Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1429

Search results for: nucleotide diversity

1429 Nucleotide Diversity and Bacterial Endosymbionts of the Black Cherry Aphid Myzus cerasi (Fabricus, 1775) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Turkey

Authors: Burcu Inal, Irfan Kandemir

Abstract:

Sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene of twenty-five Turkish and one Greek Myzus cerasi (Fabricus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in populations were collected from Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus. The partial coding region of COI studied is 605 bp for all the populations, from which 565 nucleotides were conserved, 40 were variable, 37 were singleton, and 3 sites were parsimony-informative. Four haplotypes were identified based on nucleotide substitutions, and the mean of intraspecific divergence was calculated to be 0.3%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Evolution, Neighbor-joining, and Unweighed Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Myzus borealis Ossiannilson were included as outgroups. The population of M. cerasi from Isparta diverged from the rest of the groups and formed a clade (Haplotype B) with Myzus borealis. The rest of the haplotype diversity includes Haplotype A and Haplotype C with individuals characterized as Myzus cerasi pruniavium and Haplotype D with Myzus cerasi cerasi. M. cerasi diverge into two subspecies and it must be reevaluated whether this pest is monophagous or oligophagous in terms of plant type dependence. The obligated endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola was also found during this research, but no facultative symbionts could be found. It is expected further studies will be required for a complete barcoding and diversity of bacterial endosymbionts present.

Keywords: bacterial endosymbionts, barcoding, black cherry aphid, nucleotide diversity

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1428 Allelic Diversity of Productive, Reproductive and Fertility Traits Genes of Buffalo and Cattle

Authors: M. Moaeen-ud-Din, G. Bilal, M. Yaqoob

Abstract:

Identification of genes of importance regarding production traits in buffalo is impaired by a paucity of genomic resources. Choice to fill this gap is to exploit data available for cow. The cross-species application of comparative genomics tools is potential gear to investigate the buffalo genome. However, this is dependent on nucleotide sequences similarity. In this study gene diversity between buffalo and cattle was determined by using 86 gene orthologues. There was about 3% difference in all genes in term of nucleotide diversity; and 0.267±0.134 in amino acids indicating the possibility for successfully using cross-species strategies for genomic studies. There were significantly higher non synonymous substitutions both in cattle and buffalo however, there was similar difference in term of dN – dS (4.414 vs 4.745) in buffalo and cattle respectively. Higher rate of non-synonymous substitutions at similar level in buffalo and cattle indicated a similar positive selection pressure. Results for relative rate test were assessed with the chi-squared test. There was no significance difference on unique mutations between cattle and buffalo lineages at synonymous sites. However, there was a significance difference on unique mutations for non synonymous sites indicating ongoing mutagenic process that generates substitutional mutation at approximately the same rate at silent sites. Moreover, despite of common ancestry, our results indicate a different divergent time among genes of cattle and buffalo. This is the first demonstration that variable rates of molecular evolution may be present within the family Bovidae.

Keywords: buffalo, cattle, gene diversity, molecular evolution

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1427 Heterogeneity of Genes Encoding the Structural Proteins of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, Siamak Zohari, Lena H. M. Renström, Désirée S. Jansson, Faruk Otman, Karin Ullman, Claudia Baule

Abstract:

Infectious bronchitis is an acute, highly contagious respiratory, nephropathogenic and reproductive disease of poultry that is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The present study used a large data set of structural gene sequences, including newly generated ones and sequences available in the GenBank database to further analyze the diversity and to identify selective pressures and recombination spots. There were some deletions or insertions in the analyzed regions in isolates of the Italy-02 and D274 genotypes. Whereas, there were no insertions or deletions observed in the isolates of the Massachusetts and 4/91 genotype. The hypervariable nucleotide sequence regions spanned positions 152–239, 554–582, 686–737 and 802–912 in the S1 sub-unit of the all analyzed genotypes. The nucleotide sequence data of the E gene showed that this gene was comparatively unstable and subjected to a high frequency of mutations. The M gene showed substitutions consistently distributed except for a region between nucleotide positions 250–680 that remained conserved. The lowest variation in the nucleotide sequences of ORF5a was observed in the isolates of the D274 genotype. While, ORF5b and N gene sequences showed highly conserved regions and were less subjected to variation. Genes ORF3a, ORF3b, M, ORF5a, ORF5b and N presented negative selective pressure among the analyzed isolates. However, some regions of the ORFs showed favorable selective pressure(s). The S1 and E proteins were subjected to a high rate of mutational substitutions and non-synonymous amino acids. Strong signals of recombination breakpoints and ending break point were observed in the S and N genes. Overall, the results of this study revealed that very likely the strong selective pressures in E, M and the high frequency of substitutions in the S gene can probably be considered the main determinants in the evolution of IBV.

