Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 587

Search results for: intervals of normality

587 The Effect of Non-Normality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

Authors: Z. Jannoo, B. W. Yap, N. Auchoybur, M. A. Lazim

Abstract:

The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are non-normal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and non-normality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model with one endogenous and four exogenous variables. Each latent variable has three indicators. For normal distributions, CB-SEM estimates were found to be inaccurate for small sample size while PLS-SEM could produce the path estimates. Meanwhile, for a larger sample size, CB-SEM estimates have lower variability compared to PLS-SEM. Under non-normality, CB-SEM path estimates were inaccurate for small sample size. However, CB-SEM estimates are more accurate than those of PLS-SEM for sample size of 50 and above. The PLS-SEM estimates are not accurate unless sample size is very large.

Keywords: CB-SEM, Monte Carlo simulation, normality conditions, non-normality, PLS-SEM

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586 Confidence Intervals for Quantiles in the Two-Parameter Exponential Distributions with Type II Censored Data

Authors: Ayman Baklizi

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Based on type II censored data, we consider interval estimation of the quantiles of the two-parameter exponential distribution and the difference between the quantiles of two independent two-parameter exponential distributions. We derive asymptotic intervals, Bayesian, as well as intervals based on the generalized pivot variable. We also include some bootstrap intervals in our comparisons. The performance of these intervals is investigated in terms of their coverage probabilities and expected lengths.

Keywords: asymptotic intervals, Bayes intervals, bootstrap, generalized pivot variables, two-parameter exponential distribution, quantiles

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585 Approximate Confidence Interval for Effect Size Base on Bootstrap Resampling Method

Authors: S. Phanyaem

Abstract:

This paper presents the confidence intervals for the effect size base on bootstrap resampling method. The meta-analytic confidence interval for effect size is proposed that are easy to compute. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of the proposed confidence intervals with the existing confidence intervals. The best confidence interval method will have a coverage probability close to 0.95. Simulation results have shown that our proposed confidence intervals perform well in terms of coverage probability and expected length.

Keywords: effect size, confidence interval, bootstrap method, resampling

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584 On Confidence Intervals for the Difference between Inverse of Normal Means with Known Coefficients of Variation

Authors: Arunee Wongkhao, Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose two new confidence intervals for the difference between the inverse of normal means with known coefficients of variation. One of these two confidence intervals for this problem is constructed based on the generalized confidence interval and the other confidence interval is constructed based on the closed form method of variance estimation. We examine the performance of these confidence intervals in terms of coverage probabilities and expected lengths via Monte Carlo simulation.

Keywords: coverage probability, expected length, inverse of normal mean, coefficient of variation, generalized confidence interval, closed form method of variance estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
583 Asymptotic Confidence Intervals for the Difference of Coefficients of Variation in Gamma Distributions

Authors: Patarawan Sangnawakij, Sa-Aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed two new confidence intervals for the difference of coefficients of variation, CIw and CIs, in two independent gamma distributions. These proposed confidence intervals using the close form method of variance estimation which was presented by Donner and Zou (2010) based on concept of Wald and Score confidence interval, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation study is used to evaluate the performance, coverage probability and expected length, of these confidence intervals. The results indicate that values of coverage probabilities of the new confidence interval based on Wald and Score are satisfied the nominal coverage and close to nominal level 0.95 in various situations, particularly, the former proposed confidence interval is better when sample sizes are small. Moreover, the expected lengths of the proposed confidence intervals are nearly difference when sample sizes are moderate to large. Therefore, in this study, the confidence interval for the difference of coefficients of variation which based on Wald is preferable than the other one confidence interval.

