Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: DNA barcode

20 Genetic Identification of Crop Cultivars Using Barcode System

Authors: Kesavan Markkandan, Ha Young Park, Seung-Il Yoo, Sin-Gi Park, Junhyung Park


For genetic identification of crop cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, PCR based, co-dominant and relatively abundant. However, new InDels need to be developed for genetic studies of new varieties due to the difference of allele frequencies in InDels among the population groups. These new varieties are evolved with low levels of genetic diversity in specific genome loci with high recombination rate. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a variation block (VB), where the genomes split by all assumed recombination sites. Firstly, VBs in crop cultivars were mined for transferability to VB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, putative InDels in the VB regions were identified for the development of barcode system by analyzing particular cultivar’s whole genome data. Thirdly, common VB-specific InDels from all cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the selected markers was assessed with other cultivars, and the barcode system that allows a clear distinction among those cultivars is described. The same approach can be applicable for other commercial crops. Hence, VB-based genetic identification not only minimize the molecular markers but also useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in other crop species.

Keywords: variation block, polymorphism, InDel marker, genetic identification

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19 Unsupervised Classification of DNA Barcodes Species Using Multi-Library Wavelet Networks

Authors: Abdesselem Dakhli, Wajdi Bellil, Chokri Ben Amar


DNA Barcode, a short mitochondrial DNA fragment, made up of three subunits; a phosphate group, sugar and nucleic bases (A, T, C, and G). They provide good sources of information needed to classify living species. Such intuition has been confirmed by many experimental results. Species classification with DNA Barcode sequences has been studied by several researchers. The classification problem assigns unknown species to known ones by analyzing their Barcode. This task has to be supported with reliable methods and algorithms. To analyze species regions or entire genomes, it becomes necessary to use similarity sequence methods. A large set of sequences can be simultaneously compared using Multiple Sequence Alignment which is known to be NP-complete. To make this type of analysis feasible, heuristics, like progressive alignment, have been developed. Another tool for similarity search against a database of sequences is BLAST, which outputs shorter regions of high similarity between a query sequence and matched sequences in the database. However, all these methods are still computationally very expensive and require significant computational infrastructure. Our goal is to build predictive models that are highly accurate and interpretable. This method permits to avoid the complex problem of form and structure in different classes of organisms. On empirical data and their classification performances are compared with other methods. Our system consists of three phases. The first is called transformation, which is composed of three steps; Electron-Ion Interaction Pseudopotential (EIIP) for the codification of DNA Barcodes, Fourier Transform and Power Spectrum Signal Processing. The second is called approximation, which is empowered by the use of Multi Llibrary Wavelet Neural Networks (MLWNN).The third is called the classification of DNA Barcodes, which is realized by applying the algorithm of hierarchical classification.

Keywords: DNA barcode, electron-ion interaction pseudopotential, Multi Library Wavelet Neural Networks (MLWNN)

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18 Identification and Differentiation of Fagonia Arabica and Fagonia Indica by Using DNA Barcode Region Matk

Authors: Noshaba Dilbar, Aisha Tahir, Amer Jamil


During the last decade, DNA barcoding proved to be an authentic tool for discovery and identification of plants. In the present study, DNA barcoding of two species, Fagonia arabica and Fagonia indica was done for differentiation by using matK region. matK gene is considered as a universal barcode because of its easy alignment and high discrimination ability. In this study, matK yielded 100% sequencing results. The sequences from both plants were aligned at clustal W and observed that there is no nucleotide variation and polymorphism among both sequences. This was further analysed by BLAST which showed the similar sequences from different plants belonging to same family but didn’t find sequence of both species. Considering this, the resulted sequence was submitted by the name of Fagonia arabica with accession number KM276890. In the end, we analysed the results from BOLD which gave us the final conclusion that both plants are same as their matK sequences are 100% identical. In literature, both Fagonia indica and Fagonia arabica names are used for this plant but there is no clear differentiation has been observed in these plants. Results evaluate that Fagonia indica and Fagonia arabica are the alternative names of same plant.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, Fagonia arabica, Fagonia indica, matK