Keywords: IBV, avian infectious bronchitis, structural genes, genotypes, genetic diversity

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1426 Tenofovir-Amino Acid Conjugates Act as Polymerase Substrates: Implications for Avoiding Cellular Phosphorylation in the Discovery of Nucleotide Analogs

Authors: Weijie Gu, Sergio Martinez, Hoai Nguyen, Hongtao Xu, Piet Herdewijn, Steven De Jonghe, Kalyan Das

Abstract:

Nucleotide analogs are used for treating viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. To become polymerase substrates, a nucleotide analog must be phosphorylated by cellular kinases, which are rate-limiting. The goal of this study is to develop dNTP/NTP analogs directly from nucleotides. Tenofovir (TFV) analogs were synthesized by conjugating with natural or unnatural amino acids. It demonstrates that some conjugates act as dNTP analogs, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) catalytically incorporates the TFV part as the chain terminator. X-ray structures in complex with HIV-1 RT/dsDNA showed binding of the conjugates at the polymerase active site, however, in different modes in the presence of Mg²⁺ vs. Mn²⁺ ions. The adaptability of the compounds is seemingly essential for catalytic incorporation of TFV by RT. 4d with a carboxyl sidechain demonstrated the highest incorporation. 4e showed weak incorporation and rather behaved as a dNTP-competitive inhibitor. This result advocates the feasibility of designing NTP/dNTP analogs by chemical substitutions to nucleotide analogs.

Keywords: dNTP analogs, nucleotide analogs, polymerase, tenofovir, X-ray structure

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1425 Phylogenetic Characterization of Atrazine-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soil in Eastern Thailand

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid

Abstract:

In this study sugarcane field soils with a long history of atrazine application in Chachoengsao and Chonburi provinces have been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. For the atrazine degrading bacteria isolation, the soils used in this study named ACS and ACB were inoculated in MS-medium containing atrazine. Six short rod and gram-negative bacterial isolates, which were able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen, were isolated and named as ACS1, ACB1, ACB3, ACB4, ACB5 and ACB6. From the 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolated bacteria ACS1 and ACB4 were identified as Rhizobium sp. with 89.1-98.7% nucleotide identity, ACB1 and ACB5 were identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. with 91.0-92.8% nucleotide identity, whereas ACB3 and ACB6 were Klebsiella sp. with 97.4-97.8% nucleotide identity.

Keywords: atrazine-degrading bacteria, bioremediation, Thai isolates, bacteria

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1424 From Orthodox to Haploid Mitochondrial DNA Markers: Exploring the Datum Folder of population of Sindh in Pakistan

Authors: Shahzad Bhattiab, M. Aslamkhana, Sana Abbasbc, Marcella Attimonellid, Kumarasamy Thangaraje, Erica Martinha Silva de Souzaf, Uzay U. Sezen

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate three regions of mitochondrial DNA, HVI, HVII and HVIII, to hold a powwow genetic diversity and affiliations in 115 probands of 6 major ethnic groups, viz., Bijarani, Chandio, Ghallu, Khoso, Nasrani and Solangi, in the province of Sindh of Pakistan. For this purpose 88 haplotypes were scrutinized, defined by particular set of nucleotides (ignoring the C insertions around position 309 and 315). In spite of that 82% sequences were observed once, 12 % twice and 5.2 % thrice. The most common South Asian haplotypes were observed M (42%), N (6.9%) and R (6.9%) whereas west Eurasian haplotypes were J (1.7%), U (23.4%), H (9.5%), W (6.9%) and T (0.86%), in six ethnic groups. A random match probability between two unrelated individuals was found 0.06 %, while genetic diversity was ranged to be 0.991 to 0.999, and nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.0089 to 0.0142 for the whole control region of the population studied.

