Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 670

Search results for: auditory evoked potentials

670 Auditory Brainstem Response in Wave VI for the Detection of Learning Disabilities

Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia-Planas, Maria Victoria Garcia-Camba

Abstract:

The use of brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) is a common way to study the auditory function of people, a way to learn the functionality of a part of the brain neuronal groups that intervene in the learning process by studying the behaviour of wave VI. The latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the existence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of innocuous, low-cost, and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the BAEP that can help us to detect early possible neurodevelopmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and cure. To date and to the authors' best knowledge, only the latency data obtained, observing the first to V waves and mainly in the left ear, were taken into account. This work shows that it is essential to take into account both ears; with these latest data, it has been possible had diagnosed more precise some cases than with the previous data had been diagnosed as 'normal' despite showing signs of some alteration that motivated the new consultation to the specialist.

Keywords: ear, neurodevelopment, auditory evoked potentials, intervals of normality, learning disabilities

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669 Event Related Potentials in Terms of Visual and Auditory Stimuli

Authors: Seokbeen Lim, KyeongSeok Sim, DaKyeong Shin, Gilwon Yoon

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Event-related potential (ERP) is one of the useful tools for investigating cognitive reactions. In this study, the potential of ERP components detected after auditory and visual stimuli was examined. Subjects were asked to respond upon stimuli that were of three categories; Target, Non-Target and Standard stimuli. The ERP after stimulus was measured. In the experiment of visual evoked potentials (VEPs), the subjects were asked to gaze at a center point on the monitor screen where the stimuli were provided by the reversal pattern of the checkerboard. In consequence of the VEP experiments, we observed consistent reactions. Each peak voltage could be measured when the ensemble average was applied. Visual stimuli had smaller amplitude and a longer latency compared to that of auditory stimuli. The amplitude was the highest with Target and the smallest with Standard in both stimuli.

Keywords: auditory stimulus, EEG, event related potential, oddball task, visual stimulus

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668 The Influence of Neural Synchrony on Auditory Middle Latency and Late Latency Responses and Its Correlation with Audiological Profile in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

Authors: P. Renjitha, P. Hari Prakash

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Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is an auditory disorder with normal cochlear outer hair cell function and disrupted auditory nerve function. It results in unique clinical characteristic with absent auditory brainstem response (ABR), absent acoustic reflex and the presence of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and cochlear microphonics. The lesion site could be at cochlear inner hair cells, the synapse between the inner hair cells and type I auditory nerve fibers, and/or the auditory nerve itself. But the literatures on synchrony at higher auditory system are sporadic and are less understood. It might be interesting to see if there is a recovery of neural synchrony at higher auditory centers. Also, does the level at which the auditory system recovers with adequate synchrony to the extent of observable evoke response potentials (ERPs) can predict speech perception? In the current study, eight ANSD participants and healthy controls underwent detailed audiological assessment including ABR, auditory middle latency response (AMLR), and auditory late latency response (ALLR). AMLR was recorded for clicks and ALLR was evoked using 500Hz and 2 kHz tone bursts. Analysis revealed that the participant could be categorized into three groups. Group I (2/8) where ALLR was present only for 2kHz tone burst. Group II (4/8), where AMLR was absent and ALLR was seen for both the stimuli. Group III (2/8) consisted individuals with identifiable AMLR and ALLR for all the stimuli. The highest speech identification sore observed in ANSD group was 30% and hence considered having poor speech perception. Overall test result indicates that the site of neural synchrony recovery could be varying across individuals with ANSD. Some individuals show recovery of neural synchrony at the thalamocortical level while others show the same only at the cortical level. Within ALLR itself there could be variation across stimuli again could be related to neural synchrony. Nevertheless, none of these patterns could possible explain the speech perception ability of the individuals. Hence, it could be concluded that neural synchrony as measured by evoked potentials could not be a good clinical predictor speech perception.

Keywords: auditory late latency response, auditory middle latency response, auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, correlation with speech identification score

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667 The Latency-Amplitude Binomial of Waves Resulting from the Application of Evoked Potentials for the Diagnosis of Dyscalculia

Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia-Planas, Maria Victoria Garcia-Camba

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Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have allowed a step forward in perceiving the processes involved in learning from the point of view of the acquisition of new information or the modification of existing mental content. The evoked potentials technique reveals how basic brain processes interact to achieve adequate and flexible behaviours. The objective of this work, using evoked potentials, is to study if it is possible to distinguish if a patient suffers a specific type of learning disorder to decide the possible therapies to follow. The methodology used, is the analysis of the dynamics of different areas of the brain during a cognitive activity to find the relationships between the different areas analyzed in order to better understand the functioning of neural networks. Also, the latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the existence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of non-invasive, innocuous, low-cost and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the evoked potentials that can help to detect early possible neuro-developmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and cure. From the study of the amplitudes and latencies of the evoked potentials, it is possible to detect brain alterations in the learning process specifically in dyscalculia, to achieve specific corrective measures for the application of personalized psycho pedagogical plans that allow obtaining an optimal integral development of the affected people.