Keywords: confidence interval, score’s interval, wald’s interval, coefficient of variation, gamma distribution, simulation study

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582 On Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

Statistical inference of normal mean with known coefficient of variation has been investigated recently. This phenomenon occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments when the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. In this paper, we constructed new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. We also derived analytic expressions for the coverage probability of each confidence interval. To confirm our theoretical results, Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their coverage probabilities.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
581 Keyloggers Prevention with Time-Sensitive Obfuscation

Authors: Chien-Wei Hung, Fu-Hau Hsu, Chuan-Sheng Wang, Chia-Hao Lee

Abstract:

Nowadays, the abuse of keyloggers is one of the most widespread approaches to steal sensitive information. In this paper, we propose an On-Screen Prompts Approach to Keyloggers (OSPAK) and its analysis, which is installed in public computers. OSPAK utilizes a canvas to cue users when their keystrokes are going to be logged or ignored by OSPAK. This approach can protect computers against recoding sensitive inputs, which obfuscates keyloggers with letters inserted among users' keystrokes. It adds a canvas below each password field in a webpage and consists of three parts: two background areas, a hit area and a moving foreground object. Letters at different valid time intervals are combined in accordance with their time interval orders, and valid time intervals are interleaved with invalid time intervals. It utilizes animation to visualize valid time intervals and invalid time intervals, which can be integrated in a webpage as a browser extension. We have tested it against a series of known keyloggers and also performed a study with 95 users to evaluate how easily the tool is used. Experimental results made by volunteers show that OSPAK is a simple approach.

Keywords: authentication, computer security, keylogger, privacy, information leakage

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580 A Fuzzy Nonlinear Regression Model for Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

Authors: O. Poleshchuk, E. Komarov

Abstract:

This paper presents a regression model for interval type-2 fuzzy sets based on the least squares estimation technique. Unknown coefficients are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers. The basic idea is to determine aggregation intervals for type-1 fuzzy sets, membership functions of whose are low membership function and upper membership function of interval type-2 fuzzy set. These aggregation intervals were called weighted intervals. Low and upper membership functions of input and output interval type-2 fuzzy sets for developed regression models are considered as piecewise linear functions.

Keywords: interval type-2 fuzzy sets, fuzzy regression, weighted interval

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579 Auditory Brainstem Response in Wave VI for the Detection of Learning Disabilities

Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia-Planas, Maria Victoria Garcia-Camba

Abstract:

The use of brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) is a common way to study the auditory function of people, a way to learn the functionality of a part of the brain neuronal groups that intervene in the learning process by studying the behaviour of wave VI. The latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the existence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of innocuous, low-cost, and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the BAEP that can help us to detect early possible neurodevelopmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and cure. To date and to the authors' best knowledge, only the latency data obtained, observing the first to V waves and mainly in the left ear, were taken into account. This work shows that it is essential to take into account both ears; with these latest data, it has been possible had diagnosed more precise some cases than with the previous data had been diagnosed as 'normal' despite showing signs of some alteration that motivated the new consultation to the specialist.

Keywords: ear, neurodevelopment, auditory evoked potentials, intervals of normality, learning disabilities

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578 Reexamining Contrarian Trades as a Proxy of Informed Trades: Evidence from China's Stock Market

Authors: Dongqi Sun, Juan Tao, Yingying Wu

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This paper reexamines the appropriateness of contrarian trades as a proxy of informed trades, using high frequency Chinese stock data. Employing this measure for 5 minute intervals, a U-shaped intraday pattern of probability of informed trades (PIN) is found for the CSI300 stocks, which is consistent with previous findings for other markets. However, while dividing the trades into different sizes, a reversed U-shaped PIN from large-sized trades, opposed to the U-shaped pattern for small- and medium-sized trades, is observed. Drawing from the mixed evidence with different trade sizes, the price impact of trades is further investigated. By examining the relationship between trade imbalances and unexpected returns, larges-sized trades are found to have significant price impact. This implies that in those intervals with large trades, it is non-contrarian trades that are more likely to be informed trades. Taking account of the price impact of large-sized trades, non-contrarian trades are used to proxy for informed trading in those intervals with large trades, and contrarian trades are still used to measure informed trading in other intervals. A stronger U-shaped PIN is demonstrated from this modification. Auto-correlation and information advantage tests for robustness also support the modified informed trading measure.