Keywords: mtDNA haplogroups, control region, Pakistan, Sindh, ethnicity

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1423 A Call for Transformative Learning Experiences to Facilitate Student Workforce Diversity Learning in the United States

Authors: Jeanetta D. Sims, Chaunda L. Scott, Hung-Lin Lai, Sarah Neese, Atoya Sims, Angelia Barrera-Medina

Abstract:

Given the call for increased transformative learning experiences and the demand for academia to prepare students to enter workforce diversity careers, this study explores the landscape of workforce diversity learning in the United States. Using a multi-disciplinary syllabi browsing process and a content analysis method, the most prevalent instructional activities being used in workforce-diversity related courses in the United States are identified. In addition, the instructional activities are evaluated based on transformative learning tenants.

Keywords: workforce diversity, workforce diversity learning, transformative learning, diversity education, U. S. workforce diversity, workforce diversity assignments

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1422 Molecular Characterization of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Strains Based on Selected Glycoprotein and Tegument Genes

Authors: Fulufhelo Amanda Doboro, Kgomotso Sebeko, Stephen Njiro, Moritz Van Vuuren

Abstract:

Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) genome obtained from the lymphopblastoid cell line of a BJ1035 cow was recently sequenced in the United States of America (USA). Information on the sequences of OvHV-2 genes obtained from South African strains from bovine or other African countries and molecular characterization of OvHV-2 is not documented. Present investigation provides information on the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences and genetic diversity of Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2, ORF 27 and ORF 73 genes, of these genes from OvHV-2 strains circulating in South Africa. Gene-specific primers were designed and used for PCR of DNA extracted from 42 bovine blood samples that previously tested positive for OvHV-2. The expected PCR products of 495 bp, 253 bp, 890 bp and 1632 bp respectively for Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2, ORF 27 and ORF 73 genes were sequenced and multiple sequence analysis done on the selected regions of the sequenced PCR products. Two genotypes for ORF 27 and ORF 73 gene sequences, and three genotypes for Ov 7 and Ov 8 ex2 gene sequences were identified, and similar groupings for the derived amino acid sequences were obtained for each gene. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence variations that led to the identification of the different genotypes included SNPs, deletions and insertions. Sequence analysis of Ov 7 and ORF 27 genes revealed variations that distinguished between sequences from SA and reference OvHV-2 strains. The implication of geographic origin among SA sequences was difficult to evaluate because of random distribution of genotypes in the different provinces, for each gene. However, socio-economic factors such as migration of people with animals, or transportation of animals for agricultural or business use from one province to another are most likely to be responsible for this observation. The sequence variations observed in this study have no impact on the antibody binding activities of glycoproteins encoded by Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2 and ORF 27 genes, as determined by prediction of the presence of B cell epitopes using BepiPred 1.0. The findings of this study will be used for selection of gene candidates for the development of diagnostic assays and vaccine development as well.

Keywords: amino acid, genetic diversity, genes, nucleotide

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1421 Analysis of Genetic Variations in Camel Breeds (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Amr A. El Hanafy, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Elrashdy M. Redwan

Abstract:

Camels are substantial providers of transport, milk, sport, meat, shelter, security and capital in many countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Inter simple sequence repeat technique was used to detect the genetic variations among some camel breeds (Majaheim, Safra, Wadah, and Hamara). Actual number of alleles, effective number of alleles, gene diversity, Shannon’s information index and polymorphic bands were calculated for each evaluated camel breed. Neighbor-joining tree that re-constructed for evaluated these camel breeds showed that, Hamara breed is distantly related from the other evaluated camels. In addition, the polymorphic sites, haplotypes and nucleotide diversity were identified for some camelidae cox1 gene sequences (obtained from NCBI). The distance value between C. bactrianus and C. dromedarius (0.072) was relatively low. Analysis of genetic diversity is an important way for conserving Camelus dromedarius genetic resources.

