Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8259

Search results for: evoked potential

8259 Artificial Generation of Visual Evoked Potential to Enhance Visual Ability

Authors: A. Vani, M. N. Mamatha

Abstract:

Visual signal processing in human beings occurs in the occipital lobe of the brain. The signals that are generated in the brain are universal for all the human beings and they are called Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Generally, the visually impaired people lose sight because of severe damage to only the eyes natural photo sensors, but the occipital lobe will still be functioning. In this paper, a technique of artificially generating VEP is proposed to enhance the visual ability of the subject. The system uses the electrical photoreceptors to capture image, process the image, to detect and recognize the subject or object. This voltage is further processed and can transmit wirelessly to a BIOMEMS implanted into occipital lobe of the patient’s brain. The proposed BIOMEMS consists of array of electrodes that generate the neuron potential which is similar to VEP of normal people. Thus, the neurons get the visual data from the BioMEMS which helps in generating partial vision or sight for the visually challenged patient. 

Keywords: BioMEMS, neuro-prosthetic, openvibe, visual evoked potential

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8258 Relevance of Brain Stem Evoked Potential in Diagnosis of Central Demyelination in Guillain Barre’ Syndrome

Authors: Geetanjali Sharma

Abstract:

Guillain Barre’ syndrome (GBS) is an auto-immune mediated demyelination poly-radiculo-neuropathy. Clinical features include progressive symmetrical ascending muscle weakness of more than two limbs, areflexia with or without sensory, autonomic and brainstem abnormalities, the purpose of this study was to determine subclinical neurological changes of CNS with GBS and to establish the presence of central demyelination in GBS. The study was prospective and conducted in the Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post-graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India to find out early central demyelination in clinically diagnosed patients of GBS. These patients were referred from the department of Medicine of our Institute to our department for electro-diagnostic evaluation. The study group comprised of 40 subjects (20 clinically diagnosed GBS patients and 20 healthy individuals as controls) aged between 6-65 years. Brain Stem evoked Potential (BAEP) were done in both groups using RMS EMG EP mark II machine. BAEP parameters included the latencies of waves I to IV, inter peak latencies I-III, III-IV & I-V. Statistically significant increase in absolute peak and inter peak latencies in the GBS group as compared with control group was noted. Results of evoked potential reflect impairment of auditory pathways probably due to focal demyelination in Schwann cell derived myelin sheaths that cover the extramedullary portion of auditory nerves. Early detection of the sub-clinical abnormalities is important as timely intervention reduces morbidity.

Keywords: brainstem, demyelination, evoked potential, Guillain Barre’

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8257 Pelvic Floor Electrophysiology Patterns Associated with Obstructed Defecation

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat

Abstract:

Pelvic floor electrophysiological tests are essential for assessment of patients with obstructed defecation. The present study was conducted to determine the different patterns of pelvic floor electrophysiology that are associated with obstructed defecation. The present cross sectional study included 25 patients with obstructed defecation. A control group of 20 apparently healthy subjects were included. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, proctosigmoidoscopy, lateral proctography (evacuation proctography), dynamic pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, anal manometry and electrophysiological studies. Electrophysiological studies were including pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, needle electromyography of external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The control group was subjected to electrophysiological studies which included pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The most common pelvic floor electrodiagnostic pattern characteristics of obstructed defecation was pudendal neuropathy, denervation and anismus of external anal sphincter and puborectalis with complete interference pattern of external anal sphincter and puborectalis at squeezing and cough and no localized defect in external anal sphincter. In conclusion, there were characteristic pelvic floor electrodiagnostic patterns associated with obstructed defecation.

Keywords: obstructed defecation, pudendal nerve terminal motor latency, pudendoanal reflex, sphincter electromyography

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8256 Corticomotor Excitability after Two Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocols in Ischemic Stroke Patients

Authors: Asrarul Fikri Abu Hassan, Muhammad Hafiz bin Hanafi, Jafri Malin Abdullah

Abstract:

This study is to compare the motor evoked potential (MEP) changes using different settings of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the post-haemorrhagic stroke patient which treated conservatively. The goal of the study is to determine changes in corticomotor excitability and functional outcome after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy regime. 20 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were studied due to haemorrhagic stroke. One of the three settings; (I) Inhibitory setting, or (II) facilitatory setting, or (III) control group, no excitatory or inhibitory setting have been applied randomly during the first meeting. The motor evoked potential (MEP) were recorded before and after application of the rTMS setting. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Barthel index score. We found pre-treatment MEP values of the lesional side were lower compared to post-treatment values in both settings. In contrast, we found that the pre-treatment MEP values of the non-lesional side were higher compared to post-treatment values in both settings. Interestingly, patients with treatment, either facilitatory setting and inhibitory setting have faster motor recovery compared to the control group. Our data showed both settings might improve the MEP of the upper extremity and functional outcomes in the haemorrhagic stroke patient.

