Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Guillain Barre’

7 The Electrophysiology Study Results in Patients with Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS): A Retrospective Study in a TertiaryHospital in Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Dyna Ann C. Sevilles, Noel J. Belonguel, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul, Mary Jeanne O. Flordelis, Grace G. Anota

Abstract:

Guillain Barre syndrome is an acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy causing progressive symmetrical weakness which can be debilitating to the patient. Early diagnosis is important especially in the acute phase when treatment favors good outcome and reduces the incidence of the need for mechanical ventilation. Electrodiagnostic studies aid in the evaluation of patients suspected with GBS. However, the characteristic electrical changes may not be evident until after several weeks. Thus, studies performed early in the course may give unclear results. The aim of this study is to associate the symptom onset of patients diagnosed with Guillain Barre syndrome with the EMG NCV results and determine the earliest time when there is evident findings supporting the diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive chart review study involving patients of >/= 18 years of age with GBS written on their charts in a Tertiaty hospital in Cebu City, Philippines from January 2000 to July 2014. Twenty patients showed electrodiagnostic findings suggestive of GBS. The mean day of illness when EMG NCV was carried out was 7 days. The earliest with suggestive findings was done on day 2 (10%) of illness. Moreover, the highest frequency with positive results was done on day 3 (20%) of illness. Based on the Dutch Guillain Barre Study group criteria, the most frequent variables noted were: prolonged distal motor latency in both median and ulnar nerves(65%) and both peroneal and tibial nerves (71%); and reduced CMAP in both median and ulnar nerves (65%) and both tibial and peroneal nerves (71%). The EMG NCV findings showed majority of demyelinating type (59%). Electrodiagnostic studies are helpful in aiding the physician in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in the early stage. Based on this study, neurophysiologic evidence of GBS can be seen in as early as day 2 of clinical illness.

Keywords: Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy, electrophysiologic study, EMG NCV, Guillain Barre Syndrome

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6 Relevance of Brain Stem Evoked Potential in Diagnosis of Central Demyelination in Guillain Barre’ Syndrome

Authors: Geetanjali Sharma

Abstract:

Guillain Barre’ syndrome (GBS) is an auto-immune mediated demyelination poly-radiculo-neuropathy. Clinical features include progressive symmetrical ascending muscle weakness of more than two limbs, areflexia with or without sensory, autonomic and brainstem abnormalities, the purpose of this study was to determine subclinical neurological changes of CNS with GBS and to establish the presence of central demyelination in GBS. The study was prospective and conducted in the Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post-graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India to find out early central demyelination in clinically diagnosed patients of GBS. These patients were referred from the department of Medicine of our Institute to our department for electro-diagnostic evaluation. The study group comprised of 40 subjects (20 clinically diagnosed GBS patients and 20 healthy individuals as controls) aged between 6-65 years. Brain Stem evoked Potential (BAEP) were done in both groups using RMS EMG EP mark II machine. BAEP parameters included the latencies of waves I to IV, inter peak latencies I-III, III-IV & I-V. Statistically significant increase in absolute peak and inter peak latencies in the GBS group as compared with control group was noted. Results of evoked potential reflect impairment of auditory pathways probably due to focal demyelination in Schwann cell derived myelin sheaths that cover the extramedullary portion of auditory nerves. Early detection of the sub-clinical abnormalities is important as timely intervention reduces morbidity.

Keywords: brainstem, demyelination, evoked potential, Guillain Barre’

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5 Numerical Simulation of Fracturing Behaviour of Pre-Cracked Crystalline Rock Using a Cohesive Grain-Based Distinct Element Model

Authors: Mahdi Saadat, Abbas Taheri

Abstract:

Understanding the cracking response of crystalline rocks at mineralogical scale is of great importance during the design procedure of mining structures. A grain-based distinct element model (GBM) is employed to numerically study the cracking response of Barre granite at micro- and macro-scales. The GBM framework is augmented with a proposed distinct element-based cohesive model to reproduce the micro-cracking response of the inter- and intra-grain contacts. The cohesive GBM framework is implemented in PFC2D distinct element codes. The microstructural properties of Barre granite are imported in PFC2D to generate synthetic specimens. The microproperties of the model is calibrated against the laboratory uniaxial compressive and Brazilian split tensile tests. The calibrated model is then used to simulate the fracturing behaviour of pre-cracked Barre granite with different flaw configurations. The numerical results of the proposed model demonstrate a good agreement with the experimental counterparts. The GBM framework proposed thus appears promising for further investigation of the influence of grain microstructure and mineralogical properties on the cracking behaviour of crystalline rocks.

Keywords: discrete element modelling, cohesive grain-based model, crystalline rock, fracturing behavior

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4 A Rare Case of Atypical Guillian-Barre Syndrome Following Antecedent Dengue Infection

Authors: Amlan Datta

Abstract:

Dengue is an arboviral, vector borne infection, quite prevalent in tropical countries such as India. Approximately, 1 to 25% of cases may give rise to neurological complication, such as, seizure, delirium, Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS), multiple cranial nerve palsies, intracranial thrombosis, stroke-like presentations, to name a few. Dengue fever, as an antecedent to GBS is uncommon, especially in adults.Here, we report a case about a middle aged lady who presented with an acute onset areflexic ascending type of polyradiculoneuropathy along with bilateral lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy, as well as abducens and motor component of trigeminal (V3) weakness. Her respiratory and neck muscles were spared. She had an established episode of dengue fever (NS1 and dengue IgM positive) 7 days prior to the weakness. Nerve conduction study revealed a demyelinating polyradiculopathy of both lower limbs and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed albuminocytological dissociation. She was treated with 5 days of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), following which her limb weakness improved considerably. This case highlights GBS as a potential complication following dengue fever.