Keywords: camel, genetics, ISSR, neighbor-joining

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1420 Population Structure Analysis of Pakistani Indigenous Cattle Population by Using High Density SNP Array

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, McClure Matt, Khalid Javed, Talat Nasser Pasha, Afzal Ali1, Adeela Ajmal, Tad Sonstegard

Abstract:

Genetic differences associated with speciation, breed formation or local adaptation can help to preserve and effective utilization of animals in selection programs. Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. In this study, we used a high-density panel of SNP markers to examine population structure and diversity among ten Pakistani indigenous cattle breeds. In total, 25 individuals from three cattle populations, including Achi (n=08), Bhagnari (n=04) and Cholistani (n=13) were genotyped for 777, 962 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Population structure was examined using the linkage model in the program STRUCTURE. After characterizing SNP polymorphism in the different populations, we performed a detailed analysis of genetic structure at both the individual and population levels. The whole-genome SNP panel identified several levels of population substructure in the set of examined cattle breeds. We further searched for spatial patterns of genetic diversity among these breeds under the recently developed spatial principal component analysis framework. Overall, such high throughput genotyping data confirmed a clear partitioning of the cattle genetic diversity into distinct breeds. The resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time.

Keywords: Pakistan, cattle, genetic diversity, population structure

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1419 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition

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1418 Managing Diversity in MNCS: A Literature Review of Existing Strategic Models for Managing Diversity and a Roadmap to Transfer Them to the Subsidiaries

Authors: Debora Gottardello, Mireia Valverde Aparicio, Juan Llopis Taverner

Abstract:

Globalization has given rise to a great diversity in the composition of people in organizations. Diversity management is therefore key to create growth in today’s competitive global marketplace. This work develops a literature review related to the existing models for managing diversity covering the period from 1980 until 2014. Furthermore, it identifies limitations in previous models. More specifically, the literature review reveals that there is a lack of information about how these models can be adapted from the headquarters to the subsidiaries. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to suggest how the models should be adapted when they are directed to host countries. Our aim is to highlight the limitations of the developed models with regards to the translation of the diversity management practices to the subsidiaries. Accordingly, a model that will enable MNCs to ensure a global strategy is suggested. Taking advantage of the potential incorporated in a culturally diverse work team should be at the top of every international company’s aims. Executives from headquarters need to use different attitudes when transferring diversity practices towards their subsidiaries. Further studies should reassess local practices of diversity management to find out how this universal management model is translated.

Keywords: culture diversity, diversity management, human resources management, MNCs, subsidiaries, workforce diversity

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1417 A Unified Model for Orotidine Monophosphate Synthesis: Target for Inhibition of Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: N. Naga Subrahmanyeswara Rao, Parag Arvind Deshpande

Abstract:

Understanding nucleotide synthesis reaction of any organism is beneficial to know the growth of it as in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to design anti TB drug. One of the reactions of de novo pathway which takes place in all organisms was considered. The reaction takes places between phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate and orotate catalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and divalent metal ion gives orotdine monophosphate, a nucleotide. All the reaction steps of three experimentally proposed mechanisms for this reaction were considered to develop kinetic rate expression. The model was validated using the data for four organisms. This model could successfully describe the kinetics for the reported data. The developed model can serve as a reliable model to describe the kinetics in new organisms without the need of mechanistic determination. So an organism-independent model was developed.

Keywords: mechanism, nucleotide, organism, tuberculosis

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1416 Polymorphic Positions, Haplotypes, and Mutations Detected In The Mitochonderial DNA Coding Region By Sanger Sequence Technique

Authors: Imad H. Hameed, Mohammad A. Jebor, Ammera J. Omer

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to study the mitochonderial coding region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristic of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Portion of coding region encompassing positions 11719 –12384 amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column then sequenced and Detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer. Five new polymorphic positions 11741, 11756, 11878, 11887 and 12133 are described may be suitable sources for identification purpose in future. The calculated value D= 0.95 and RMP=0.048 of the genetic diversity should be understood as high in the context of coding function of the analysed DNA fragment. The relatively high gene diversity and a relatively low random match probability were observed in Iraq population. The obtained data can be used to identify the variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence which is most promising for various identifications.

