) the importance of organizing indicators of aesthetic perception for future design decisions. Recommendations include addressing the gap in research on aesthetic perceptions of reclaimed urban landscapes and addressing the lack of a consistent and widely accepted framework for these interdisciplinary studies. With knowledge of stakeholder perceptions, improved aesthetic and ecologic designs can more seamlessly merge into reclaimed urban landscapes.

Keywords: phytoremediation, urban landscape design, aesthetic perception, landscape ecology, phytorestoration, landscape reclamation, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
63 Ultrasound-assisted Soil Washing Process for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Clays

Authors: Sophie Herr, Rachel Pflieger, Antoine Leybros, Yves Barre, Sergey Nikitenko

Abstract:

The proportion of soil contaminated by a wide range of pollutants (heavy metals, PCBs, pesticides, etc.) of anthropogenic origin is constantly increasing, and it is becoming urgent to address this issue. Among remediation methods, soil washing is an effective, relatively fast, and widely used process. This study assesses its coupling with ultrasound: indeed, sonication induces the formation of cavitation bubbles in solution that enhance local mass transfer through agitation and particle erosion. The removal of target toxic elements Ni(II) and Zn(II) from vermiculite clay has been studied under 20 kHz ultrasound and silent conditions. Several acids were tested, and HCl was chosen as solvent. The effects of solid/liquid ratio and particle size were investigated. Metal repartition in the clay has been followed by Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that more metal elements bound to the challenging residual phase were desorbed with 20 kHz ultrasound than in silent conditions. This supports the promising application of ultrasound for heavy metal desorption in difficult conditions. Further experiments were performed at high frequency US (362 kHz), and it was shown that fragmentation of the vermiculite particles is then limited, while positive effects of US in the decontamination are kept.

Keywords: desorption, heavy metals, ultrasound, vermiculite

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
62 New to Vancouver: The Effects of Residential Relocation on Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Authors: Rachel Karasenty Saltoun, Charlotte Roddick, Chelsea D. Christie, Frances Chen

Abstract:

Moving has become an integral part of many people’s lives. This research explores whether relocating to a new city is associated with an increase in loneliness and cardiovascular disease risk and if this increased risk diminishes with continued residency. To test this, various psychosocial variables and three cardiovascular disease risk markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, blood pressure) were assessed on two groups of individuals: those who have moved to Vancouver, Canada in the previous 6 weeks (‘Movers’) and those who have lived in Vancouver for at least five years (‘Non-Movers’). It was hypothesized that individuals who had recently relocated would have heightened levels of loneliness, blood pressure (BP), albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) compared to those who had not recently relocated. Length of residency was hypothesized to moderate these effects, such that after a few months, loneliness levels and cardiovascular disease risk would decrease among those who had recently relocated. Correlational analysis indicated a trend between the change in CRP and albumin levels and loneliness overtime on an individual level. However, these results must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size. As Vancouver’s immigration rates continue to grow, this study has important implications regarding the social support resources offered to new immigrants, as well as bringing awareness at the healthcare level of the potential increase in cardiovascular disease risk among those who have recently relocated.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease risk, loneliness, moving, residential mobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
61 Optimization of Alkali Silicate Glass Heat Treatment for the Improvement of Thermal Expansion and Flexural Strength

Authors: Stephanie Guerra-Arias, Stephani Nevarez, Calvin Stewart, Rachel Grodsky, Denis Eichorst

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to describe the framework for optimizing the heat treatment of alkali silicate glasses, to enhance the performance of hermetic seals in extreme environments. When connectors are exposed to elevated temperatures, residual stresses develop due to the mismatch of thermal expansions between the glass, metal pin, and metal shell. Excessive thermal expansion mismatch compromises the reliability of hermetic seals. In this study, a series of heat treatment schedules will be performed on two commercial sealing glasses (one conventional sealing glass and one crystallizable sealing glass) using a design of experiments (DOE) approach. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) will be measured pre- and post-heat treatment using thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Afterwards, the flexural strength of the specimen will be measured using a four-point bend fixture mounted in a static universal testing machine. The measured material properties will be statistically analyzed using MiniTab software to determine which factors of the heat treatment process have a strong correlation to the coefficient of thermal expansion and/or flexural strength. Finally, a heat-treatment will be designed and tested to ensure the optimal performance of the hermetic seals in connectors.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, design of experiment, hermetic connectors, material characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
60 Perceived Procedural Justice and Conflict Management in Romantic Relations