Keywords: contrarian trades, informed trading, price impact, trade imbalance

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577 Contrasted Mean and Median Models in Egyptian Stock Markets

Authors: Mai A. Ibrahim, Mohammed El-Beltagy, Motaz Khorshid

Abstract:

Emerging Markets return distributions have shown significance departure from normality were they are characterized by fatter tails relative to the normal distribution and exhibit levels of skewness and kurtosis that constitute a significant departure from normality. Therefore, the classical Markowitz Mean-Variance is not applicable for emerging markets since it assumes normally-distributed returns (with zero skewness and kurtosis) and a quadratic utility function. Moreover, the Markowitz mean-variance analysis can be used in cases of moderate non-normality and it still provides a good approximation of the expected utility, but it may be ineffective under large departure from normality. Higher moments models and median models have been suggested in the literature for asset allocation in this case. Higher moments models have been introduced to account for the insufficiency of the description of a portfolio by only its first two moments while the median model has been introduced as a robust statistic which is less affected by outliers than the mean. Tail risk measures such as Value-at Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) have been introduced instead of Variance to capture the effect of risk. In this research, higher moment models including the Mean-Variance-Skewness (MVS) and Mean-Variance-Skewness-Kurtosis (MVSK) are formulated as single-objective non-linear programming problems (NLP) and median models including the Median-Value at Risk (MedVaR) and Median-Mean Absolute Deviation (MedMAD) are formulated as a single-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems. The higher moment models and median models are compared to some benchmark portfolios and tested on real financial data in the Egyptian main Index EGX30. The results show that all the median models outperform the higher moment models were they provide higher final wealth for the investor over the entire period of study. In addition, the results have confirmed the inapplicability of the classical Markowitz Mean-Variance to the Egyptian stock market as it resulted in very low realized profits.

Keywords: Egyptian stock exchange, emerging markets, higher moment models, median models, mixed-integer linear programming, non-linear programming

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576 Efficient High Fidelity Signal Reconstruction Based on Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Nigel G. Stocks

Abstract:

This paper proposes strategies in level crossing (LC) sampling and reconstruction that provide high fidelity signal reconstruction for speech signals; these strategies circumvent the problem of exponentially increasing number of samples as the bit-depth is increased and hence are highly efficient. Specifically, the results indicate that the distribution of the intervals between samples is one of the key factors in the quality of signal reconstruction; including samples with short intervals do not improve the accuracy of the signal reconstruction, whilst samples with large intervals lead to numerical instability. The proposed sampling method, termed reduced conventional level crossing (RCLC) sampling, exploits redundancy between samples to improve the efficiency of the sampling without compromising performance. A reconstruction technique is also proposed that enhances the numerical stability through linear interpolation of samples separated by large intervals. Interpolation is demonstrated to improve the accuracy of the signal reconstruction in addition to the numerical stability. We further demonstrate that the RCLC and interpolation methods can give useful levels of signal recovery even if the average sampling rate is less than the Nyquist rate.

Keywords: level crossing sampling, numerical stability, speech processing, trigonometric polynomial

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575 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Hakan Arslan, Deniz Ekinci, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, carrot, drought, irrigation interval

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574 Confidence Intervals for Process Capability Indices for Autocorrelated Data

Authors: Jane A. Luke

Abstract:

Persistent pressure passed on to manufacturers from escalating consumer expectations and the ever growing global competitiveness have produced a rapidly increasing interest in the development of various manufacturing strategy models. Academic and industrial circles are taking keen interest in the field of manufacturing strategy. Many manufacturing strategies are currently centered on the traditional concepts of focused manufacturing capabilities such as quality, cost, dependability and innovation. Process capability indices was conducted assuming that the process under study is in statistical control and independent observations are generated over time. However, in practice, it is very common to come across processes which, due to their inherent natures, generate autocorrelated observations. The degree of autocorrelation affects the behavior of patterns on control charts. Even, small levels of autocorrelation between successive observations can have considerable effects on the statistical properties of conventional control charts. When observations are autocorrelated the classical control charts exhibit nonrandom patterns and lack of control. Many authors have considered the effect of autocorrelation on the performance of statistical process control charts. In this paper, the effect of autocorrelation on confidence intervals for different PCIs was included. Stationary Gaussian processes is explained. Effect of autocorrelation on PCIs is described in detail. Confidence intervals for Cp and Cpk are constructed for PCIs when data are both independent and autocorrelated. Confidence intervals for Cp and Cpk are computed. Approximate lower confidence limits for various Cpk are computed assuming AR(1) model for the data. Simulation studies and industrial examples are considered to demonstrate the results.