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17 Effective Nutrition Label Use on Smartphones

Authors: Vladimir Kulyukin, Tanwir Zaman, Sarat Kiran Andhavarapu


Research on nutrition label use identifies four factors that impede comprehension and retention of nutrition information by consumers: label’s location on the package, presentation of information within the label, label’s surface size, and surrounding visual clutter. In this paper, a system is presented that makes nutrition label use more effective for nutrition information comprehension and retention. The system’s front end is a smartphone application. The system’s back end is a four node Linux cluster for image recognition and data storage. Image frames captured on the smartphone are sent to the back end for skewed or aligned barcode recognition. When barcodes are recognized, corresponding nutrition labels are retrieved from a cloud database and presented to the user on the smartphone’s touchscreen. Each displayed nutrition label is positioned centrally on the touchscreen with no surrounding visual clutter. Wikipedia links to important nutrition terms are embedded to improve comprehension and retention of nutrition information. Standard touch gestures (e.g., zoom in/out) available on mainstream smartphones are used to manipulate the label’s surface size. The nutrition label database currently includes 200,000 nutrition labels compiled from public web sites by a custom crawler. Stress test experiments with the node cluster are presented. Implications for proactive nutrition management and food policy are discussed.

Keywords: mobile computing, cloud computing, nutrition label use, nutrition management, barcode scanning

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16 Automated Parking System

Authors: N. Arunraj, C. P. V. Paul, D. M. D. Jayawardena, W. N. D. Fernando


Traffic congestion with increased numbers of vehicles is already a serious issue for many countries. The absence of sufficient parking spaces adds to the issue. Motorists are forced to wait in long queues to park their vehicles. This adds to the inconvenience faced by a motorist, kept waiting for a slot allocation, manually done along with the parking payment calculation. In Sri Lanka, nowadays, parking systems use barcode technology to identify the vehicles at both the entrance and the exit points. Customer management is handled by the use of man power. A parking space is, generally permanently sub divided according to the vehicle type. Here, again, is an issue. Parking spaces are not utilized to the maximum. The current arrangement leaves room for unutilized parking spaces. Accordingly, there is a need to manage the parking space dynamically. As a vehicle enters the parking area, available space has to be assigned for the vehicle according to the vehicle type. The system, Automated Parking System (APS), provides an automated solution using RFID Technology to identify the vehicles. Simultaneously, an algorithm manages the space allocation dynamically. With this system, there is no permanent parking slot allocation for a vehicle type. A desktop application manages the customer. A Web application is used to manage the external users with their reservations. The system also has an android application to view the nearest parking area from the current location. APS is built using java and php. It uses LED panels to guide the user inside the parking area to find the allocated parking slot accurately. The system ensures efficient performance, saving precious time for a customer. Compared with the current parking systems, APS interacts with users and increases customer satisfaction as well.

Keywords: RFID, android, web based system, barcode, algorithm, LED panels

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15 Identification of Shark Species off The Nigerian Coast Using DNA Barcoding

Authors: O. O. Fola-Matthews, O. O. Soyinka, D. N. Bitalo


Nigeria is one of the major shark fishing nations in Africa, but its fisheries managers still record catch data in aggregates ‘sharks’ with no species-specific details. This is because most of the shark specimens look identical in morphology, and field identification of some closely related species is tricky. This study uses DNA barcoding as a method to identify shark species from five different landing areas off the Nigerian Coast. 100 dorsal fins were sampled in order to provide a Chondrichthyan sequence that would be matched to reference specimens in a DNA barcode database

Keywords: BOLD, DNA barcoding, nigeria, sharks

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14 A Method and System for Secure Authentication Using One Time QR Code