Keywords: coding region, Iraq, mitochondrial DNA, polymorphic positions, sanger technique

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1415 The Analysis of Cultural Diversity in EFL Textbook for Senior High School in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the cultural diversity highlighted in EFL textbook for Senior High School grade 10 in Indonesia. The visual images are selected as the data and qualitatively analysed using content analysis. The reason to choose visual images because images are not always neutral and they might impact teaching and learning process. In the current study, cultural diversity aspects are focused on religion (Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian), gender (male, female, unclear), ethnic (Melanesian, Austronesian, Foreigner) and socioeconomic (low, middle, high, undetermined) diversity as the theoretical framework. The four aspects of cultural diversity are sufficiently representative to draw a conclusion in investigating Indonesian culture representation in EFL textbook. The finding shows that cultural diversity is not proportionally reflected in the textbook, particularly in the visual images.

Keywords: EFL textbook, cultural diversity, visual images, Indonesia

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1414 The Influence of the Normative Gender Binary in Diversity Management: A Multi-Method Study on Gender Diversity of Diversity Management

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

Abstract:

Diversity Management, as a substantial element of Human Resource Management, aims to secure the economic benefit that assumingly comes with a diverse workforce. Consequently, diversity managers focus on the protection of employees and securing equality measurements to assure organisational gender diversity. Gender diversity as one aspect of Diversity Management seems to adhere to gender binarism and cis-normativity. Workplaces are gendered spaces which are echoing the binary gender-normativity presented in Diversity Management, sold under the label of gender diversity. While the expectation of Diversity Management implies the inclusion of a multiplicity of marginalised groups, such as trans and gender diverse people, in current literature and practice, the reality is curated by gender binarism and cis-normativity. The qualitative multi-method research showed a lack of knowledge about trans and gender diverse matters within the profession of Diversity Management and Human Resources. The semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals from various backgrounds and occupations in Australia exposed missing considerations of trans and gender diverse experiences in the inclusivity and gender equity of various workplaces. Even if practitioners consider trans and gender diverse matters under gender diversity, the practical execution is limited to gender binary structures and cis-normative actions as the photo-elicit questionnaire with diversity managers, human resource officers, and personnel management demonstrates. Diversity Management should approach a broader source of informed practice by extending their business focus to the knowledge of humanity studies. Humanity studies could include diversity, queer, or gender studies to increase the inclusivity of marginalised groups such as trans and gender diverse employees and people. Furthermore, the definition of gender diversity should be extended beyond the gender binary and cis-normative experience. People may lose trust in Diversity Management as a supportive ally of marginalised employees if the understanding of inclusivity is limited to a gender binary and cis-normativity value system that misrepresents the richness of gender diversity.

Keywords: cis-normativity, diversity management, gender binarism, trans and gender diversity

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1413 Characterization of Fungal Endophytes in Leaves, Stems and Roots of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich Harms)

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Joshua O. Oyekanmi, Jumoke T. Abimbola, Olajumoke E. Ayanda

Abstract:

African yam bean (AYB), (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a leguminous crop that provides nutritionally rich seeds, tubers and leaves for human consumption. AYB potentials as an important food security crop is yet to be realized and thus classified as underutilized crop. Underutilization of the crop has been partly associated with scarce information on the incidence and characterization of fungal endophytes infecting vascular parts of AYB. Accurate and robust detection of these endophytic fungi is essential for diagnosis, modeling, surveillance and protection of germplasm (seed) health. This work aimed at isolating and identifying fungal endophytes associated with leaves, stems and roots of AYB in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study investigated both cultural and molecular properties of endophytic fungi in AYB for its characterization and diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated and culturally identified. DNA extraction, PCR amplification using ITS primers and analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA fragments were conducted on selected isolates. BLAST analysis was conducted on consensus nucleotide sequences of 28 out of 30 isolates and results showed similar homology with genera of Rhizopus, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, Purpureocillium, Corynespora, Magnaporthe, Macrophomina, Curvularia, Acrocalymma, Talaromyces and Simplicillium. Slight similarity was found with endophytes associated with soybean. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method showed high diversity among the general. These organisms have high economic importance in crop improvement. For an instance, Purpureocillium lilacinum showed high potential in control of root rot caused by nematodes in tomatoes. Though some can be pathogens, but many of the fungal endophytes have beneficial attributes to plant in host health, uptake of nutrients, disease suppression, and host immunity.

Keywords: molecular characterization, African Yam Bean, fungal endophyte, plant parts

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1412 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

Abstract:

The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

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1411 Molecular Characterization of Functional Domain (LRR) of TLR9 Genes in Malnad Gidda Cattle and Their Comparison to Cross Breed Cattle

Authors: Ananthakrishna L. R., Ramesh D., Kumar Wodeyar, Kotresh A. M., Gururaj P. M.

Abstract:

Malnad Gidda is the indigenous recognized cattle breed of Shivamogga District of Karnataka state, India is known for its disease resistance to many of the infectious diseases. There are 25 LRR (Leucine Rich Repeats) identified in bovine (Bos indicus) TLR9. The amino acid sequence of LRR is deduced to nucleotide sequence in BLASTx bioinformatic online tools. LRR2 to LRR10 are involved in pathogen recognition and binding in human TLR9 which showed a higher degree of nucleotide variations with respect to disease resistance to various pathogens. Hence, primers were designed to amplify the flanking sequences of LRR2 to LRR10, to discover the nucleotide variations if any, in Malnad Gidda breed of Cattle which is associated with disease resistance. The DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ten Malnad Gidda cattle. A desired and specific amplification product of 0.8 kb was obtained at an annealing temperature of 56.6ᵒC. All the PCR products were sequenced on both sides by gene-specific primers. The sequences were compared with TLR9 sequence of cross breed cattle obtained from NCBI data bank. The sequence analysis between Malnad Gidda and crossbreed cattle revealed no nucleotide variations in the region LRR2 to LRR9 which shows the conserved in pathogen binding domain (LRR) of TLR9.

Keywords: leucine rich repeats, Malnad Gidda, cross breed, TLR9

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1410 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan

Abstract:

Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., genetic diversity, ISSR, germplasm

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1409 Deleterious SNP’s Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Hamza Zidoum

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of human genetic variation on the function of human proteins using machine-learning algorithms. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism represents the most common form of human genome variation. We focus on the single amino-acid polymorphism located in the coding region as they can affect the protein function leading to pathologic phenotypic change. We use several supervised Machine Learning methods to identify structural properties correlated with increased risk of the missense mutation being damaging. SVM associated with Principal Component Analysis give the best performance.

Keywords: single-nucleotide polymorphism, machine learning, feature selection, SVM

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1408 Variation in Carboxylesterase Activity in Spodoptera litura Fabricious (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Populations from India

Authors: V. Karuppaiah, J. C. Padaria, C. Srivastava

Abstract:

The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest various field and horticulture crops in India. Pest had virtually developed resistance to all commonly used insecticides. Enhanced detoxification is the prime mechanism that is dictated by detoxification different enzymes and carboxylesterase is one of the major enzyme responsible development of resistance. In India, insecticide resistance studies on S. litura are mainly deployed on detoxification enzymes activity and investigation at gene level alteration i.e. at nucleotide level is very merger. In the present study, we collected the S. litura larvae from three different cauliflower growing belt viz., IARI, New Delhi (Delhi), Palari, Sonepat (Haryana) and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) to study the role of carboxylesterase activity and its gene level variation The CarE activity was measured using UV-VIS spectrophotometer with 3rd instar larvae of S. litura. The elevated activity of CarE was observed in Sonepat strain (28.09 ± 0.09 µmol/min/mg of protein) followed by Delhi (26.72 ± 0.04 µmol/min/mg of protein) and Varanasi strain (10.00 ± 0.44 µmol/min/mg of protein) of S. litura. The genomic DNA was isolated from 3rd instar larvae and CarE gene was amplified using a primer sequence, F:5’tccagagttccttgtcaggcac3’; R:5’ctgcatcaagcatgtctc3. CarE gene, about 500bp was partially amplified, sequenced and submitted to NCBI (Accession No. KF835886, KF835887 and KF835888). The sequence data revealed polymorphism at nucleotide level in all the three strains and gene found to have 88 to 97% similarity with previous available nucleotide sequences of S. litura, S. littoralis and S. exiqua. The polymorphism at the nucleotide level could be a reason for differential activity of carboxylesterase enzymes among the strains. However, investigation at gene expression level would be useful to analyze the overproduction of carboxylesterase enzyme.

Keywords: carboxylesterase, CarE gene, nucleotide polymorphism, insecticide resistance, spodoptera litura

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1407 Sequence Polymorphism and Haplogroup Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Control Regions HVS1 and HVS2 in a Southwestern Nigerian Population

Authors: Ogbonnaya O. Iroanya, Samson T. Fakorede, Osamudiamen J. Edosa, Hadiat A. Azeez

Abstract:

The human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is about 17 kbp circular DNA fragments found within the mitochondria together with smaller fragments of 1200 bp known as the control region. Knowledge of variation within populations has been employed in forensic and molecular anthropology studies. The study was aimed at investigating the polymorphic nature of the two hypervariable segments (HVS) of the mtDNA, i.e., HVS1 and HVS2, and to determine the haplogroup distribution among individuals resident in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from sixty individuals who are not related maternally, followed by DNA extraction and amplification of the extracted DNA using primers specific for the regions under investigation. DNA amplicons were sequenced, and sequenced data were aligned and compared to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) GenBank Accession number: NC_012920.1) using BioEdit software. Results obtained showed 61 and 52 polymorphic nucleotide positions for HVS1 and HVS2, respectively. While a total of three indels mutation were recorded for HVS1, there were seven for HVS2. Also, transition mutations predominate nucleotide change observed in the study. Genetic diversity (GD) values for HVS1 and HVS2 were estimated to be 84.21 and 90.4%, respectively, while random match probability was 0.17% for HVS1 and 0.89% for HVS2. The study also revealed mixed haplogroups specific to the African (L1-L3) and the Eurasians (U and H) lineages. New polymorphic sites obtained from the study are promising for human identification purposes.

Keywords: hypervariable region, indels, mitochondrial DNA, polymorphism, random match probability

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1406 Software Development and Team Diversity

Authors: J. Congalton, K. Logan, B. Crump

Abstract:

Software is a critical aspect of modern life. However it is costly to develop and industry initiatives have focused on reducing costs and improving the productivity. Increasing, software is being developed in teams, and with greater globalization and migration, the teams are becoming more ethnically diverse. This study investigated whether diversity in terms of ethnicity impacted on the productivity of software development. Project managers of software development teams were interviewed. The study found that while some issues did exist due to language problems, when project managers created an environment of trust and friendliness, diversity made a positive contribution to productivity.

Keywords: diversity, project management, software development, team work

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1405 Diversity Strands in Library and Information Science Graduate Curricula

Authors: Bibi Alajmi, Israa Alshammari

Abstract:

This study investigates diversity strands covered in courses offered by library and information sciences (LIS) graduate programs. It aims to identify the extent to which these programs prepare students to work in diverse communities. Information was collected from 17 ALA-accredited MLIS programs. Diversity-related topics were identified and categorized. The methodology consisted of content analysis of course syllabi. The findings show that coverage of diversity-related content in LIS graduate curricula is increasing at a slow but significant rate, and is often a low priority. Apart from LIS graduate courses for future librarians and information professionals in public libraries, school libraries, and museums providing services to young adults and children, there is not enough interest in the provision of services to diverse communities.