Keywords: autocorrelation, AR(1) model, Bissell’s approximation, confidence intervals, statistical process control, specification limits, stationary Gaussian processes

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573 Progressive Type-I Interval Censoring with Binomial Removal-Estimation and Its Properties

Authors: Sonal Budhiraja, Biswabrata Pradhan

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This work considers statistical inference based on progressive Type-I interval censored data with random removal. The scheme of progressive Type-I interval censoring with random removal can be described as follows. Suppose n identical items are placed on a test at time T0 = 0 under k pre-fixed inspection times at pre-specified times T1 < T2 < . . . < Tk, where Tk is the scheduled termination time of the experiment. At inspection time Ti, Ri of the remaining surviving units Si, are randomly removed from the experiment. The removal follows a binomial distribution with parameters Si and pi for i = 1, . . . , k, with pk = 1. In this censoring scheme, the number of failures in different inspection intervals and the number of randomly removed items at pre-specified inspection times are observed. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are established under some regularity conditions. A β-content γ-level tolerance interval (TI) is determined for two parameters Weibull lifetime model using the asymptotic properties of MLEs. The minimum sample size required to achieve the desired β-content γ-level TI is determined. The performance of the MLEs and TI is studied via simulation.

Keywords: asymptotic normality, consistency, regularity conditions, simulation study, tolerance interval

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572 Agronomic Evaluation of Flax Cultivars (Linum Usitatissimum L.) in Response to Irrigation Intervals

Authors: Emad Rashwan, M. Mousa, Ayman EL Sabagh, Celaleddin Barutcular

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Flax is a potential winter crop for Egypt that can be grown for both seed and fiber. The study was conducted during two successive winter seasons of 2013/2014, and 2014/2015 in the experimental farm of El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Agriculture research Centre, Egypt. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals (25, 35 and 45) on the seed yield and quality of flax cultivars (Sakha1, Giza9 and Giza10). Obtained results indicate that highly significant for all studied traits among irrigation intervals except oil percentage that was not significant in both seasons. Irrigated flax plants every 35 days gave the maximum values for all characters. In contrast, irrigation every 45 days gave the minimum values for all studied characters under this study. In respect to cultivars, significant differences in most yield and quality characters were found. Furthermore, the performance of Sakha1 cultivar was superior in total plant height, main stem diameter, seed index, seed, oil, biological and straw yield /ha as well as fiber length and fiber fineness. Meanwhile, Giza9 and Giza10 cultivars were surpassed in fiber yield/hand fiber percentage, respectively. The interactions between irrigation intervals and flax cultivars were highly significant for total plant height, main stem diameter, seed, oil, biological and straw yields /ha. Based on the results, all flax cultivars recorded the maximum values for major traits were measured under irrigation of flax plants every 35 days.

Keywords: flax, fiber, irrigation intervals, oil, seed yield

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571 Intensity Analysis to Link Changes in Land-Use Pattern in the Abuakwa North and South Municipalities, Ghana, from 1986 to 2017

Authors: Isaac Kwaku Adu, Jacob Doku Tetteh, John Joseph Puthenkalam, Kwabena Effah Antwi

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The continuous increase in population implies increase in food demand. There is, therefore, the need to increase agricultural production and other forest products to ensure food security and economic development. This paper employs the three-level intensity analysis to assess the total change of land-use in two-time intervals (1986-2002 and 2002-2017), the net change and swap as well as gross gains and losses in the two intervals. The results revealed that the overall change in the 31-year period was greater in the second period (2002-2017). Agriculture and forest categories lost in the first period while the other land class gained. However, in the second period agriculture and built-up increased greatly while forest, water bodies and thick bushes/shrubland experienced loss. An assessment revealed a reduction of forest in both periods but was greater in the second period and expansion of agricultural land was recorded as population increases. The pixels gaining built-up targeted agricultural land in both intervals, it also targeted thick bushes/shrubland and waterbody in the second period only. Built-up avoided forest in both intervals as well as waterbody and thick bushes/shrubland. To help in developing the best land-use strategies/policies, a further validation of the social factors is necessary.