Authors: Divyans Mahansaria


User authentication is an important security measure for protecting confidential data and systems. However, the vulnerability while authenticating into a system has significantly increased. Thus, necessary mechanisms must be deployed during the process of authenticating a user to safeguard him/her from the vulnerable attacks. The proposed solution implements a novel authentication mechanism to counter various forms of security breach attacks including phishing, Trojan horse, replay, key logging, Asterisk logging, shoulder surfing, brute force search and others. QR code (Quick Response Code) is a type of matrix barcode or two-dimensional barcode that can be used for storing URLs, text, images and other information. In the proposed solution, during each new authentication request, a QR code is dynamically generated and presented to the user. A piece of generic information is mapped to plurality of elements and stored within the QR code. The mapping of generic information with plurality of elements, randomizes in each new login, and thus the QR code generated for each new authentication request is for one-time use only. In order to authenticate into the system, the user needs to decode the QR code using any QR code decoding software. The QR code decoding software needs to be installed on handheld mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistant (PDA), etc. On decoding the QR code, the user will be presented a mapping between the generic piece of information and plurality of elements using which the user needs to derive cipher secret information corresponding to his/her actual password. Now, in place of the actual password, the user will use this cipher secret information to authenticate into the system. The authentication terminal will receive the cipher secret information and use a validation engine that will decipher the cipher secret information. If the entered secret information is correct, the user will be provided access to the system. Usability study has been carried out on the proposed solution, and the new authentication mechanism was found to be easy to learn and adapt. Mathematical analysis of the time taken to carry out brute force attack on the proposed solution has been carried out. The result of mathematical analysis showed that the solution is almost completely resistant to brute force attack. Today’s standard methods for authentication are subject to a wide variety of software, hardware, and human attacks. The proposed scheme can be very useful in controlling the various types of authentication related attacks especially in a networked computer environment where the use of username and password for authentication is common.

Keywords: authentication, QR code, cipher / decipher text, one time password, secret information

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13 Phylogeography and Evolutionary History of Whiting (Merlangius merlangus) along the Turkish Coastal Waters with Comparisons to the Atlantic

Authors: Aslı Şalcıoğlu, Grigorous Krey, Raşit Bilgin


In this study, the effect of the Turkish Straits System (TSS), comprising a biogeographical boundary that forms the connection between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, on the evolutionary history, phylogeography and intraspecific gene flow of the whiting (Merlangius merlangus) a demersal fish species, was investigated. For these purposes, the mitochondrial DNA (CO1, cyt-b) genes were used. In addition, genetic comparisons samples from other regions (Greece, France, Atlantic) obtained from GenBank and Barcode of Life Database were made to better understand the phylogeographic history of the species at a larger geographic scale. Within this study, high level of genetic differentiation was observed along the Turkish coastal waters based on cyt-b gene, suggesting that TSS is a barrier to dispersal. Two different sub-species were also observed based on mitochondrial DNA, one found in Turkish coastal waters and Greece (M.m euxinus) and other (M.m. merlangus) in Atlantic, France.

Keywords: genetic, phylogeography, TSS, whiting

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12 One Species into Five: Nucleo-Mito Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Species in 'Frankliniella Schultzei Complex': Vector for Tospoviruses