Keywords: Barthel index, corticomotor excitability, motor evoked potential, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, stroke

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8255 The Latency-Amplitude Binomial of Waves Resulting from the Application of Evoked Potentials for the Diagnosis of Dyscalculia

Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia-Planas, Maria Victoria Garcia-Camba

Abstract:

Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have allowed a step forward in perceiving the processes involved in learning from the point of view of the acquisition of new information or the modification of existing mental content. The evoked potentials technique reveals how basic brain processes interact to achieve adequate and flexible behaviours. The objective of this work, using evoked potentials, is to study if it is possible to distinguish if a patient suffers a specific type of learning disorder to decide the possible therapies to follow. The methodology used, is the analysis of the dynamics of different areas of the brain during a cognitive activity to find the relationships between the different areas analyzed in order to better understand the functioning of neural networks. Also, the latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the existence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of non-invasive, innocuous, low-cost and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the evoked potentials that can help to detect early possible neuro-developmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and cure. From the study of the amplitudes and latencies of the evoked potentials, it is possible to detect brain alterations in the learning process specifically in dyscalculia, to achieve specific corrective measures for the application of personalized psycho pedagogical plans that allow obtaining an optimal integral development of the affected people.

Keywords: dyscalculia, neurodevelopment, evoked potentials, Learning disabilities, neural networks

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8254 A Neurofeedback Learning Model Using Time-Frequency Analysis for Volleyball Performance Enhancement

Authors: Hamed Yousefi, Farnaz Mohammadi, Niloufar Mirian, Navid Amini

Abstract:

Investigating possible capacities of visual functions where adapted mechanisms can enhance the capability of sports trainees is a promising area of research, not only from the cognitive viewpoint but also in terms of unlimited applications in sports training. In this paper, the visual evoked potential (VEP) and event-related potential (ERP) signals of amateur and trained volleyball players in a pilot study were processed. Two groups of amateur and trained subjects are asked to imagine themselves in the state of receiving a ball while they are shown a simulated volleyball field. The proposed method is based on a set of time-frequency features using algorithms such as Gabor filter, continuous wavelet transform, and a multi-stage wavelet decomposition that are extracted from VEP signals that can be indicative of being amateur or trained. The linear discriminant classifier achieves the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 100% when the average of the repetitions of the signal corresponding to the task is used. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a fast, robust, and reliable feature/model determination as a neurofeedback parameter to be utilized for improving the volleyball players’ performance. The proposed measure has potential applications in brain-computer interface technology where a real-time biomarker is needed.

Keywords: visual evoked potential, time-frequency feature extraction, short-time Fourier transform, event-related spectrum potential classification, linear discriminant analysis

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8253 Device Control Using Brain Computer Interface

Authors: P. Neeraj, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh

Abstract:

In current years, Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) scheme based on steady-state Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) have earned much consideration. This study tries to evolve an SSVEP based BCI scheme that can regulate any gadget mock-up in two unique positions ON and OFF. In this paper, two distinctive gleam frequencies in low-frequency part were utilized to evoke the SSVEPs and were shown on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen utilizing Lab View. Two stimuli shading, Yellow, and Blue were utilized to prepare the system in SSVEPs. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from the occipital part. Elements of the brain were separated by utilizing discrete wavelet Transform. A prominent system for multilayer system diverse Neural Network Algorithm (NNA), is utilized to characterize SSVEP signals. During training of the network with diverse calculation Regression plot results demonstrated that when Levenberg-Marquardt preparing calculation was utilized the exactness turns out to be 93.9%, which is superior to another training algorithm.

Keywords: brain computer interface, electroencephalography, steady-state visual evoked potential, wavelet transform, neural network

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8252 Auditory Brainstem Response in Wave VI for the Detection of Learning Disabilities

Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia-Planas, Maria Victoria Garcia-Camba

Abstract:

The use of brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) is a common way to study the auditory function of people, a way to learn the functionality of a part of the brain neuronal groups that intervene in the learning process by studying the behaviour of wave VI. The latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the existence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of innocuous, low-cost, and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the BAEP that can help us to detect early possible neurodevelopmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and cure. To date and to the authors' best knowledge, only the latency data obtained, observing the first to V waves and mainly in the left ear, were taken into account. This work shows that it is essential to take into account both ears; with these latest data, it has been possible had diagnosed more precise some cases than with the previous data had been diagnosed as 'normal' despite showing signs of some alteration that motivated the new consultation to the specialist.