Keywords: agricultural land, forest, Ghana, land-use, intensity analysis, remote sensing

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570 Quasi–Periodicity of Tonic Intervals in Octave and Innovation of Themes in Music Compositions

Authors: R. C. Tyagi

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Quasi-periodicity of frequency intervals observed in Shruti based Absolute Scale of Music has been used to graphically identify the Anchor notes ‘Vadi’ and ‘Samvadi’ which are nodal points for expansion, elaboration and iteration of the emotional theme represented by the characteristic tonic arrangement in Raga compositions. This analysis leads to defining the Tonic parameters in the octave including the key-note frequency, tonic intervals’ anchor notes and the on-set and range of quasi-periodicities as exponents of 2. Such uniformity of representation of characteristic data would facilitate computational analysis and synthesis of music compositions and also help develop noise suppression techniques. Criteria for tuning of strings for compatibility with placement of frets on finger boards is discussed. Natural Rhythmic cycles in music compositions are analytically shown to lie between 3 and 126 beats.

Keywords: absolute scale, anchor notes, computational analysis, frets, innovation, noise suppression, Quasi-periodicity, rhythmic cycle, tonic interval, Shruti

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569 Human Skin Identification Using a Specific mRNA Marker at Different Storage Durations

Authors: Abla A. Ali, Heba A. Abd El Razik, Nadia A. Kotb, Amany A. Bayoumi, Laila A. Rashed

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The detection of human skin through mRNA-based profiling is a very useful tool for forensic investigations. The aim of this study was definitive identification of human skin at different time intervals using an mRNA marker late cornified envelope gene 1C. Ten middle-aged healthy volunteers of both sexes were recruited for this study. Skin samples controlled with blood samples were taken from the candidates to test for the presence of our targeted mRNA marker. Samples were kept at dry dark conditions to be tested at different time intervals (24 hours, one week, three weeks and four weeks) for detection and relative quantification of the targeted marker by RT PCR. The targeted marker could not be detected in blood samples. The targeted marker showed the highest mean value after 24 hours (11.90 ± 2.42) and the lowest mean value (7.56 ± 2.56) after three weeks. No marker could be detected at four weeks. This study verified the high specificity and sensitivity of mRNA marker in the skin at different storage times up to three weeks under the study conditions.

Keywords: human skin, late cornified envelope gene 1C, mRNA marker, time intervals

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568 Predictability of Pupil Mydriasis as a Biomarker for Diabetes

Authors: Naveen Kumar Challa, Pavan Verıkıcherla, Madhubalan, Ashısh Sharma

Abstract:

Aim: Aim of the study was to find whether any difference exists in pupil mydriasis measured with Orbscan in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients at various intervals after installation of Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine 5%. Methods: the Observational study conducted at a tertiary care eye hospital during September 2014 to March 2015. 240 eyes from 120 patients (40 non-diabetic, 80 diabetic) were dilated with Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine 5%. One drop of a drug was installed twice. The second drop is installed at 20 minutes after installation of the first drop. In two groups’ pupil diameter was measured before installation of drops and also at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after installation of the first drop using both Orbscan. Result: Mean age of the non-diabetic group is 48.67 ± 7.93 years; Diabetic group is 59.97 ± 8.77 years. Mean duration of Diabetes was 7.01 ± 5.05 years. Mean pupil diameter measured with Orbscan before installation of the drops and also at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after installation of first drop in non-diabetic group was 4.18 ± 0.64mm, 6.15 ± 0.41mm, 7.76 ±0.34, 9.59 ± 0.30, and 9.97 ± 0.10 mm respectively and for the diabetic group it was 4.00 ± 0.56 mm, 5.53 ± 0.52 mm, 7.018 ± 0.58mm, 8.25±0.51mm and 9.18 ± 0.46mm respectively. The mean difference between the mean pupil diameters of the non-diabetic and diabetic group shows a significant difference (P< 0.01) at all intervals except before dilatation. There is a significant negative correlation (r = 0.78 – 0.92) between the duration of diabetes and pupil dilatation at all intervals after installation of the drops. There is also significant difference (P< 0.005) in the mean values of pupil diameter between non retinopathy diabetic subjects and diabetic retinopathy subjects at all intervals after installation of drops. Conclusion: People attending eye clinic, whose pupil mydriasis values falls below the normal may be referred for diabetic evaluation. If normative data is established for the pupil size in Indian population using Orbscan then the values fall under normative data could be a predictor for diabetes. This would in turn help ophthalmologist to detect the diabetes at an early stage and prevent the complications resulting from the diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pupil diameter, orbscan, tropicamide