Authors: Vikas Kumar, Kailash Chandra, Kaomud Tyagi


The insect order Thysanoptera includes small insects commonly called thrips. As insect vectors, only thrips are capable of Tospoviruses transmission (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) affecting various crops. Currently, fifteen species of subfamily Thripinae (Thripidae) have been reported as vectors for tospoviruses. Frankliniella schultzei, which is reported as act as a vector for at least five tospovirses, have been suspected to be a species complex with more than one species. It is one of the historical unresolved issues where, two species namely, F. schultzei Trybom and F. sulphurea Schmutz were erected from South Africa and Srilanaka respectively. These two species were considered to be valid until 1968 when sulphurea was treated as colour morph (pale form) and synonymised under schultzei (dark form) However, these two have been considered as valid species by some of the thrips workers. Parallel studies have indicated that brown form of schultzei is a vector for tospoviruses while yellow form is a non-vector. However, recent studies have shown that yellow populations have also been documented as vectors. In view of all these facts, it is highly important to have a clear understanding whether these colour forms represent true species or merely different populations with different vector carrying capacities and whether there is some hidden diversity in 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex'. In this study, we aim to study the 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex' with molecular spectacles with DNA data from India and Australia and Africa. A total of fifty-five specimens was collected from diverse locations in India and Australia. We generated molecular data using partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (mtCOI) and 28S rRNA gene. For COI dataset, there were seventy-four sequences, out of which data on fifty-five was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. All the four different tree construction methods: neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, yielded the same tree topology and produced five cryptic species with high genetic divergence. For, rDNA, there were forty-five sequences, out of which data on thirty-nine was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. The four tree building methods yielded four cryptic species with high bootstrap support value/posterior probability. Here we could not retrieve one cryptic species from South Africa as we could not generate data on rDNA from South Africa and sequence for rDNA from African region were not available in the database. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (barcode index numbers, automatic barcode gap discovery, general mixed Yule-coalescent, and Poisson-tree-processes) also supported the phylogenetic data and produced 5 and 4 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) for mtCOI and 28S dataset respectively. These results of our study indicate the likelihood that F. sulphurea may be a valid species, however, more morphological and molecular data is required on specimens from type localities of these two species and comparison with type specimens.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, species complex, thrips, species delimitation

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11 Multilocus Phylogenetic Approach Reveals Informative DNA Barcodes for Studying Evolution and Taxonomy of Fusarium Fungi

Authors: Alexander A. Stakheev, Larisa V. Samokhvalova, Sergey K. Zavriev


Fusarium fungi are among the most devastating plant pathogens distributed all over the world. Significant reduction of grain yield and quality caused by Fusarium leads to multi-billion dollar annual losses to the world agricultural production. These organisms can also cause infections in immunocompromised persons and produce the wide range of mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone, which are hazardous to human and animal health. Identification of Fusarium fungi based on the morphology of spores and spore-forming structures, colony color and appearance on specific culture media is often very complicated due to the high similarity of these features for closely related species. Modern Fusarium taxonomy increasingly uses data of crossing experiments (biological species concept) and genetic polymorphism analysis (phylogenetic species concept). A number of novel Fusarium sibling species has been established using DNA barcoding techniques. Species recognition is best made with the combined phylogeny of intron-rich protein coding genes and ribosomal DNA sequences. However, the internal transcribed spacer of (ITS), which is considered to be universal DNA barcode for Fungi, is not suitable for genus Fusarium, because of its insufficient variability between closely related species and the presence of non-orthologous copies in the genome. Nowadays, the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1α) gene is the “gold standard” of Fusarium taxonomy, but the search for novel informative markers is still needed. In this study, we used two novel DNA markers, frataxin (FXN) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to discover phylogenetic relationships between Fusarium species. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of TEF1α, FXN, HSP90, as well as intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA (IGS), beta-tubulin (β-TUB) and phosphate permease (PHO) genes has been conducted for 120 isolates of 19 Fusarium species from different climatic zones of Russia and neighboring countries using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) algorithms. Our analyses revealed that FXN and HSP90 genes could be considered as informative phylogenetic markers, suitable for evolutionary and taxonomic studies of Fusarium genus. It has been shown that PHO gene possesses more variable (22 %) and parsimony informative (19 %) characters than other markers, including TEF1α (12 % and 9 %, correspondingly) when used for elucidating phylogenetic relationships between F. avenaceum and its closest relatives – F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum, F. torulosum. Application of novel DNA barcodes confirmed the fact that F. arthrosporioides do not represent a separate species but only a subspecies of F. avenaceum. Phylogeny based on partial PHO and FXN sequences revealed the presence of separate cluster of four F. avenaceum strains which were closer to F. torulosum than to major F. avenaceum clade. The strain F-846 from Moldova, morphologically identified as F. poae, formed a separate lineage in all the constructed dendrograms, and could potentially be considered as a separate species, but more information is needed to confirm this conclusion. Variable sites in PHO sequences were used for the first-time development of specific qPCR-based diagnostic assays for F. acuminatum and F. torulosum. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 15-29-02527).