Keywords: ear, neurodevelopment, auditory evoked potentials, intervals of normality, learning disabilities

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8251 The Role of Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in the Repair of Damaged Inner Ear in Albino Rats

Authors: Ahmed Gaber Abdel Raheem, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is largely caused by the degeneration of the cochlea. Therapeutic options for SNHL are limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. The cell transplantation approach to the regeneration of hair cells has gained considerable attention because stem cells are believed to accumulate in the damaged sites and have the potential for the repair of damaged tissues. The aim of the work: was to assess the use of bone marrow transplantation in repair of damaged inner ear hair cells in rats after the damage had been inflicted by Amikacin injection. Material and Methods: Thirty albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. Each group ten rats. Group I: used as control. Group II: Were given Amikacin- intratympanic injection till complete loss of hearing function. This could be assessed by Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAEs) and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR). GroupIII: were given intra-peritoneal injection of bone marrow stem cell after complete loss of hearing caused by Amikacin. Clinical assessment was done using DPOAEs and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR), before and after bone marrow injection. Histological assessment of the inner ear was done by light and electron microscope. Also, Detection of stem cells in the inner ear by immunohistochemistry. Results: Histological examination of the specimens showed promising improvement in the structure of cochlea that may be responsible for the improvement of hearing function in rats detected by DPOAEs and / or ABR. Conclusion: Bone marrow stem cells transplantation might be useful for the treatment of SNHL.

Keywords: amikacin, hair cells, sensorineural hearing loss, stem cells

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8250 Event Related Potentials in Terms of Visual and Auditory Stimuli

Authors: Seokbeen Lim, KyeongSeok Sim, DaKyeong Shin, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Event-related potential (ERP) is one of the useful tools for investigating cognitive reactions. In this study, the potential of ERP components detected after auditory and visual stimuli was examined. Subjects were asked to respond upon stimuli that were of three categories; Target, Non-Target and Standard stimuli. The ERP after stimulus was measured. In the experiment of visual evoked potentials (VEPs), the subjects were asked to gaze at a center point on the monitor screen where the stimuli were provided by the reversal pattern of the checkerboard. In consequence of the VEP experiments, we observed consistent reactions. Each peak voltage could be measured when the ensemble average was applied. Visual stimuli had smaller amplitude and a longer latency compared to that of auditory stimuli. The amplitude was the highest with Target and the smallest with Standard in both stimuli.

Keywords: auditory stimulus, EEG, event related potential, oddball task, visual stimulus

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8249 Design and Development of Ssvep-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Limb Disabled Patients

Authors: Zerihun Ketema Tadesse, Dabbu Suman Reddy

Abstract:

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) give the possibility for disabled people to communicate and control devices. This work aims at developing steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI for patients with limb disabilities. In hospitals, devices like nurse emergency call devices, lights, and TV sets are what patients use most frequently, but these devices are operated manually or using the remote control. Thus, disabled patients are not able to operate these devices by themselves. Hence, SSVEP-based BCI system that can allow disabled patients to control nurse calling device and other devices is proposed in this work. Portable LED visual stimulator that flickers at specific frequencies of 7Hz, 8Hz, 9Hz and 10Hz were developed as part of this project. Disabled patients can stare at specific flickering LED of visual stimulator and Emotiv EPOC used to acquire EEG signal in a non-invasive way. The acquired EEG signal can be processed to generate various control signals depending upon the amplitude and duration of signal components. MATLAB software is used for signal processing and analysis and also for command generation. Arduino is used as a hardware interface device to receive and transmit command signals to the experimental setup. Therefore, this study is focused on the design and development of Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI for limb disabled patients, which helps them to operate and control devices in the hospital room/wards.

Keywords: SSVEP-BCI, Limb Disabled Patients, LED Visual Stimulator, EEG signal, control devices, hospital room/wards

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8248 Task Evoked Pupillary Response for Surgical Task Difficulty Prediction via Multitask Learning

Authors: Beilei Xu, Wencheng Wu, Lei Lin, Rachel Melnyk, Ahmed Ghazi

Abstract:

In operating rooms, excessive cognitive stress can impede the performance of a surgeon, while low engagement can lead to unavoidable mistakes due to complacency. As a consequence, there is a strong desire in the surgical community to be able to monitor and quantify the cognitive stress of a surgeon while performing surgical procedures. Quantitative cognitiveload-based feedback can also provide valuable insights during surgical training to optimize training efficiency and effectiveness. Various physiological measures have been evaluated for quantifying cognitive stress for different mental challenges. In this paper, we present a study using the cognitive stress measured by the task evoked pupillary response extracted from the time series eye-tracking measurements to predict task difficulties in a virtual reality based robotic surgery training environment. In particular, we proposed a differential-task-difficulty scale, utilized a comprehensive feature extraction approach, and implemented a multitask learning framework and compared the regression accuracy between the conventional single-task-based and three multitask approaches across subjects.