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567 Effect of Different Irrigation Intervals on Protein and Gel Production of Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis M.) in Iran

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hosein Al Omrani Nejad, Ali Rezvani Aghdam

Abstract:

This study was done in order to evaluation different irrigation intervals on amount of protein, and gel production in Aloe vera, a traditional medicinal plant. Plants was plnted in Greenhouse and irrigated according to Accumulative Pan Evaporation(APE). The treatments were included 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 mm APE which has been showed W1,W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, W7, W8,W9 and W10 respectively.The amount of protein and gel production was measured seperately. Results showed that highest protein and fresh weight of gel obtained plants which irrigated W6 and W7 respectively. According to these results can recomend which if plant irrigatedwhen APE reached 120 and 140 mm by Class A Evaporation Pan method gel production and protein would besuitable in north of khozestan province in limited irrigation conditions.

Keywords: irrigation, protein, gel, aloe vera, Iran

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566 Effects of Irrigation Scheduling and Soil Management on Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield in Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria

Authors: I. Alhassan, A. M. Saddiq, A. G. Gashua, K. K. Gwio-Kura

Abstract:

The main objective of any irrigation program is the development of an efficient water management system to sustain crop growth and development and avoid physiological water stress in the growing plants. Field experiment to evaluate the effects of some soil moisture conservation practices on yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize was carried out in three locations (i.e. Mubi and Yola in the northern Guinea Savannah and Ganye in the southern Guinea Savannah of Adamawa State, Nigeria) during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014. The experiment consisted of three different irrigation levels (7, 10 and 12 day irrigation intervals), two levels of mulch (mulch and un-mulched) and two tillage practices (no tillage and minimum tillage) arranged in a randomized complete block design with split-split plot arrangement and replicated three times. The Blaney-Criddle method was used for measuring crop evapotranspiration. The results indicated that seven-day irrigation intervals and mulched treatment were found to have significant effect (P>0.05) on grain yield and water use efficiency in all the locations. The main effect of tillage was non-significant (P<0.05) on grain yield and WUE. The interaction effects of irrigation and mulch were significant (P>0.05) on grain yield and WUE at Mubi and Yola. Generally, higher grain yield and WUE were recorded on mulched and seven-day irrigation intervals, whereas lower values were recorded on un-mulched with 12-day irrigation intervals. Tillage exerts little influence on the yield and WUE. Results from Ganye were found to be generally higher than those recorded in Mubi and Yola; it also showed that an irrigation interval of 10 days with mulching could be adopted for the Ganye area, while seven days interval is more appropriate for Mubi and Yola.

Keywords: irrigation, maize, mulching, tillage, savanna

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565 The Relationship between EFL Learners' Self-Regulation and Willingness to Communicate

Authors: Mania Nosratinia, Zahra Deris

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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between EFL learners' self-regulation (SR) and willingness to communicate (WTC). To this end, 520 male and female EFL learners, ranging between 19 and 34 years old (Mage = 26), majoring in English Translation, English Language Teaching and English Literature at Islamic Azad University, Fars Province, were randomly selected. They were given two questionnaires: Self-Regulation Questionnaire devised by Brown, Miller, and Lawendowski (1999) and Willingness to Communicate Scale devised by McCroskey and Baer (1985). Preliminarily, pertinent analyses were performed on the data to check the assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity. Since the assumption of normality was violated, Spearman's rank-order correlation was employed to probe the relationships between SR and WTC. The results indicated a significant and positive correlation between the two variables, ρ = .56, n = 520, p < .05, which signified a large effect size supplemented by a very small confidence interval (0.503 – 0.619). The results of the Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that there is a statistically significant difference in WTC score between the different levels of SR, χ2(2) = 157.843, p = 0.000 with a mean rank SR score of 128.13 for low-SR level, 286.64 for mid-SR level, and 341.12 for high-SR level. Also, a post-hoc comparison through running a Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner indicated significant differences among the SR level groups on WTC scores. Given the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, and material developers to possess a broader perspective towards the TEFL practice and to take practical steps towards the attainments of the desired objectives and effective instruction.