Keywords: dyscalculia, neurodevelopment, evoked potentials, Learning disabilities, neural networks

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666 Assessment of an ICA-Based Method for Detecting the Effect of Attention in the Auditory Late Response

Authors: Siavash Mirahmadizoghi, Steven Bell, David Simpson

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In this work a new independent component analysis (ICA) based method for noise reduction in evoked potentials is evaluated on for auditory late responses (ALR) captured with a 63-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) from 10 normal-hearing subjects. The performance of the new method is compared with a single channel alternative in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of channels with an SNR above an empirically derived statistical critical value and an estimate of the effect of attention on the major components in the ALR waveform. The results show that the multichannel signal processing method can significantly enhance the quality of the ALR signal and also detect the effect of the attention on the ALR better than the single channel alternative.

Keywords: auditory late response (ALR), attention, EEG, independent component analysis (ICA), multichannel signal processing

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665 Relevance of Brain Stem Evoked Potential in Diagnosis of Central Demyelination in Guillain Barre’ Syndrome

Authors: Geetanjali Sharma

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Guillain Barre’ syndrome (GBS) is an auto-immune mediated demyelination poly-radiculo-neuropathy. Clinical features include progressive symmetrical ascending muscle weakness of more than two limbs, areflexia with or without sensory, autonomic and brainstem abnormalities, the purpose of this study was to determine subclinical neurological changes of CNS with GBS and to establish the presence of central demyelination in GBS. The study was prospective and conducted in the Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post-graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India to find out early central demyelination in clinically diagnosed patients of GBS. These patients were referred from the department of Medicine of our Institute to our department for electro-diagnostic evaluation. The study group comprised of 40 subjects (20 clinically diagnosed GBS patients and 20 healthy individuals as controls) aged between 6-65 years. Brain Stem evoked Potential (BAEP) were done in both groups using RMS EMG EP mark II machine. BAEP parameters included the latencies of waves I to IV, inter peak latencies I-III, III-IV & I-V. Statistically significant increase in absolute peak and inter peak latencies in the GBS group as compared with control group was noted. Results of evoked potential reflect impairment of auditory pathways probably due to focal demyelination in Schwann cell derived myelin sheaths that cover the extramedullary portion of auditory nerves. Early detection of the sub-clinical abnormalities is important as timely intervention reduces morbidity.

Keywords: brainstem, demyelination, evoked potential, Guillain Barre’

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664 Generation of Electro-Encephalography Readiness Potentials by Intention

Authors: Seokbeen Lim, Gilwon Yoon

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The readiness potential in brain waves is a brain activity related with an intention whose potential arises even before its conscious intention. This study was carried out in order to understand the generation and mechanism of the readiness potential more. The experiment with two subjects was conducted in two ways following the Oddball task protocol. Firstly, auditory stimuli were randomly presented to the subjects. The subject was allowed to press the keyboard with the right index finger only when the subject heard the target stimulus but not the standard stimulus. Secondly, unlike the first one, the auditory stimuli were randomly presented, and the subjects pressed the keyboard in the same manner, but at the same time with grasping action of the left hand. The readiness potential showed up for both of these experiments. In the first Oddball experiment, the readiness potential was detected only when the target stimulus was presented. However, in the second Oddball experiment with the left hand action of grasping something, the readiness potential was detected at the presentation of for both standard and target stimuli. However, detected readiness potentials with the target stimuli were larger than those of the standard stimuli. We found an interesting phenomenon that the readiness potential was able to be detected even the standard stimulus. This indicates that motor-related readiness potentials can be generated only by the intention to move. These results present a new perspective in psychology and brain engineering since subconscious brain action may be prior to conscious recognition of the intention.

Keywords: readiness potential, auditory stimuli, event-related potential, electroencephalography, oddball task

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663 Event Related Brain Potentials Evoked by Carmen in Musicians and Dancers

Authors: Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi

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Event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by simple tones in the brain have been extensively studied. However, in reality the music surrounding us is spectrally and temporally complex and dynamic. Thus, the research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation, which, in various forms, has always been an essential part of different cultures. In addition to sensory responses, music elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. When compared to laymen, professional musicians have stronger ERP responses in processing individual musical features in simple tone sequences, such as changes in pitch, timbre and harmony. Here we show that the ERP responses evoked by rapid changes in individual musical features are more intense in musicians than in laymen, also while listening to long excerpts of the composition Carmen. Interestingly, for professional dancers, the amplitudes of the cognitive P300 response are weaker than for musicians but still stronger than for laymen. Also, the cognitive P300 latencies of musicians are significantly shorter whereas the latencies of laymen are significantly longer. In contrast, sensory N100 do not differ in amplitude or latency between musicians and laymen. These results, acquired from a novel ERP methodology for natural music, suggest that we can take the leap of studying the brain with long pieces of natural music also with the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG), as has already been made with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), as these two brain imaging devices complement each other.