Keywords: surgical metric, task evoked pupillary response, multitask learning, TSFresh

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8247 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Visual Evoked Responses Using Dense EEG

Authors: Rima Hleiss, Elie Bitar, Mahmoud Hassan, Mohamad Khalil

Abstract:

A comprehensive study of object recognition in the human brain requires combining both spatial and temporal analysis of brain activity. Here, we are mainly interested in three issues: the time perception of visual objects, the ability of discrimination between two particular categories (objects vs. animals), and the possibility to identify a particular spatial representation of visual objects. Our experiment consisted of acquiring dense electroencephalographic (EEG) signals during a picture-naming task comprising a set of objects and animals’ images. These EEG responses were recorded from nine participants. In order to determine the time perception of the presented visual stimulus, we analyzed the Event Related Potentials (ERPs) derived from the recorded EEG signals. The analysis of these signals showed that the brain perceives animals and objects with different time instants. Concerning the discrimination of the two categories, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied on the instantaneous EEG (excellent temporal resolution: on the order of millisecond) to categorize the visual stimuli into two different classes. The spatial differences between the evoked responses of the two categories were also investigated. The results showed a variation of the neural activity with the properties of the visual input. Results showed also the existence of a spatial pattern of electrodes over particular regions of the scalp in correspondence to their responses to the visual inputs.

Keywords: brain activity, categorization, dense EEG, evoked responses, spatio-temporal analysis, SVM, time perception

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8246 The Possibility of Using Somatosensory Evoked Potential(SSEP) as a Parameter for Cortical Vascular Dementia

Authors: Hyunsik Park

Abstract:

As the rate of cerebrovascular disease increases in old populations, the prevalence rate of vascular dementia would be expected. Therefore, authors designed this study to find out the possibility of somatosensory evoked potentials(SSEP) as a parameter for early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients. 21 patients who met the criteria for vascular dementia according to DSM-IV,ICD-10and NINDS-AIREN with the history of recent cognitive impairment, fluctuation progression, and neurologic deficit. We subdivided these patients into two groups; a mild dementia and a severe dementia groups by MMSE and CDR score; and analysed comparison between normal control group and patient control group who have been cerebrovascular attack(CVA) history without dementia by using N20 latency and amplitude of median nerve. In this study, mild dementia group showed significant differences on latency and amplitude with normal control group(p-value<0.05) except patient control group(p-value>0.05). Severe dementia group showed significant differences both normal control group and patient control group.(p-value<0.05, <001). Since no significant difference has founded between mild dementia group and patient control group, SSEP has limitation to use for early diagnosis test. However, the comparison between severe dementia group and others showed significant results which indicate SSEP can predict the prognosis of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients.

Keywords: SSEP, cortical vascular dementia, N20 latency, N20 amplitude

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8245 Event Related Brain Potentials Evoked by Carmen in Musicians and Dancers

Authors: Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi

Abstract:

Event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by simple tones in the brain have been extensively studied. However, in reality the music surrounding us is spectrally and temporally complex and dynamic. Thus, the research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation, which, in various forms, has always been an essential part of different cultures. In addition to sensory responses, music elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. When compared to laymen, professional musicians have stronger ERP responses in processing individual musical features in simple tone sequences, such as changes in pitch, timbre and harmony. Here we show that the ERP responses evoked by rapid changes in individual musical features are more intense in musicians than in laymen, also while listening to long excerpts of the composition Carmen. Interestingly, for professional dancers, the amplitudes of the cognitive P300 response are weaker than for musicians but still stronger than for laymen. Also, the cognitive P300 latencies of musicians are significantly shorter whereas the latencies of laymen are significantly longer. In contrast, sensory N100 do not differ in amplitude or latency between musicians and laymen. These results, acquired from a novel ERP methodology for natural music, suggest that we can take the leap of studying the brain with long pieces of natural music also with the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG), as has already been made with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), as these two brain imaging devices complement each other.