Keywords: areflexic, demyelinating, dengue, polyradiculoneuropathy

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3 Neurological Complication of Bariatric Surgery: A Cross-sectional Study from Saudi Arabia

Authors: H. A. Algahtani, A. S. Khan, O. Alzahrani, N. Hussein, M. A. Khan, Loudhi Y. I. Soliman

Abstract:

Objective: To report on the Saudi experience (developing country) of neurological complications from bariatric surgery. The literature on the subject is reviewed. Method: This is a cross sectional study done in King Abdul Aziz Medical City Jeddah, WR, where we reviewed all charts of the patients who underwent bariatric surgery between January 1st, 2009 to December 31st , 2014. Personal and clinical data including age, sex, BMI, comorbidities, type of procedure, duration of stay in hospital, complications and postoperative follow up were collected. In addition follow up visit and remote complication if present were collected. All patients with neurological complications were reviewed in details including their clinical examination, laboratory and imaging results, treatment and prognosis. This report is essentially descriptive with no statistical analysis performed. Results: Fifteen cases were collected in this study (3%). Axonal polyneuropathy was the most frequent neurological complica¬tion, but cases of Wernicke syndrome, vitamin B12 deficiency, Guillain-Barre syndrome and cupper deficiency were also identified. Fourteen patients (93.3%) had full recovery from the neurological signs and symptoms but unfortunately one patient died. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery, a procedure that is continuously increasing in popularity, is not free of potential neurological complications. A clear education, guidelines and follow-up program should be planned and practiced. Facts should be clearly presented to the individual undergoing this type of surgery. Although a clear cause-effect relation cannot be established for the present cases, the cumulative literature on the subject makes it important to warn the patient of the potential risks of this procedure.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, neurological complications, neuropathy, Wenicke syndrome

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2 Ultrasound-assisted Soil Washing Process for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Clays

Authors: Sophie Herr, Rachel Pflieger, Antoine Leybros, Yves Barre, Sergey Nikitenko

Abstract:

The proportion of soil contaminated by a wide range of pollutants (heavy metals, PCBs, pesticides, etc.) of anthropogenic origin is constantly increasing, and it is becoming urgent to address this issue. Among remediation methods, soil washing is an effective, relatively fast, and widely used process. This study assesses its coupling with ultrasound: indeed, sonication induces the formation of cavitation bubbles in solution that enhance local mass transfer through agitation and particle erosion. The removal of target toxic elements Ni(II) and Zn(II) from vermiculite clay has been studied under 20 kHz ultrasound and silent conditions. Several acids were tested, and HCl was chosen as solvent. The effects of solid/liquid ratio and particle size were investigated. Metal repartition in the clay has been followed by Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that more metal elements bound to the challenging residual phase were desorbed with 20 kHz ultrasound than in silent conditions. This supports the promising application of ultrasound for heavy metal desorption in difficult conditions. Further experiments were performed at high frequency US (362 kHz), and it was shown that fragmentation of the vermiculite particles is then limited, while positive effects of US in the decontamination are kept.

Keywords: desorption, heavy metals, ultrasound, vermiculite

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1 Amsan Syndrome in Emergency Department

Authors: Okan Cakir, Okan Tatli

Abstract:

Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) syndrome usually occurs following a postviral infection in two to four weeks and is a polyneuropathy characterized by axonal and sensorial degeneration as a rare variant of Gullian-Barre syndrome. In our case, we wanted to mention that a rare case of AMSAN Syndrome due to prior surgery. A 61-year-old male case admitted to emergency department with complaints of weakness in feet, numbness and incapability to walk. In his history, it was learned that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) had applied for abdominal aort aneurysm two weeks ago before admission, his complaints had been for a couple of days increasingly and bilaterally, and there had been no infection disease history for four weeks. In physical examination, general status was good, vital signs were stable, and there was a mild paresis in dorsal flexion of feet in bilaterally lower extremities. No nuchal rigidity was determined. Other system examinations were normal. Urea:52 mg/dL (normal range: 15-44 mg/dL), creatinine: 1,05 mg/dL (normal range: 0,81-1,4 mg/dL), potassium: 3,68 mmol/L (normal range: 3,5-5,5 mmol/L), glycaemia: 142 mg/dL, calcium: 9,71 mg/dL (normal range: 8,5-10,5 mg/dL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): 74 mm/h (normal range: 0-15 mm/h) were determined in biochemical tests. The case was consulted to neurology department and hospitalized. In performing electromyography, it was reported as a bilateral significant axonal degeneration with sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Normal ranges of glycaemia and protein levels were detected in lumbal punction. Viral markers and bucella, toxoplasma, and rubella markers were in normal range. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was applied as a treatment, physical treatment programme was planned and the case discharged from neurology department. In our case, we mentioned that it should be considered polyneuropathy as an alternative diagnosis in cases admitting symptoms like weakness and numbness had a history of prior surgery.

Keywords: AMSAN Syndrome, emergency department, prior surgery, weakness

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