Keywords: electroencephalography, expertise, musical features, real-life music

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662 An Innovative Auditory Impulsed EEG and Neural Network Based Biometric Identification System

Authors: Ritesh Kumar, Gitanjali Chhetri, Mandira Bhatia, Mohit Mishra, Abhijith Bailur, Abhinav

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The prevalence of the internet and technology in our day to day lives is creating more security issues than ever. The need for protecting and providing a secure access to private and business data has led to the development of many security systems. One of the potential solutions is to employ the bio-metric authentication technique. In this paper we present an innovative biometric authentication method that utilizes a person’s EEG signal, which is acquired in response to an auditory stimulus,and transferred wirelessly to a computer that has the necessary ANN algorithm-Multi layer perceptrol neural network because of is its ability to differentiate between information which is not linearly separable.In order to determine the weights of the hidden layer we use Gaussian random weight initialization. MLP utilizes a supervised learning technique called Back propagation for training the network. The complex algorithm used for EEG classification reduces the chances of intrusion into the protected public or private data.

Keywords: EEG signal, auditory evoked potential, biometrics, multilayer perceptron neural network, back propagation rule, Gaussian random weight initialization

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661 Neuropsychology of Dyslexia and Rehabilitation Approaches: A Research Study Applied to School Aged Children with Reading Disorders in Greece

Authors: Rozi Laskaraki, Argyris Karapetsas, Aikaterini Karapetsa

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This paper is focused on the efficacy of a rehabilitation program based on musical activities, implied to a group of school-aged dyslexic children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of auditory training including musical exercises in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants and Methods: 45 third-, and fourth-grade students with DD and a matched control group (n=45) were involved in this study. In the beginning, students participated in a clinical assessment, including both electrophysiological (i.e., event related potentials (ERPs) esp.P300 waveform) and neuropsychological tests, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Initial assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant lower performance for children with DD, compared to that of the typical readers. After clinical assessment, a subgroup of children with dyslexia was submitted to a music auditory training program, conducted in 45-minute training sessions, once a week, for twenty weeks. The program included structured and digitized musical activities involving pitch, rhythm, melody and tempo perception and discrimination as well as auditory sequencing. After the intervention period, children underwent a new recording of ERPs. Results: The electrophysiological results revealed that children had similar P300 latency values to that of the controls, after the remediation program; thus children overcame their deficits. Conclusion: The outcomes of the current study suggest that ERPs is a valid clinical tool in neuropsychological assessment settings and dyslexia can be ameliorated through music auditory training.

Keywords: dyslexia, event related potentials, learning disabilities, music, rehabilitation

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660 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Visual Evoked Responses Using Dense EEG

Authors: Rima Hleiss, Elie Bitar, Mahmoud Hassan, Mohamad Khalil

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A comprehensive study of object recognition in the human brain requires combining both spatial and temporal analysis of brain activity. Here, we are mainly interested in three issues: the time perception of visual objects, the ability of discrimination between two particular categories (objects vs. animals), and the possibility to identify a particular spatial representation of visual objects. Our experiment consisted of acquiring dense electroencephalographic (EEG) signals during a picture-naming task comprising a set of objects and animals’ images. These EEG responses were recorded from nine participants. In order to determine the time perception of the presented visual stimulus, we analyzed the Event Related Potentials (ERPs) derived from the recorded EEG signals. The analysis of these signals showed that the brain perceives animals and objects with different time instants. Concerning the discrimination of the two categories, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied on the instantaneous EEG (excellent temporal resolution: on the order of millisecond) to categorize the visual stimuli into two different classes. The spatial differences between the evoked responses of the two categories were also investigated. The results showed a variation of the neural activity with the properties of the visual input. Results showed also the existence of a spatial pattern of electrodes over particular regions of the scalp in correspondence to their responses to the visual inputs.

Keywords: brain activity, categorization, dense EEG, evoked responses, spatio-temporal analysis, SVM, time perception

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659 The Role of Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in the Repair of Damaged Inner Ear in Albino Rats

Authors: Ahmed Gaber Abdel Raheem, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamed

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Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is largely caused by the degeneration of the cochlea. Therapeutic options for SNHL are limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. The cell transplantation approach to the regeneration of hair cells has gained considerable attention because stem cells are believed to accumulate in the damaged sites and have the potential for the repair of damaged tissues. The aim of the work: was to assess the use of bone marrow transplantation in repair of damaged inner ear hair cells in rats after the damage had been inflicted by Amikacin injection. Material and Methods: Thirty albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. Each group ten rats. Group I: used as control. Group II: Were given Amikacin- intratympanic injection till complete loss of hearing function. This could be assessed by Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAEs) and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR). GroupIII: were given intra-peritoneal injection of bone marrow stem cell after complete loss of hearing caused by Amikacin. Clinical assessment was done using DPOAEs and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR), before and after bone marrow injection. Histological assessment of the inner ear was done by light and electron microscope. Also, Detection of stem cells in the inner ear by immunohistochemistry. Results: Histological examination of the specimens showed promising improvement in the structure of cochlea that may be responsible for the improvement of hearing function in rats detected by DPOAEs and / or ABR. Conclusion: Bone marrow stem cells transplantation might be useful for the treatment of SNHL.