Keywords: DNA barcode, fusarium, identification, phylogenetics, taxonomy

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10 Use of DNA Barcoding and UPLC-MS to Authenticate Agathosma spp. in South African Herbal Products

Authors: E. Pretorius, A. M. Viljoen, M. van der Bank


Introduction: The phytochemistry of Agathosma crenulata and A. betulina has been studied extensively, while their molecular analysis through DNA barcoding remains virtually unexplored. This technique can confirm the identity of plant species included in a herbal product, thereby ensuring the efficacy of the herbal product and the accuracy of its label. Materials and methods: Authentic Agathosma reference material of A. betulina (n=16) and A. crenulata (n=10) were obtained. Thirteen commercial products were purchased from various health shops around Johannesburg, South Africa, using the search term “Agathosma” or “Buchu.” The plastid regions matK and ycf1 were used to barcode the Buchu products, and BRONX analysis confirmed the taxonomic identity of the samples. UPLC-MS analyses were also performed. Results: Only (30/60) 60% of the traded samples tested from 13 suppliers contained A. betulina in their herbal products. Similar results were also obtained for the UPLC-MS analysis. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate the application of DNA barcoding in combination with phytochemical analysis to authenticate herbal products claiming to contain Agathosma plants as an ingredient in their products. This supports manufacturing efforts to ensure that herbal products that are safe for the consumer.

Keywords: Buchu, substitution, barcoding, BRONX algorithm, matK, ycf1, UPLC-MS

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9 Logistics Information Systems in the Distribution of Flour in Nigeria

Authors: Cornelius Femi Popoola


This study investigated logistics information systems in the distribution of flour in Nigeria. A case study design was used and 50 staff of Honeywell Flour Mill was sampled for the study. Data generated through a questionnaire were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that logistic information systems such as e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange positively correlated with the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill. Finding also deduced that e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange jointly and positively contribute to the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill in Nigeria (R = .935; Adj. R2 = .642; F (3,47) = 14.739; p < .05). The study therefore recommended that Honeywell Flour Mill should upgrade their logistic information systems to computer-to-computer communication of business transactions and documents, as well adopt new technology such as, tracking-and-tracing systems (barcode scanning for packages and palettes), tracking vehicles with Global Positioning System (GPS), measuring vehicle performance with ‘black boxes’ (containing logistic data), and Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) into their systems.

Keywords: e-commerce, electronic data interchange, flour distribution, information system, interactive telephone systems

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8 Colour Quick Response Code with High Damage Resistance Capability

Authors: Minh Nguyen


Today, QR or Quick Response Codes are prevalent, and mobile/smart devices can efficiently read and understand them. Therefore, we can see their appearance in many areas, such as storing web pages/websites, business phone numbers, redirecting to an app download, business location, social media. The popularity of the QR Code is mainly because of its many advantages, such as it can hold a good amount of information, is small, easy to scan and read by a general RGB camera, and it can still work with some damages on its surface. However, there are still some issues. For instance, some areas needed to be kept untouched for its successful decode (e.g., the “Finder Patterns,” the “Quiet Zone,” etc.), the capability of built-in auto-correction is not robust enough, and it is not flexible enough for many application such as Augment Reality (AR). We proposed a new Colour Quick Response Code that has several advantages over the original ones: (1) there is no untouchable area, (2) it allows up to 40% of the entire code area to be damaged, (3) it is more beneficial for Augmented Reality applications, and (4) it is back-compatible and readable by available QR Code scanners such as Pyzbar. From our experience, our Colour Quick Response Code is significantly more flexible on damage compared to the original QR Code. Our code is believed to be suitable in situations where standard 2D Barcodes fail to work, such as curved and shiny surfaces, for instance, medical blood test sample tubes and syringes.