Authors: Inbal Peleg Koriat, Rachel Ben-Ari

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to test individual’s conflict management style in romantic relations as a function of their perception of the extent of procedural justice in their partner behavior, and to what extant this relationship is mediated by the quality of the relations. The research procedure included two studies: The first study was a correlative study with 160 participants in a romantic relation. The goal of the first study was to examine the mediation model with self-report questionnaires. The second study was an experimental study with 241 participants. The study was designed to examine the causal connection between perceived procedural justice (PPJ) and conflict management styles. Study 1 indicated a positive connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles (integrating, compromising and obliging). In contrast, a negative connection was not found between PPJ and non-collaborative conflict management styles (avoiding, and dominating). In addition, perceived quality of the romantic relations was found to mediate the connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles. Study 2 validated the finding of Study 1 by showing that PPJ leads the individual to use compromising and integrating conflict management styles. In contrast to Study 1, Study 2 shows that a low PPJ increases the individual’s tendency to use an avoiding conflict management style. The study contributes to the rather scarce research on PPJ role in conflict management in general and in romantic relations in particular. It can provide new insights into cognitive methods of coping with conflict that encourage transformation in the conflict and a way to grow and develop both individually and as a couple.

Keywords: conflict management style, marriage, procedural justice, romantic relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
59 Coral Lifeform Structure in Selected Marine Protected Areas in Southern Cebu, Philippines

Authors: Gloria G. Delan, Alfonso S. Piquero, Rachel Luz V. Rica, Christine M. Corrales

Abstract:

The selected marine protected areas (MPAs) of southern Cebu, Philippines were assessed after these have been established between the years 2000 to 2007. These include Casay of Argao, Cawayan of Dalaguete, Guiwang-Daang Lungsod of Alcoy, North Granada of Boljoon and Sta. Cruz of Ronda. These MPAs were assessed to gather baseline information on its coral life-form structure. Point-intercept transect (PIT) method was used in the observation. Benthic life form and reef substrate at each 0.25 m point interval were identified and recorded along 50 meters transect line both inside and outside of these MPAs. It has been observed that massive, branching and digitate form of corals dominated among the five sanctuaries. Percentage of Live Hard Corals was much higher inside than outside in all sanctuaries. Common to all sanctuaries were noticeable presence of dead corals with algae and coral rubbles indicating an over-exploited habitat. Casay, Cawayan and Daan-Lungsod MPAs had some Crown of Thorn Starfish (COTS) which may pose threat to its coral community. It has been recommended that there should be strict law enforcement and a long term monitoring to continuously conserve and protect coral reef which is an important habitat for fishes for its sustainability as food for human.

Keywords: coral rubbles, coral reef, live hard coral, point-intercept transect

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
58 Nutritional Evaluation and the Importance of Traditional Vegetables That Sustain the Indigenous People of Malaysia

Authors: Rachel Thomas Tharmabalan

Abstract:

The growing unease over the matter of food security in the world is the result of a maturing realization that the genetic base of most human caloric intake from plants is dangerously narrow. Malaysia’s tropical rainforests have the potential to contribute to diet diversification and provide a source of nutrient-rich food as the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia have relied almost entirely on the jungle for food, fodder, medicine and fuel antithetical to what is happening today. This segregation of the Orang Asli from traditional lands and resources leads to severe loss of knowledge of biodiversity. In order to preserve these wild edibles, four different types of vegetables that are frequently consumed by the Orang Asli which consists of Rebu, Meranti, Saya and Pama were selected. These vegetables were then analysed to determine its proximate and mineral content to help ascertain claims and reaffirm the impact it can play in ensuring food and nutrition security, in addition to combating chronic diseases. From the results obtained, the Meranti had the highest crude fiber, iron and calcium content. Other minerals such as potassium, magnesium and copper were also found in varying content. These wild edibles could also contribute to education and bring awareness to younger generations as well as urban populations to start consuming more of these in their daily life as it could prevent various chronic diseases in Malaysia.