Keywords: amikacin, hair cells, sensorineural hearing loss, stem cells

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658 Pitch Processing in Autistic Mandarin-Speaking Children with Hypersensitivityand Hypo-Sensitivity: An Event-Related Potential Study

Authors: Kaiying Lai, Suiping Wang, Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang, Pengmin Qin

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Abnormalities in auditory processing are one of the most commonly reported sensory processing impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Tonal language speaker with autism has enhanced neural sensitivity to pitch changes in pure tone. However, not all children with ASD exhibit the same performance in pitch processing due to different auditory sensitivity. The current study aimed to examine auditory change detection in ASD with different auditory sensitivity. K-means clustering method was adopted to classify ASD participants into two groups according to the auditory processing scores of the Sensory Profile, 11 autism with hypersensitivity (mean age = 11.36 ; SD = 1.46) and 18 with hypo-sensitivity (mean age = 10.64; SD = 1.89) participated in a passive auditory oddball paradigm designed for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) under the pure tone condition. Results revealed that compared to hypersensitive autism, the children with hypo-sensitivity showed smaller MMN responses to pure tone stimuli. These results suggest that ASD with auditory hypersensitivity and hypo-sensitivity performed differently in processing pure tone, so neural responses to pure tone hold promise for predicting the auditory sensitivity of ASD and targeted treatment in children with ASD.

Keywords: ASD, sensory profile, pitch processing, mismatch negativity, MMN

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657 Mild Auditory Perception and Cognitive Impairment in mid-Trimester Pregnancy

Authors: Tahamina Begum, Wan Nor Azlen Wan Mohamad, Faruque Reza, Wan Rosilawati Wan Rosli

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To assess auditory perception and cognitive function during pregnancy is necessary as the pregnant women need extra effort for attention mainly for their executive function to maintain their quality of life. This study aimed to investigate neural correlates of cognitive and behavioral processing during mid trimester pregnancy. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were studied by using 128-sensor net and PAS or COWA (controlled Oral Word Association), WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), RAVLTIM (Rey Auditory Verbal and Learning Test: immediate or interference recall, delayed recall (RAVLT DR) and total score (RAVLT TS) were tested for neuropsychology assessment. In total 18 subjects were recruited (n= 9 in each group; control and pregnant group). All participants of the pregnant group were within 16-27 (mid trimester) weeks gestation. Age and education matched control healthy subjects were recruited in the control group. Participants were given a standardized test of auditory cognitive function as auditory oddball paradigm during ERP study. In this paradigm, two different auditory stimuli (standard and target stimuli) were used where subjects counted silently only target stimuli with giving attention by ignoring standard stimuli. Mean differences between target and standard stimuli were compared across groups. N100 (auditory sensory ERP component) and P300 (auditory cognitive ERP component) were recorded at T3, T4, T5, T6, Cz and Pz electrode sites. An equal number of electrodes showed non-significantly shorter amplitude of N100 component (except significantly shorter at T3, P= 0.05) and non-significant longer latencies (except significantly longer latency at T5, P= 0.008) of N100 component in pregnant group comparing control. In case of P300 component, maximum electrode sites showed non-significantly higher amplitudes and equal number of sites showed non-significant shorter latencies in pregnant group comparing control. Neuropsychology results revealed the non-significant higher score of PAS, lower score of WCST, lower score of RAVLTIM and RAVLTDR in pregnant group comparing control. The results of N100 component and RAVLT scores concluded that auditory perception is mildly impaired and P300 component proved very mild cognitive dysfunction with good executive functions in second trimester of pregnancy.

Keywords: auditory perception, pregnancy, stimuli, trimester

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656 Robot Control by ERPs of Brain Waves

Authors: K. T. Sun, Y. H. Tai, H. W. Yang, H. T. Lin

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This paper presented the technique of robot control by event-related potentials (ERPs) of brain waves. Based on the proposed technique, severe physical disabilities can free browse outside world. A specific component of ERPs, N2P3, was found and used to control the movement of robot and the view of camera on the designed brain-computer interface (BCI). Users only required watching the stimuli of attended button on the BCI, the evoked potentials of brain waves of the target button, N2P3, had the greatest amplitude among all control buttons. An experimental scene had been constructed that the robot required walking to a specific position and move the view of camera to see the instruction of the mission, and then completed the task. Twelve volunteers participated in this experiment, and experimental results showed that the correct rate of BCI control achieved 80% and the average of execution time was 353 seconds for completing the mission. Four main contributions included in this research: (1) find an efficient component of ERPs, N2P3, for BCI control, (2) embed robot's viewpoint image into user interface for robot control, (3) design an experimental scene and conduct the experiment, and (4) evaluate the performance of the proposed system for assessing the practicability.