Keywords: electroencephalography, expertise, musical features, real-life music

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8244 Auditory Profile Function in Hypothyroidism

Authors: Mrunal Phatak, Suvarna Raut

Abstract:

Introduction: Thyroid hormone is important for the normal function of the auditory system. Hearing impairment can occur insidiously in subclinical hypothyroidism. The present study was undertaken with the aims of evaluating audiological tests like tuning fork tests, pure tone audiometry, brainstem evoked auditory potentials (BAEPs), and auditory reaction time (ART) in hypothyroid women and in age and sex matched controls so as to evaluate the effect of thyroid hormone on hearing. The objective of the study was to investigate hearing status by the audiological profile in hypothyroidism (group 1) and healthy controls ( group 2) to compare the audiological profile between these groups and find the correlation of levels of TSH, T3, and T4 with the above parameters. Material and methods: A total sample size of 124 women in the age group of 30 to 50 years was recruited and divided into the Cases group comprising of 62 newly diagnosed hypothyroid women and the Control group having 62 women with normal thyroid profile. Otoscopic examination, tuning fork tests, Pure tone audiometry tests (PTA). Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP) and Auditory Reaction Time (ART) were done in both ears, i.e. total 248 ears of all subjects. Results: By BAEPs, hearing impairment was detected in total 64 ears (51.61%). A significant increase was seen in Wave V latency, IPL I-V, and IPL III-V, and the decrease was seen in the amplitude of Wave I and V in both the ears in cases. Positive correlation of Wave V latency of Right and Left ears is seen with TSH levels (p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with T3 (>0.05) and with T4 (p < 0.01). Negative correlation of wave V amplitude of Right and Left ears is seen with TSH levels (p < 0.001), and a significant positive correlation is seen with T3 and T4. Pure tone audiometry parameters showed hearing impairment of conductive (31.29%), sensorineural (36.29%), as well as the mixed type (15.32%). Hearing loss was mild in 65.32% of ears and moderate in 17.74% of ears. Pure tone averages (PTA) were significantly increased in cases than in controls in both the ears. Significant positive correlation of PTA of Right and Left ears is seen with TSH levels (p<0.05). Negative correlation with T3 and T4 is seen. A significant increase in HF ART and LF ART is seen in cases as compared to controls. Positive correlation of ART of high frequency and low frequency is seen with TSH levels and a negative correlation with T3 and T4 (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The abnormal BAEPs in hypothyroid women suggest an impaired central auditory pathway. BAEP abnormalities are indicative of a nonspecific injury in the bulbo-ponto-mesencephalic centres. The results of auditory investigations suggest a causal relationship between hypothyroidism and hearing loss. The site of lesion in the auditory pathway is probably at several levels, namely, in the middle ear and at cochlear and retrocochlear sites. Prolonged ART also suggests the impairment in central processing mechanisms. The results of the present study conclude that the probable reason for hearing impairment in hypothyroidism may be delayed impulse conduction in acoustic nerve up to the level of the midbrain (IPL I-V, III-V), particularly inferior colliculus (wave V). There is also impairment in central processing mechanisms, as shown by prolonged ART.

Keywords: deafness, pure tone audiometry, brain stem auditory evoked potential, hyopothyroidism

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8243 An Innovative Auditory Impulsed EEG and Neural Network Based Biometric Identification System

Authors: Ritesh Kumar, Gitanjali Chhetri, Mandira Bhatia, Mohit Mishra, Abhijith Bailur, Abhinav

Abstract:

The prevalence of the internet and technology in our day to day lives is creating more security issues than ever. The need for protecting and providing a secure access to private and business data has led to the development of many security systems. One of the potential solutions is to employ the bio-metric authentication technique. In this paper we present an innovative biometric authentication method that utilizes a person’s EEG signal, which is acquired in response to an auditory stimulus,and transferred wirelessly to a computer that has the necessary ANN algorithm-Multi layer perceptrol neural network because of is its ability to differentiate between information which is not linearly separable.In order to determine the weights of the hidden layer we use Gaussian random weight initialization. MLP utilizes a supervised learning technique called Back propagation for training the network. The complex algorithm used for EEG classification reduces the chances of intrusion into the protected public or private data.

Keywords: EEG signal, auditory evoked potential, biometrics, multilayer perceptron neural network, back propagation rule, Gaussian random weight initialization

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8242 Receptor-Independent Effects of Endocannabinoid Anandamide on Contractility and Electrophysiological Properties of Rat Ventricular Myocytes

Authors: Lina T. Al Kury, Oleg I. Voitychuk, Ramiz M. Ali, Sehamuddin Galadari, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Yaroslav M. Shuba, Murat Oz

Abstract:

A role for anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide; AEA), a major endocannabinoid, in the cardiovascular system in various pathological conditions has been reported in earlier studies. In the present work, we have hypothesized that the antiarrhythmic effects reported for AEA are due to its negative inotropic effect and altered action potential (AP) characteristics. Therefore, we tested the effects of AEA on contractility and electrophysiological properties of rat ventricular myocytes. Video edge detection was used to measure myocyte shortening. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured in cells loaded with the fluorescent indicator fura-2 AM. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effect of AEA on the characteristics of APs. AEA (1 μM) caused a significant decrease in the amplitudes of electrically-evoked myocyte shortening and Ca2+ transients and significantly decreased the duration of AP. The effect of AEA on myocyte shortening and AP characteristics was not altered in the presence of pertussis toxin (PTX, 2 µg/ml for 4 h), AM251 and SR141716 (cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists) or AM630 and SR 144528 (cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonists). Furthermore, AEA inhibited voltage-activated inward Na+ (INa) and Ca2+ (IL,Ca) currents; major ionic currents shaping the APs in ventricular myocytes, in a voltage and PTX-independent manner. Collectively, the results suggest that AEA depresses ventricular myocyte contractility, by decreasing the action potential duration (APD), and inhibits the function of voltage-dependent Na+ and L-type Ca2+ channels in a manner independent of cannabinoid receptors. This mechanism may be importantly involved in the antiarrhythmic effects of anandamide.