Keywords: EFL learner, self-regulation, willingness to communicate, relationship

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564 The Display of Age-Period/Age-Cohort Mortality Trends Using 1-Year Intervals Reveals Period and Cohort Effects Coincident with Major Influenza A Events

Authors: Maria Ines Azambuja

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Graphic displays of Age-Period-Cohort (APC) mortality trends generally uses data aggregated within 5 or 10-year intervals. Technology allows one to increase the amount of processed data. Displaying occurrences by 1-year intervals is a logic first step in the direction of attaining higher quality landscapes of variations in temporal occurrences. Method: 1) Comparison of UK mortality trends plotted by 10-, 5- and 1-year intervals; 2) Comparison of UK and US mortality trends (period X age and cohort X age) displayed by 1-year intervals. Source: Mortality data (period, 1x1, males, 1933-1912) uploaded from the Human Mortality Database to Excel files, where Period X Age and Cohort X Age graphics were produced. The choice of transforming age-specific trends from calendar to birth-cohort years (cohort = period – age) (instead of using cohort 1x1 data available at the HMD resource) was taken to facilitate the comparison of age-specific trends when looking across calendar-years and birth-cohorts. Yearly live births, males, 1933 to 1912 (UK) were uploaded from the HFD. Influenza references are from the literature. Results: 1) The use of 1-year intervals unveiled previously unsuspected period, cohort and interacting period x cohort effects upon all-causes mortality. 2) The UK and US figures showed variations associated with particular calendar years (1936, 1940, 1951, 1957-68, 72) and, most surprisingly, with particular birth-cohorts (1889-90 in the US, and 1900, 1918-19, 1940-41 and 1946-47, in both countries. Also, the figures showed ups and downs in age-specific trends initiated at particular birth-cohorts (1900, 1918-19 and 1947-48) or a particular calendar-year (1968, 1972, 1977-78 in the US), variations at times restricted to just a range of ages (cohort x period interacting effects). Importantly, most of the identified “scars” (period and cohort) correlates with the record of occurrences of Influenza A epidemics since the late 19th Century. Conclusions: The use of 1-year intervals to describe APC mortality trends both increases the amount of information available, thus enhancing the opportunities for patterns’ recognition, and increases our capability of interpreting those patterns by describing trends across smaller intervals of time (period or birth-cohort). The US and the UK mortality landscapes share many but not all 'scars' and distortions suggested here to be associated with influenza epidemics. Different size-effects of wars are evident, both in mortality and in fertility. But it would also be realistic to suppose that the preponderant influenza A viruses circulating in UK and US at the beginning of the 20th Century might be different and the difference to have intergenerational long-term consequences. Compared with the live births trend (UK data), birth-cohort scars clearly depend on birth-cohort sizes relatives to neighbor ones, which, if causally associated with influenza, would result from influenza-related fetal outcomes/selection. Fetal selection could introduce continuing modifications on population patterns of immune-inflammatory phenotypes that might give rise to 'epidemic constitutions' favoring the occurrence of particular diseases. Comparative analysis of mortality landscapes may help us to straight our record of past circulation of Influenza viruses and document associations between influenza recycling and fertility changes.