Keywords: severe physical disabilities, robot control, event-related potentials (ERPs), brain-computer interface (BCI), brain waves

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655 Integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with Self-Consistent Potentials

Authors: Gulgassyl Nugmanova, Zhanat Zhunussova, Kuralay Yesmakhanova, Galya Mamyrbekova, Ratbay Myrzakulov

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In this paper, we consider some integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials. We study their Lax representations. In particular we derive their equivalent counterparts in the form of nonlinear Schr\"odinger type equations. We present the integrable reductions of the Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials. These integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials describe nonlinear waves in ferromagnets with some additional physical fields.

Keywords: Heisenberg Ferromagnet equations, soliton equations, equivalence, Lax representation

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654 Physiology of Temporal Lobe and Limbic System

Authors: Khaled A. Abdel-Sater

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There are four areas of the temporal lobe. Primary auditory area (areas 41 and 42); it is for the perception of auditory impulse, auditory association area (area 22, 21, and 20): Areas 21 and 20 are for understanding and interpretation of auditory sensation, recognition of language, and long-term memories. Area 22, also called Wernicke’s area, and a sensory speech centre. It is for interpretation of auditory and visual information, formation of thoughts in the mind, and choice of words to be used. Ideas and thoughts originate in it. The limbic system is a part of cortical and subcortical structure forming a ring around the brainstem. Cortical structures are the orbitofrontal area, subcallosal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. Subcortical structures are the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, paraolfactory area, anterior nucleus of the thalamus portions of the basal ganglia. There are several physiological functions of the limbic system, including regulation of behavior, motivation, and emotion.

Keywords: limbic system, motivation, emotions, temporal lobe

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653 The Possibility of Using Somatosensory Evoked Potential(SSEP) as a Parameter for Cortical Vascular Dementia

Authors: Hyunsik Park

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As the rate of cerebrovascular disease increases in old populations, the prevalence rate of vascular dementia would be expected. Therefore, authors designed this study to find out the possibility of somatosensory evoked potentials(SSEP) as a parameter for early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients. 21 patients who met the criteria for vascular dementia according to DSM-IV,ICD-10and NINDS-AIREN with the history of recent cognitive impairment, fluctuation progression, and neurologic deficit. We subdivided these patients into two groups; a mild dementia and a severe dementia groups by MMSE and CDR score; and analysed comparison between normal control group and patient control group who have been cerebrovascular attack(CVA) history without dementia by using N20 latency and amplitude of median nerve. In this study, mild dementia group showed significant differences on latency and amplitude with normal control group(p-value<0.05) except patient control group(p-value>0.05). Severe dementia group showed significant differences both normal control group and patient control group.(p-value<0.05, <001). Since no significant difference has founded between mild dementia group and patient control group, SSEP has limitation to use for early diagnosis test. However, the comparison between severe dementia group and others showed significant results which indicate SSEP can predict the prognosis of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients.

Keywords: SSEP, cortical vascular dementia, N20 latency, N20 amplitude

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652 Artificial Generation of Visual Evoked Potential to Enhance Visual Ability

Authors: A. Vani, M. N. Mamatha

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Visual signal processing in human beings occurs in the occipital lobe of the brain. The signals that are generated in the brain are universal for all the human beings and they are called Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Generally, the visually impaired people lose sight because of severe damage to only the eyes natural photo sensors, but the occipital lobe will still be functioning. In this paper, a technique of artificially generating VEP is proposed to enhance the visual ability of the subject. The system uses the electrical photoreceptors to capture image, process the image, to detect and recognize the subject or object. This voltage is further processed and can transmit wirelessly to a BIOMEMS implanted into occipital lobe of the patient’s brain. The proposed BIOMEMS consists of array of electrodes that generate the neuron potential which is similar to VEP of normal people. Thus, the neurons get the visual data from the BioMEMS which helps in generating partial vision or sight for the visually challenged patient. 