Keywords: action potential, anandamide, cannabinoid receptor, endocannabinoid, ventricular myocytes

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8241 Somatosensory-Evoked Blink Reflex in Peripheral Facial Palsy

Authors: Sarah Sayed El- Tawab, Emmanuel Kamal Azix Saba

Abstract:

Objectives: Somatosensory blink reflex (SBR) is an eye blink response obtained from electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves or skin area of the body. It has been studied in various neurological diseases as well as among healthy subjects in different population. We designed this study to detect SBR positivity in patients with facial palsy and patients with post facial syndrome, to relate the facial palsy severity and the presence of SBR, and to associate between trigeminal BR changes and SBR positivity in peripheral facial palsy patients. Methods: 50 patients with peripheral facial palsy and post-facial syndrome 31 age and gender matched healthy volunteers were enrolled to this study. Facial motor conduction studies, trigeminal BR, and SBR were studied in all. Results: SBR was elicited in 67.7% of normal subjects, in 68% of PFS group, and in 32% of PFP group. On the non-paralytic side SBR was found in 28% by paralyzed side stimulation and in 24% by healthy side stimulation among PFP patients. For PFS group SBR was found on the non- paralytic side in 48%. Bilateral SBR elicitability was higher than its unilateral elicitability. Conclusion: Increased brainstem interneurons excitability is not essential to generate SBR. The hypothetical sensory-motor gating mechanism is responsible for SBR generation.

Keywords: somatosensory evoked blink reflex, post facial syndrome, blink reflex, enchanced gain

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8240 The Potential of Walkability in Evoking People’s Perception of Place Identity

Authors: Ibrahim Shinbira

Abstract:

In urban design, much has been discussed on the significance of the physical qualities in creating the place identity; however, the role of walkability as a physical quality that can evokes people's perception of place identity has not been adequately explored. This paper is based on the part findings of a doctoral research examining place identity in the city centre of Misurata, Libya. A number of 176 questionnaire and 23 face-to-face interviews were conducted with residents of the city to investigate physical qualities of place identity that evoked resident's perception. The finding demonstrates that walkability within the city centre is strong and it influences the users’ perception on the place identity. These were regarded as very important in sustaining the socio-cultural values, enjoyment, options, vitality and comfort. The paper concludes by establishing that walkability has a substantial contribution to the place identity, therefore should be considered in the design of urban places specifically the redevelopment one.

Keywords: perception, walkability, physical environment, place identity, residents

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8239 Adaptation to Repeated Eccentric Exercise Assessed by Double to Single Twitch Ratio

Authors: Damian Janecki, Anna Jaskólska, Jarosław Marusiak, Artur Jaskólski

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The aim of this study was to assess double to single twitch ratio after two bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 19 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (P<0.05). In measurements performed at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout both maximal voluntary isometric torque and electrically evoked contractions were significantly higher than in measurements performed after the fist bout (P<0.05). Although low-frequency fatigue significantly increased up to 48 hours after each bout of eccentric exercise, its values at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout were significantly lower than at respective time points after the first bout (P<0.05). Smaller changes in double to single twitch ratio at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout of eccentric exercise reflects repeated bout effect that confers protection against subsequent exercise-induced muscle damage.

Keywords: biceps brachii, electrical stimulation, lenghtening contractions, repeated bout effect

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8238 Frequency Recognition Models for Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Based Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs)

Authors: Zeki Oralhan, Mahmut Tokmakçı

Abstract:

SSVEP based brain computer interface (BCI) systems have been preferred, because of high information transfer rate (ITR) and practical use. ITR is the parameter of BCI overall performance. For high ITR value, one of specification BCI system is that has high accuracy. In this study, we investigated to recognize SSVEP with shorter time and lower error rate. In the experiment, there were 8 flickers on light crystal display (LCD). Participants gazed to flicker which had 12 Hz frequency and 50% duty cycle ratio on the LCD during 10 seconds. During the experiment, EEG signals were acquired via EEG device. The EEG data was filtered in preprocessing session. After that Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), Multiset CCA (MsetCCA), phase constrained CCA (PCCA), and Multiway CCA (MwayCCA) methods were applied on data. The highest average accuracy value was reached when MsetCCA was applied.