Keywords: QR code, computer vision, image processing, 2D barcode

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7 Information Technology Pattern for Traceability to Increase the Exporting Efficiency of Thailand’s Orchid

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Manop Tirastittam


Traceability system is one of the tools which can ensure the product’s confident of the consumer as it can trace the product back to its origin and can reduce the operation cost of recall. Nowadays, there are so many technologies which can be applied to the traceability system and also able to increase the efficiency of the system such as QR Code, barcode, GS1 and GTIN. As the result, this research is aimed to study and design the information technology pattern that suits for the traceability of Thailand’s orchid because Thailand’s orchid is the popular export product for Japan, USA, China, Netherlands and Italy. This study will enhance the value of Thailand’s orchid and able to prevent the unexpected event of the defects or damaged product. The traceability pattern was received IOC test from 12 experts from 4 fields of study which are traceability field, information technology field, information communication technology field and orchid export field. The result of the in-depth interview and questionnaire showed that the technology which most compatibility with the traceability system is the QR code. The mean of the score was 4.25 and the standard deviation was 0.5 as the QR code is the new technology and user-friendly. The traceability system should start from the farm to the consumer in the consuming country as the traceability system will enhance the quality level of the product and increase the value of its as well. The other outcome from this research is the supply chain model of Thailand’s Orchid along with the system architecture and working system diagram.

Keywords: exporting, information technology pattern, orchid, traceability

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6 Carbon Based Classification of Aquaporin Proteins: A New Proposal

Authors: Parul Johri, Mala Trivedi


Major Intrinsic proteins (MIPs), actively involved in the passive transport of small polar molecules across the membranes of almost all living organisms. MIPs that specifically transport water molecules are named aquaporins (AQPs). The permeability of membranes is actively controlled by the regulation of the amount of different MIPs present but also in some cases by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the channel. Based on sequence similarity, MIPs have been classified into many categories. All of the proteins are made up of the 20 amino acids, the only difference is there in their orientations. Again all the 20 amino acids are made up of the basic five elements namely: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen. These elements are responsible for giving the amino acids the properties of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity which play an important role in protein interactions. The hydrophobic amino acids characteristically have greater number of carbon atoms as carbon is the main element which contributes to hydrophobic interactions in proteins. It is observed that the carbon level of proteins in different species is different. In the present work, we have taken a sample set of 150 aquaporins proteins from Uniprot database and a dynamic programming code was written to calculate the carbon percentage for each sequence. This carbon percentage was further used to barcode the aqauporins of animals and plants. The protein taken from Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana preferred to have carbon percentage of 31.8 to 35, whereas on the other hand sequences taken from Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, Bos Taurus, and Rattus norvegicus preferred to have carbon percentage of 31 to 33.7. This clearly demarks the carbon range in the aquaporin proteins from plant and animal origin. Hence the atom level analysis of protein sequences can provide us with better results as compared to the residue level comparison.

Keywords: aquaporins, carbon, dynamic prgramming, MIPs

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5 A Study on the Different Components of a Typical Back-Scattered Chipless RFID Tag Reflection

Authors: Fatemeh Babaeian, Nemai Chandra Karmakar


Chipless RFID system is a wireless system for tracking and identification which use passive tags for encoding data. The advantage of using chipless RFID tag is having a planar tag which is printable on different low-cost materials like paper and plastic. The printed tag can be attached to different items in the labelling level. Since the price of chipless RFID tag can be as low as a fraction of a cent, this technology has the potential to compete with the conventional optical barcode labels. However, due to the passive structure of the tag, data processing of the reflection signal is a crucial challenge. The captured reflected signal from a tag attached to an item consists of different components which are the reflection from the reader antenna, the reflection from the item, the tag structural mode RCS component and the antenna mode RCS of the tag. All these components are summed up in both time and frequency domains. The effect of reflection from the item and the structural mode RCS component can distort/saturate the frequency domain signal and cause difficulties in extracting the desired component which is the antenna mode RCS. Therefore, it is required to study the reflection of the tag in both time and frequency domains to have a better understanding of the nature of the captured chipless RFID signal. The other benefits of this study can be to find an optimised encoding technique in tag design level and to find the best processing algorithm the chipless RFID signal in decoding level. In this paper, the reflection from a typical backscattered chipless RFID tag with six resonances is analysed, and different components of the signal are separated in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the time domain signal corresponding to each resonator of the tag is studied. The data for this processing was captured from simulation in CST Microwave Studio 2017. The outcome of this study is understanding different components of a measured signal in a chipless RFID system and a discovering a research gap which is a need to find an optimum detection algorithm for tag ID extraction.