Keywords: BioMEMS, neuro-prosthetic, openvibe, visual evoked potential

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651 The Relation between Learning Styles and English Achievement in the Language Training Centre

Authors: Nurul Yusnita

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Many studies have been developed to help the students to get good achievement in English learning. They can be from the teaching method or psychological ones. One of the psychological studies in educational research is learning style. In some ways, learning style can affect the achievement of the students. This study aimed to examine 4 (four) learning styles and their relations to English achievement among the students learning English in Language Training Center of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (LTC UMY). The method of this study was descriptive analytical. The sample consisted of 39 Accounting students in LTC UMY. The data was collected through questionnaires with Likert-scale. The achievement was obtained from the grade of the students. To analyze the questionnaires and to see the relation between the learning styles and the student achievement, SPSS statistical software of correlational analysis was used. The result showed that both visual and auditory had the same percentage of 35.9% (14 students). 3 students (7.7%) had kinaesthetic learning style and 8 students (20.5%) had visual and auditory ones. Meanwhile, there were 5 students (12.8%) who had visual learning style could increase their grades. Only 1 student (2.5%) who had visual and auditory could improve his grade. Besides grade increase, there were also grade decrease. Students with visual, auditory, visual and auditory, and kinaesthetic learning styles were 3 students (7.7%), 5 students (12%), 4 students (10.2%) and 1 student (2.5%) respectively. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between learning style and English achievement. Most of the good achievers were the students with visual and auditory learning styles and most of them preferred visual method. The implication is the teachers and material designers could improve their method through visual things to achieve effective English teaching learning.

Keywords: accounting students, English achievement, language training centre, learning styles

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650 Task Evoked Pupillary Response for Surgical Task Difficulty Prediction via Multitask Learning

Authors: Beilei Xu, Wencheng Wu, Lei Lin, Rachel Melnyk, Ahmed Ghazi

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In operating rooms, excessive cognitive stress can impede the performance of a surgeon, while low engagement can lead to unavoidable mistakes due to complacency. As a consequence, there is a strong desire in the surgical community to be able to monitor and quantify the cognitive stress of a surgeon while performing surgical procedures. Quantitative cognitiveload-based feedback can also provide valuable insights during surgical training to optimize training efficiency and effectiveness. Various physiological measures have been evaluated for quantifying cognitive stress for different mental challenges. In this paper, we present a study using the cognitive stress measured by the task evoked pupillary response extracted from the time series eye-tracking measurements to predict task difficulties in a virtual reality based robotic surgery training environment. In particular, we proposed a differential-task-difficulty scale, utilized a comprehensive feature extraction approach, and implemented a multitask learning framework and compared the regression accuracy between the conventional single-task-based and three multitask approaches across subjects.

Keywords: surgical metric, task evoked pupillary response, multitask learning, TSFresh

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649 Generalized Hyperbolic Functions: Exponential-Type Quantum Interactions

Authors: Jose Juan Peña, J. Morales, J. García-Ravelo

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In the search of potential models applied in the theoretical treatment of diatomic molecules, some of them have been constructed by using standard hyperbolic functions as well as from the so-called q-deformed hyperbolic functions (sc q-dhf) for displacing and modifying the shape of the potential under study. In order to transcend the scope of hyperbolic functions, in this work, a kind of generalized q-deformed hyperbolic functions (g q-dhf) is presented. By a suitable transformation, through the q deformation parameter, it is shown that these g q-dhf can be expressed in terms of their corresponding standard ones besides they can be reduced to the sc q-dhf. As a useful application of the proposed approach, and considering a class of exactly solvable multi-parameter exponential-type potentials, some new q-deformed quantum interactions models that can be used as interesting alternative in quantum physics and quantum states are presented. Furthermore, due that quantum potential models are conditioned on the q-dependence of the parameters that characterize to the exponential-type potentials, it is shown that many specific cases of q-deformed potentials are obtained as particular cases from the proposal.

Keywords: diatomic molecules, exponential-type potentials, hyperbolic functions, q-deformed potentials

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648 Self‑reported Auditory Problems Are Associated with Adverse Mental Health Outcomes and Alcohol Misuse in the UK Armed Forces

Authors: Fred N. H. Parker, Nicola T. Fear, S. A. M. Stevelink, L. Rafferty

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Purpose Auditory problems, such as hearing loss and tinnitus, have been associated with mental health problems and alcohol misuse in the UK general population and in the US Armed Forces; however, few studies have examined these associations within the UK Armed Forces. The present study examined the association between auditory problems and probable common mental disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol misuse. Methods 5474 serving and ex-service personnel from the UK Armed Forces were examined, selected from those who responded to phase two (data collection 2007–09) and phase three (2014–16) of a military cohort study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between auditory problems at phase two and mental health problems at phase three. Results 9.7% of participants reported ever experiencing hearing problems alone, 7.9% reported tinnitus within the last month alone, and 7.8% reported hearing problems with tinnitus. After adjustment, hearing problems with tinnitus at phase two was associated with increased odds of probable common mental disorders (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.09–2.08), post-traumatic stress disorder (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.41–3.76), and alcohol misuse (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.28–2.96) at phase three. Tinnitus alone was associated with probable post-traumatic stress disorder (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.03–3.15); however, hearing problems alone were not associated with any outcomes of interest. Conclusions The association between auditory problems and mental health problems emphasizes the importance of the prevention of auditory problems in the Armed Forces: through enhanced audiometric screening, improved hearing protection equipment, and greater levels of utilization of such equipment.