Keywords: diversity, multiculturalism, inclusion, equality, gender

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1404 Homogeneity among Diversity

Authors: Yu Guang

Abstract:

“Case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions are being posed.” Therefore, the study is based on two cases: strategy performed in JingNan War and by NIKE. The two samples are chosen as they are of comparability. Data are gathered and PEST and SWOT are used as analysis models to examine their strategic employment in order that the answer to brilliant strategies in variety is found. The niche strategy has been used in the past and present, in the battle fields and business. The homogeneity among diversity is the skill of performing strategies.

Keywords: challenger, homogeneity, managing diversity, niche strategy

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1403 Team Workforce Diversity and Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

This study was carried out a meta-analysis on team workforce diversity and team outcomes. Using data from 3,534 teams in 13 studies conducted in team-level settings, we examined whether contextual factors at research local and team-size, influenced team outcomes of team workforce diversity. This meta-analytic examines the team workforce diversity and team outcomes. 13 studies included in the analysis are studies published from 2009 to 2014. We first examined the correlations between all types of diversity and team performance, significant result (Fisher`s Z = .112, k = 32, 95% CI = 0.039 to 0.183). After the analysis was conducted to moderating effect of research local (Republic of Korea=1, other area=0) and team-size. As a result, research local moderating effect had a significant but team-size was not supported. Based on the above findings suggest implications and future research directions.

Keywords: team workforce diversity, team outcomes, meta- analytic, cross-cultural research

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1402 Simulation-Based Diversity Management in Human-Robot Collaborative Scenarios

Authors: Titanilla Komenda, Viktorio Malisa

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of diversity-related factors on the design of collaborative scenarios is analysed. Based on the evaluation, a framework for simulating human-robot-collaboration is presented that considers both human factors as well as the overall system performance. The implementation of the model is shown on a real-life scenario from industry and validated in terms of traceability, safety and physical limitations. By comparing scenarios that consider diversity with those only meeting system performance, an overall understanding of individually adapted human-robot-collaborative workspaces is reached. A diversity-related guideline for human-robot-collaborations provides a summary of the research and aids in optimizing future applications. Finally, limitations and future amendments of the model are discussed.

Keywords: diversity, human-machine system, human-robot collaboration, simulation

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1401 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. l. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya

Abstract:

Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: conservation, diversity, lacustrine, wetlands

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1400 Molecular Diversity of Forensically Relevant Insects from the Cadavers of Lahore

Authors: Sundus Mona, Atif Adnan, Babar Ali, Fareeha Arshad, Allah Rakha

Abstract:

Molecular diversity is the variation in the abundance of species. Forensic entomology is a neglected field in Pakistan. Insects collected from the crime scene should be handled by forensic entomologists who are currently virtually non-existent in Pakistan. Correct identification of insect specimen along with knowledge of their biodiversity can aid in solving many problems related to complicated forensic cases. Inadequate morphological identification and insufficient thermal biological studies limit the entomological utility in Forensic Medicine. Recently molecular identification of entomological evidence has gained attention globally. DNA barcoding is the latest and established method for species identification. Only proper identification can provide a precise estimation of postmortem intervals. Arthropods are known to be the first tourists scavenging on decomposing dead matter. The objective of the proposed study was to identify species by molecular techniques and analyze their phylogenetic importance with barcoded necrophagous insect species of early succession on human cadavers. Based upon this identification, the study outcomes will be the utilization of established DNA bar codes to identify carrion feeding insect species for concordant estimation of post mortem interval. A molecular identification method involving sequencing of a 658bp ‘barcode’ fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene from collected specimens of unknown dipteral species from cadavers of Lahore was evaluated. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using MEGA 7 and Arlequin, and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was generated. Three species were identified, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya saffranea, and Chrysomya rufifacies with low genetic diversity. The fixation index was 0.83992 that suggests a need for further studies to identify and classify forensically relevant insects in Pakistan. There is an exigency demand for further research especially when immature forms of arthropods are recovered from the crime scene.

Keywords: molecular diversity, DNA barcoding, species identification, forensically relevant

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