Keywords: brain computer interface, canonical correlation analysis, human computer interaction, SSVEP

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8237 Discerning of Antimicrobial Potential of Phenylpropanoic Acid Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Amit Singh

Abstract:

2-Phenyl propionic acid and oxadiazoles possess antimicrobial potential. 2-Phenyl propane hydrazide (1), on cyclization with aromatic acids offered 2-aryl-5-(1-phenylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (1A-E). The PPA derived oxadiazoles were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds were screened for antimicrobial potential. The compound 1D bearing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to a certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the PPA derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antimicrobial, imines, oxadiazoles, PPA

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8236 Exploring the Relationship between Mediolateral Center of Pressure and Galvanic Skin Response during Balance Tasks

Authors: Karlee J. Hall, Mark Laylor, Jessy Varghese, Paula Polastri, Karen Van Ooteghem, William McIlroy

Abstract:

Balance training is a common part of physiotherapy treatment and often involves a set of proprioceptive exercises which the patient carries out in the clinic and as part of their exercise program. Understanding all contributing factors to altered balance is of utmost importance to the clinical success of treatment of balance dysfunctions. A critical role for the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the control of balance reactions has been proposed previously, with evidence for potential involvement being inferred from the observation of phasic galvanic skin responses (GSR) evoked by external balance perturbations. The current study explored whether the coupling between ANS reactivity and balance reactions would be observed during spontaneously occurring instability while standing, including standard positions typical of physiotherapy balance assessments. It was hypothesized that time-varying changes in GSR (ANS reactivity) would be associated with time-varying changes in the mediolateral center of pressure (ML-COP) (somatomotor reactivity). Nine individuals (5 females, 4 males, aged 19-37 years) were recruited. To induce varying balance demands during standing, the study compared ML-COP and GSR data across different task conditions varying the availability of vision and width of the base of support. Subjects completed 3, 30-second trials for each of the following stance conditions: standard, narrow, and tandem eyes closed, tandem eyes open, tandem eyes open with dome to shield visual input, and restricted peripheral visual field. ANS activity was evaluated by measures of GSR recorded from Ag-AgCl electrodes on the middle phalanges of digits 2 and 4 on the left hand; balance measures include ML-COP excursion frequency and amplitude recorded from two force plates embedded in the floor underneath each foot. Subjects were instructed to stand as still as possible with arms crossed in front of their chest. When comparing mean task differences across subjects, there was an expected increase in postural sway from tasks with a wide stance and no sensory restrictions (least challenging) to those with a narrow stance and no vision (most challenging). The correlation analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between ML-COP variability and GSR variability when comparing across tasks (r=0.94, df=5, p < 0.05). In addition, correlations coincided within each subject and revealed a significant positive correlation in 7 participants (r= 0.47, 0.57, 0.62, 0.62, 0.81, 0.64, 0.69 respectively, df=19, p < 0.05) and no significant relationship in 2 participants (r=0.36, 0.29 respectively, df=19, p > 0.05). The current study revealed a significant relationship between ML-COP and GSR during balance tasks, revealing the ANS reactivity associated with naturally occurring instability when standing still, which is proportional to the degree of instability. Understanding the link between ANS activity and control of COP is an important step forward in the enhancement of assessment of contributing factors to poor balance and treatment of balance dysfunctions. The next steps will explore the temporal association between the time-varying changes in COP and GSR to establish if the ANS reactivity phase leads or lags the evoked motor reactions, as well as exploration of potential biomarkers for use in screening of ANS activity as a contributing factor to altered balance control clinically.

Keywords: autonomic nervous system, balance control, center of pressure, somatic nervous system

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8235 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

Abstract:

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: leaf-water potential, plant growth, tomato, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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8234 Radiative Reactions Analysis at the Range of Astrophysical Energies

Authors: A. Amar

Abstract:

Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model and single folding model at the beam energies up to 17 MeV. We could enhance the optical potential parameters using Esis88 Code, as well as SPI GENOA Code. Linear relationship between volume real potential (V0) and proton energy (Ep) has been obtained. Also, surface imaginary potential WD is proportional to the proton energy (Ep) in the range 0.400 and 17 MeV. The radiative reaction 10B(p,γ)11C has been analyzed using potential model. A comparison between 10B(p,γ)11C and 6Li(p,γ)7Be has been made. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental results in the whole range of energy. The radiative resonance reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be has been studied.