Keywords: armed forces, hearing problems, tinnitus, mental health, alcohol misuse

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647 Hallucinatory Activity in Schizophrenia: The Relationship with Childhood Memories, Submissive Behavior, Social Comparison, and Depression

Authors: Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, José Pinto-Gouveia, Ermelindo Bernardo Peixoto

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Auditory hallucinations among the most invalidating and distressing experiences reported by patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, leading to feelings of powerlessness and helplessness towards their illness. In more severe cases, these auditory hallucinations can take the form of commanding voices, which are often related to high suicidality rates in these patients. Several authors propose that the meanings attributed to the hallucinatory experience, rather than characteristics like form and content, can be determinant in patients’ reactions to hallucinatory activity, particularly in the case of voice-hearing experiences. In this study, 48 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia presenting auditory hallucinations were studied. Multiple regression analyses were computed to study the influence of several developmental aspects, such as family and social dynamics, bullying, depression, and socio-cognitive variables on the auditory hallucinations, on patients’ attributions and relationships with their voices, and on the resulting invalidation of hallucinatory experience. Overall, results showed how relationships with voices can mirror several aspects of interpersonal relationship with others, and how self-schemas, depression and actual social relationships help shaping the voice-hearing experience. Early experiences of victimization and submission help predict the attributions of omnipotence of the voices, and increased hostility from parents seems to increase the malevolence of the voices, suggesting that socio-cognitive factors can significantly contribute to the etiology and maintenance of auditory hallucinations. The understanding of the characteristics of auditory hallucinations and the relationships patients established with their voices can allow the development of more promising therapeutic interventions that can be more effective in decreasing invalidation caused by this devastating mental illness.

Keywords: auditory hallucination, beliefs, life events, schizophrenia

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646 Focusing on the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology for Improving Childrens’ Potentials in Science: Challenges for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Osagiede Mercy Afe

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After the internet explosion in the 90’s, Technology was immediately integrated into the school system. Technology which symbolizes advancement in human knowledge was seen as a setback by many educators many efforts have been made to help stem this erroneous believes and help educators realize the benefits of technology and ways of implementing it in the classrooms especially in the sciences. This advancement created a constantly expanding gap between the pupil’s perception on the use of technology within the learning atmosphere and the teacher’s perception and limitations hence the focus of this paper is on the need to refocus on the potentials of Science and Technology in enhancing children learning at school especially in science for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper recommended measures for facilitating the sustenance of science and technology in Nigerian schools so as to enhance the potentials of our children in Science and Technology for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: children, information communication technology (ICT), potentials, sustainable development, science education

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645 Amplitude and Latency of P300 Component from Auditory Stimulus in Different Types of Personality: An Event Related Potential Study

Authors: Nasir Yusoff, Ahmad Adamu Adamu, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza

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The P300 from Event related potential (ERP) explains the psycho-physiological phenomenon in human body. The present study aims to identify the differences of amplitude and latency of P300 component from auditory stimuli, between ambiversion and extraversion types of personality. Ambivert (N=20) and extravert (N=20) undergoing ERP recording at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) laboratory. Electroencephalogram data was recorded with oddball paradigm, counting auditory standard and target tones, from nine electrode sites (Fz, Cz, Pz, T3, T4, T5, T6, P3 and P4) by using the 128 HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net. The P300 latency of the target tones at all electrodes were insignificant. Similarly, the P300 latency of the standard tones were also insignificant except at Fz and T3 electrode. Likewise, the P300 amplitude of the target and standard tone in all electrode sites were insignificant. Extravert and ambivert indicate similar characteristic in cognition processing from auditory task.

Keywords: amplitude, event related potential, p300 component, latency

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644 Understanding the Interactive Nature in Auditory Recognition of Phonological/Grammatical/Semantic Errors at the Sentence Level: An Investigation Based upon Japanese EFL Learners’ Self-Evaluation and Actual Language Performance

Authors: Hirokatsu Kawashima

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One important element of teaching/learning listening is intensive listening such as listening for precise sounds, words, grammatical, and semantic units. Several classroom-based investigations have been conducted to explore the usefulness of auditory recognition of phonological, grammatical and semantic errors in such a context. The current study reports the results of one such investigation, which targeted auditory recognition of phonological, grammatical, and semantic errors at the sentence level. 56 Japanese EFL learners participated in this investigation, in which their recognition performance of phonological, grammatical and semantic errors was measured on a 9-point scale by learners’ self-evaluation from the perspective of 1) two types of similar English sound (vowel and consonant minimal pair words), 2) two types of sentence word order (verb phrase-based and noun phrase-based word orders), and 3) two types of semantic consistency (verb-purpose and verb-place agreements), respectively, and their general listening proficiency was examined using standardized tests. A number of findings have been made about the interactive relationships between the three types of auditory error recognition and general listening proficiency. Analyses based on the OPLS (Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure) regression model have disclosed, for example, that the three types of auditory error recognition are linked in a non-linear way: the highest explanatory power for general listening proficiency may be attained when quadratic interactions between auditory recognition of errors related to vowel minimal pair words and that of errors related to noun phrase-based word order are embraced (R2=.33, p=.01).