Keywords: antenna mode RCS, chipless RFID tag, resonance, structural mode RCS

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4 Employability Potential of Differently Abled in the Indian Apparel Industry

Authors: Gunjita Shami, Noopur Anand


The pilot run of 50 days was undertaken to test employability potential of people with visual and hearing & speech impairment. Various roles in an apparel manufacturing set up like spreading of fabric for cutting, folding, sealing and labeling cartons, pasting size barcode stickers on packed garments, removing tickets from the garments in the finishing stage were studied. Their performance was quantified basis timesheets for all the days and improvement per day was quantified. Their final day output was compared to that of the able-bodied worker. For example in the carton making activity on day one visually impaired worker was making one box every three minutes which improved to four boxes per minute on day 28 displaying 91.6% improvement compared or an improvement of 3.6% per day which was comparable to the able-bodied seasoned workers, who were making 5 boxes per minute. The performance of persons with hearing and speech impairment in the finishing department was 10% higher than that of able-bodied seasoned workers in the same process. Overall in all the activities the differently abled showed day to day improvement of 65% while able bodied displayed improvement of 52%. On the first day performance of able-bodied worker was 75% better than that of differently abled while on the 50th day it was only 20% better. Therefore the performance of persons with disabilities was found comparable to the able bodied person. The results, though on a small scale, showed a big promise of employment of persons with disability in the apparel industry. Armed with the promising result a full-scale study has been undertaken to identify the roles suitable for certain kind of disability in apparel production, work-aids required to assist the differently abled to improve performance and measures to be undertaken to make production floor 'friendlier' for them. The results have been discussed in this paper which opens doors for integrating differently abled into the world projected and assumed for only able-bodied.

Keywords: apparel sector, differently abled, employability, performance, work-aid

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3 Molecular Diversity of Forensically Relevant Insects from the Cadavers of Lahore

Authors: Sundus Mona, Atif Adnan, Babar Ali, Fareeha Arshad, Allah Rakha


Molecular diversity is the variation in the abundance of species. Forensic entomology is a neglected field in Pakistan. Insects collected from the crime scene should be handled by forensic entomologists who are currently virtually non-existent in Pakistan. Correct identification of insect specimen along with knowledge of their biodiversity can aid in solving many problems related to complicated forensic cases. Inadequate morphological identification and insufficient thermal biological studies limit the entomological utility in Forensic Medicine. Recently molecular identification of entomological evidence has gained attention globally. DNA barcoding is the latest and established method for species identification. Only proper identification can provide a precise estimation of postmortem intervals. Arthropods are known to be the first tourists scavenging on decomposing dead matter. The objective of the proposed study was to identify species by molecular techniques and analyze their phylogenetic importance with barcoded necrophagous insect species of early succession on human cadavers. Based upon this identification, the study outcomes will be the utilization of established DNA bar codes to identify carrion feeding insect species for concordant estimation of post mortem interval. A molecular identification method involving sequencing of a 658bp ‘barcode’ fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene from collected specimens of unknown dipteral species from cadavers of Lahore was evaluated. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using MEGA 7 and Arlequin, and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was generated. Three species were identified, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya saffranea, and Chrysomya rufifacies with low genetic diversity. The fixation index was 0.83992 that suggests a need for further studies to identify and classify forensically relevant insects in Pakistan. There is an exigency demand for further research especially when immature forms of arthropods are recovered from the crime scene.