Keywords: elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei, optical potential parameters, potential model, radiative reaction

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8233 EEG-Based Classification of Psychiatric Disorders: Bipolar Mood Disorder vs. Schizophrenia

Authors: Han-Jeong Hwang, Jae-Hyun Jo, Fatemeh Alimardani

Abstract:

An accurate diagnosis of psychiatric diseases is a challenging issue, in particular when distinct symptoms for different diseases are overlapped, such as delusions appeared in bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and schizophrenia (SCH). In the present study, we propose a useful way to discriminate BMD and SCH using electroencephalography (EEG). A total of thirty BMD and SCH patients (15 vs. 15) took part in our experiment. EEG signals were measured with nineteen electrodes attached on the scalp using the international 10-20 system, while they were exposed to a visual stimulus flickering at 16 Hz for 95 s. The flickering visual stimulus induces a certain brain signal, known as steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), which is differently observed in patients with BMD and SCH, respectively, in terms of SSVEP amplitude because they process the same visual information in own unique way. For classifying BDM and SCH patients, machine learning technique was employed in which leave-one-out-cross validation was performed. The SSVEPs induced at the fundamental (16 Hz) and second harmonic (32 Hz) stimulation frequencies were extracted using fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and they were used as features. The most discriminative feature was selected using the Fisher score, and support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier. From the analysis, we could obtain a classification accuracy of 83.33 %, showing the feasibility of discriminating patients with BMD and SCH using EEG. We expect that our approach can be utilized for psychiatrists to more accurately diagnose the psychiatric disorders, BMD and SCH.

Keywords: bipolar mood disorder, electroencephalography, schizophrenia, machine learning

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8232 Constraining the Potential Nickel Laterite Area Using Geographic Information System-Based Multi-Criteria Rating in Surigao Del Sur

Authors: Reiner-Ace P. Mateo, Vince Paolo F. Obille

Abstract:

The traditional method of classifying the potential mineral resources requires a significant amount of time and money. In this paper, an alternative way to classify potential mineral resources with GIS application in Surigao del Sur. The three (3) analog map data inputs integrated to GIS are geologic map, topographic map, and land cover/vegetation map. The indicators used in the classification of potential nickel laterite integrated from the analog map data inputs are a geologic indicator, which is the presence of ultramafic rock from the geologic map; slope indicator and the presence of plateau edges from the topographic map; areas of forest land, grassland, and shrublands from the land cover/vegetation map. The potential mineral of the area was classified from low up to very high potential. The produced mineral potential classification map of Surigao del Sur has an estimated 4.63% low nickel laterite potential, 42.15% medium nickel laterite potential, 43.34% high nickel laterite potential, and 9.88% very high nickel laterite from its ultramafic terrains. For the validation of the produced map, it was compared with known occurrences of nickel laterite in the area using a nickel mining tenement map from the area with the application of remote sensing. Three (3) prominent nickel mining companies were delineated in the study area. The generated potential classification map of nickel-laterite in Surigao Del Sur may be of aid to the mining companies which are currently in the exploration phase in the study area. Also, the currently operating nickel mines in the study area can help to validate the reliability of the mineral classification map produced.

Keywords: mineral potential classification, nickel laterites, GIS, remote sensing, Surigao del Sur

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8231 A Literature Review on the Role of Local Potential for Creative Industries

Authors: Maya Irjayanti

Abstract:

Local creativity utilization has been a strategic investment to be expanded as a creative industry due to its significant contribution to the national gross domestic product. Many developed and developing countries look toward creative industries as an agenda for the economic growth. This study aims to identify the role of local potential for creative industries from various empirical studies. The method performed in this study will involve a peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers review addressing local potential and creative industries. The literature review analysis will include several steps: material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection, and material evaluation. Finally, the outcome expected provides a creative industries clustering based on the local potential of various nations. In addition, the finding of this study will be used as future research reference to explore a particular area with well-known aspects of local potential for creative industry products.

Keywords: business, creativity, local potential, local wisdom

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8230 Market Integration in the ECCAS Sub-Region

Authors: Mouhamed Mbouandi Njikam

Abstract:

This work assesses the trade potential of countries in the Economic Community of Central Africa States (ECCAS). The gravity model of trade is used to evaluate the trade flows of member countries, and to compute the trade potential index of ECCAS during 1995-2010. The focus is on the removal of tariffs and non-tariff barriers in the sub-region. Estimates from the gravity model are used for the calculation of the sub-region’s commercial potential. Its three main findings are: (i) the background research shows a low level of integration in the sub-region and open economies; (ii) a low level of industrialization and diversification are the main factors reducing trade potential in the sub-region; (iii) the trade creation predominate on the deflections of trade between member countries.

Keywords: gravity model, ECCAS, trade flows, trade potential, regional cooperation

Procedia PDF Downloads 322