Keywords: auditory error recognition, intensive listening, interaction, investigation

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643 Evaluation and Possibilities of Valorization of Ecotourism Potentials in the Mbam and Djerem National Park

Authors: Rinyu Shei Mercy

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Protected areas are the potential areas for the development of ecotourism because of their biodiversity, landscapes, waterfalls, lakes, caves, salt lick and cultural heritage of local or indigenous people. These potentials have not yet been valorized, so this study will enable to investigate the evaluation and possibilities of valorization of ecotourism potentials in the Mbam and Djerem National Park. Hence, this was done by employing a combination of field observations, examination, data collection and evaluation, using a SWOT analysis. The SWOT provides an analysis to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and strategic suggestions for ecological planning. The study helps to determine an ecotouristic inventory and mapping of ecotourism potentials of the park, evaluate the degree of valorization of these potentials and the possibilities of valorization. Finally, the study has proven that the park has much natural potentials such as rivers, salt licks, waterfall and rapids, lakes, caves and rocks, etc. Also, from the study, it was realized that as concerns the degree of valorization of these ecotourism potentials, 50% of the population visit the salt lick of Pkayere because it’s a biodiversity hotspot and rich in mineral salt attracting a lot of animals and the least is the lake Miyere with 1% due to the fact that it is sacred. Moreover, from the results, there are possibilities that these potentials can be valorized and put into use because of their attractive nature such as creating good roads and bridges, good infrastructural facilities, good communication network etc. So, the study recommends that, in this process, MINTOUR, WCS, tour operators must interact sufficiently in order to develop the potential interest to ecotourism, ecocultural tourism and scientific tourism.

Keywords: ecotourism, national park Mbam and Djerem, valorization of biodiversity, protected areas of Cameroon

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642 The Analysis of Brain Response to Auditory Stimuli through EEG Signals’ Non-Linear Analysis

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan

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Brain activity can be measured by acquiring and analyzing EEG signals from an individual. In fact, the human brain response to external and internal stimuli is mapped in his EEG signals. During years some methods such as Fourier transform, wavelet transform, empirical mode decomposition, etc. have been used to analyze the EEG signals in order to find the effect of stimuli, especially external stimuli. But each of these methods has some weak points in analysis of EEG signals. For instance, Fourier transform and wavelet transform methods are linear signal analysis methods which are not good to be used for analysis of EEG signals as nonlinear signals. In this research we analyze the brain response to auditory stimuli by extracting information in the form of various measures from EEG signals using a software developed by our research group. The used measures are Jeffrey’s measure, Fractal dimension and Hurst exponent. The results of these analyses are useful not only for fundamental understanding of brain response to auditory stimuli but provide us with very good recommendations for clinical purposes.

Keywords: auditory stimuli, brain response, EEG signal, fractal dimension, hurst exponent, Jeffrey’s measure

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641 3D Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Human Inner Ear by Means of Finite Elements Method

Authors: C. Castro-Egler, A. Durán-Escalante, A. García-González

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This paper presents a method to generate a finite element model of the human auditory inner ear system. The geometric model has been realized using 2D images from a virtual model of temporal bones. A point cloud has been gotten manually from those images to construct a whole mesh with hexahedral elements. The main difference with the predecessor models is the spiral shape of the cochlea with its three scales completely defined: scala tympani, scala media and scala vestibuli; which are separate by basilar membrane and Reissner membrane. To validate this model, numerical simulations have been realised with two models: an isolated inner ear and a whole model of human auditory system. Ideal conditions of displacement are applied over the oval window in the isolated Inner Ear model. The whole model is made up of the outer auditory channel, the tympani, the ossicular chain, and the inner ear. The boundary condition for the whole model is 1Pa over the auditory channel entrance. The numerical simulations by FEM have been done using a harmonic analysis with a frequency range between 100-10.000 Hz with an interval of 100Hz. The following results have been carried out: basilar membrane displacement; the scala media pressure according to the cochlea length and the transfer function of the middle ear normalized with the pressure in the tympanic membrane. The basilar membrane displacements and the pressure in the scala media make it possible to validate the response in frequency of the basilar membrane.

Keywords: finite elements method, human auditory system model, numerical analysis, 3D modelling cochlea

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