Keywords: molecular diversity, DNA barcoding, species identification, forensically relevant

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2 Quick Response Codes in Physio: A Simple Click to Long-Term Oxygen Therapy Education

Authors: K. W. Lee, C. M. Choi, H. C. Tsang, W. K. Fong, Y. K. Cheng, L. Y. Chan, C. K. Yuen, P. W. Lau, Y. L. To, K. C. Chow


QR (Quick Response) Code is a matrix barcode. It enables users to open websites, photos and other information with mobile devices by just snapping the code. In usual Long Term Oxygen Therapy arrangement, piles of LTOT related information like leaflets from different oxygen service providers are given to patients to choose an appropriate plan according to their needs. If these printed materials are transformed into electronic format (QR Code), it would be more environmentally-friendly. More importantly, electronic materials including LTOT equipment operation and dyspnoea relieving techniques also empower patients in long-term disease management. The objective to this study is to investigate the effect of QR code in patient education on new LTOT users. This study was carried out in medical wards of North District Hospital. Adult patients and relatives who followed commands, were able to use smartphones with internet services and required LTOT arrangement on hospital discharge were recruited. In LTOT arrangement, apart from the usual LTOT education booklets which included patients’ personal information (e.g. oxygen titration and six-minute walk test results etc.), extra leaflets consisted of 1. QR codes of LTOT plans from different oxygen service providers, 2. Education materials of dyspnoea management and 3. Instructions on LTOT equipment operation were given. Upon completion of LTOT arrangement, a questionnaire about the use of QR code on patient education was filled in by patients or relatives. A total of 10 new LTOT users were recruited from November 2017 to January 2018. Initially, 70% of them did not know anything about the QR code, but all of them understood its operation after a simple demonstration. 70% of them agreed that it was convenient to use (20% strongly agree, 40% agree, 10% somewhat agree). 80% of them agreed that QR code could facilitate the retrieval of more LTOT related information (10% strongly agree, 70% agree) while 90% agreed that we should continue delivering QR code leaflets to new LTOT users in the future (30% strongly agree, 40% agree, 20% somewhat agree). It is proven that QR code is a convenient and environmentally-friendly tool to deliver information. It is also relatively easy to be introduced to new users. It has received welcoming feedbacks from current users.

Keywords: long-term oxygen therapy, physiotherapy, patient education, QR code

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1 Nursing Students' Experience of Using Electronic Health Record System in Clinical Placements

Authors: Nurten Tasdemir, Busra Baloglu, Zeynep Cingoz, Can Demirel, Zeki Gezer, Barıs Efe


Student nurses are increasingly exposed to technology in the workplace after graduation with the growing numbers of electric health records (EHRs), handheld computers, barcode scanner medication dispensing systems, and automatic capture of patient data such as vital signs. Internationally, electronic health records (EHRs) systems are being implemented and evaluated. Students will inevitably encounter EHRs in the clinical learning environment and their professional practice. Nursing students must develop competency in the use of EHR. Aim: The study aimed to examine nursing students’ experiences of learning to use electronic health records (EHR) in clinical placements. Method: This study adopted a descriptive approach. The study population consisted of second and third-year nursing students at the Zonguldak School of Health in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey; the study was conducted during the 2015–2016 academic year. The sample consisted of 315 (74.1% of 425 students) nursing students who volunteered to participate. The students, who were involved in clinical practice, were invited to participate in the study Data were collected by a questionnaire designed by the researchers based on the relevant literature. Data were analyzed descriptively using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 16.0. The data are presented as means, standard deviations, and percentages. Approval for the study was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the University (Reg. Number: 29/03/2016/112) and the director of Nursing Department. Findings: A total of 315 students enrolled in this study, for a response rate of 74.1%. The mean age of the sample was 22.24 ± 1.37 (min: 19, max: 32) years, and most participants (79.7%) were female. Most of the nursing students (82.3%) stated that they use information technologies in clinical practice. Nearly half of the students (42.5%) reported that they have not accessed to EHR system. In addition, 61.6% of the students reported that insufficient computers available in clinical placement. Of the students, 84.7% reported that they prefer to have patient information from EHR system, and 63.8% of them found more effective to preparation for the clinical reporting. Conclusion: This survey indicated that nursing students experience to learn about EHR systems in clinical placements. For more effective learning environment nursing education should prepare nursing students for EHR systems in their educational life.

Keywords: electronic health record, clinical placement, nursing student, nursing education

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