Keywords: food and nutrition security, Orang Asli, underutilized plants, wild edible food systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
57 Net Work Meta Analysis to Identify the Most Effective Dressings to Treat Pressure Injury

Authors: Lukman Thalib, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Rachel Walker, Brigid Gillespie, Suhail Doi

Abstract:

Background and objectives: There are many topical treatments available for Pressure Injury (PI) treatment, yet there is a lack of evidence with regards to the most effective treatment. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of various topical treatments and identify the best treatment choice(s) for PI healing. Methods: Network meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials that compared the two or more of the following dressing groups: basic, foam, active, hydroactive, and other wound dressings. The outcome complete healing following treatment and the generalised pair-wise modelling framework was used to generate mixed treatment effects against hydroactive wound dressing, currently the standard of treatment for PIs. All treatments were then ranked by their point estimates. Main Results: 40 studies (1,757 participants) comparing 5 dressing groups were included in the analysis. All dressings groups ranked better than basic (i.e. saline gauze or similar inert dressing). The foam (RR 1.18; 95%CI 0.95-1.48) and active wound dressing (RR 1.16; 95%CI 0.92-1.47) ranked better than hydroactive wound dressing in terms of healing of PIs when the latter was used as the reference group. Conclusion & Recommendations: There was considerable uncertainty around the estimates, yet, the use of hydroactive wound dressings appear to perform better than basic dressings. Foam and active wound dressing groups show promise and need further investigation. High-quality research on clinical effectiveness of the topical treatments are warranted to identify if foam and active wound dressings do provide advantages over hydroactive dressings.

Keywords: Net work Meta Analysis, Pressure Injury, Dresssing, Pressure Ulcer

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
56 Prevalence and Pattern of Drug Usage among Youth in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Authors: Samson F. Agberotimi, Rachel B. Asagba, Choja Oduaran

Abstract:

Disturbing rate of use of different substances such as cannabis, alcohol, as well as pharmaceutical drugs among Nigerian youth in recent times has been affirmed in the literature. There is, however, a paucity of literature addressing the pattern of usage of such drugs, especially for clinical relevance and intervention planning. The present study investigated the prevalence and pattern of drug usage among youth in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey involving 92 purposively selected participants comprising of 82 males and 10 females aged between 15 and 24 years was conducted. A measure of drug involvement and demographic characteristics was administered to the participants. Descriptive analysis was done using the SPSS v.21. Cannabis (79.4%), alcohol (77.2%), codeine (70.7%), tobacco (65.2%) and tramadol (47.8%) are the five most frequently used substances. However, the majority of the users of tobacco (68.3%) and alcohol (62.0%) are casual users indicating a mild level of use of the substances among the participants. On the other hand, 49.2% of the codeine users, 27.3% of the tramadol users, and 21.9% of the cannabis users reported harmful/intensive levels of use. Furthermore, the results revealed individuals at the pathological level of use as 28.8% for cannabis, 25.0% for tramadol, and 21.6% for codeine, and thus require clinical/therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, cannabis remains the most frequently used substance among youths. However, there appears to be a shift from the use of conventional psychoactive substances to pharmaceutical/prescription drugs such as codeine and tramadol. The findings of this study raised the need for both preventive and therapeutic interventions addressing the problem of substance use disorder among youth in contemporary society.

Keywords: Ogbomoso, pattern of drug use, prevalence of drug use, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
55 Women's Liberation: A Study of the Movement in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rachel Hasan

Abstract:

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has witnessed various significant social and political developments in 2018. Crown Prince of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Muhammad bin Salman, also serving as Deputy Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia, has made several social, cultural, and political changes in the country under his grand National Transformation Program. Program provides a vision of more economically viable, culturally liberal, and politically pleasant Saudi Arabia. One of the most significant and ground breaking changes that has been made under this program is awarding women the long awaited rights. Legislative changes are made to allow woman to drive. Seemingly basic on surface but driving rights to women represent much deeper meaning to the culture of Saudi Arabia and to the world outside. Ever since this right is awarded to the women, world media is interpreting this change in various colors. This paper aims to investigate the portrayal of gender rights in various online media publications and websites. The methodology applied has been quantitative content analysis method to analyze the various aspects of media's coverage of various social and cultural changes with reference to women's rights. For the purpose of research, convenience sampling was done for eight international online articles from media websites. The articles discussed the lifting of ban for females on driving cars in Saudi Arabia as well as gender development for these women. These articles were analyzed for media frames, and various categories of analysis were developed, which highlighted the stance that was observed. Certain terms were conceptualized and operationalized and were also explained for better understanding of the context.

Keywords: gender rights, media coverage, political change, women's liberation

Procedia PDF Downloads 43