Keywords: age-period-cohort trends, epidemic constitution, fertility, influenza, mortality

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563 Computing Maximum Uniquely Restricted Matchings in Restricted Interval Graphs

Authors: Swapnil Gupta, C. Pandu Rangan

Abstract:

A uniquely restricted matching is defined to be a matching M whose matched vertices induces a sub-graph which has only one perfect matching. In this paper, we make progress on the open question of the status of this problem on interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals on a line). We give an algorithm to compute maximum cardinality uniquely restricted matchings on certain sub-classes of interval graphs. We consider two sub-classes of interval graphs, the former contained in the latter, and give O(|E|^2) time algorithms for both of them. It is to be noted that both sub-classes are incomparable to proper interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals in which no interval completely contains another interval), on which the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

Keywords: uniquely restricted matching, interval graph, matching, induced matching, witness counting

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562 Effect of Serum Electrolytes on a QTc Interval and Mortality in Patients admitted to Coronary Care Unit

Authors: Thoetchai Peeraphatdit, Peter A. Brady, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J. Asirvatham, Niyada Naksuk

Abstract:

Background: Serum electrolyte abnormalities are a common cause of an acquired prolonged QT syndrome, especially, in the coronary care unit (CCU) setting. Optimal electrolyte ranges among the CCU patients have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We identified 8,498 consecutive CCU patients who were admitted to the CCU at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, the USA, from 2004 through 2013. Association between first serum electrolytes and baseline corrected QT intervals (QTc), as well as in-hospital mortality, was tested using multivariate linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, ionized calcium (iCa) 4.6-4.8 mg/dL, and magnesium 2.0- < 2.2 mg/dL were used as the reference levels. Results: There was a modest level-dependent relationship between hypokalemia ( < 4.0 mEq/L), hypocalcemia ( < 4.4 mg/dL), and a prolonged QTc interval; serum magnesium did not affect the QTc interval. Association between the serum electrolytes and in-hospital mortality included a U-shaped relationship for serum potassium (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 and OR 1.91for serum potassium 4.5- < 5.0 and ≥ 5.0 mEq/L, respectively) and an inverted J-shaped relationship for iCa (adjusted OR 2.79 and OR 2.03 for calcium < 4.4 and 4.4- < 4.6 mg/dL, respectively). For serum magnesium, the mortality was greater only among patients with levels ≥ 2.4 mg/dL (adjusted OR 1.40), compared to the reference level. Findings were similar in sensitivity analyses examining the association between mean serum electrolytes and mean QTc intervals, as well as in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, iCa ≥ 4.6 mg/dL, and magnesium < 2.4 mg/dL had a neutral effect on QTc intervals and were associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality among the CCU patients.

Keywords: calcium, electrocardiography, long-QT syndrome, magnesium, mortality, potassium

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561 Performance of BLDC Motor under Kalman Filter Sensorless Drive

Authors: Yuri Boiko, Ci Lin, Iluju Kiringa, Tet Yeap

Abstract:

The performance of a BLDC motor controlled by the Kalman filter-based position-sensorless drive is studied in terms of its dependence on the system’s parameters' variations. The effects of system’s parameters changes on the dynamic behavior of state variables are verified. Simulated is a closed-loop control scheme with a Kalman filter in the feedback line. Distinguished are two separate data sampling modes in analyzing feedback output from the BLDC motor: (1) equal angular separation and (2) equal time intervals. In case (1), the data are collected via equal intervals Δθ of rotor’s angular position θᵢ, i.e., keeping Δθ=const. In case (2), the data collection time points tᵢ are separated by equal sampling time intervals Δt=const. Demonstrated are the effects of the parameters changes on the sensorless control flow, in particular, reduction of the torque ripples, switching spikes, torque load balancing. It is specifically shown that an efficient suppression of commutation induced torque ripples is achievable selection of the sampling rate in the Kalman filter settings above certain critical value. The computational cost of such suppression is shown to be higher for the motors with lower induction values of the windings.

Keywords: BLDC motor, Kalman filter, sensorless drive, state variables, torque ripples reduction, sampling rate

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560 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron-Containing AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as 420 °C where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment was conducted at 420 °C for 24 hrs followed by hot rolling at 420 °C and the total reduction was about 60%. Recrystallization heat treatment was followed at 420 °C for 6 hrs to obtain equiaxed microstructure. After recrystallization treatment, aging heat treatment was conducted at temperature of 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 200 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak hardness was observed after 20 hrs. Tensile tests were also conducted on the specimens aged for various time intervals and the results were compared with hardness.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloy, boron, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hardness

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559 Researching Servant Leadership Behaviors of Sport Managers

Authors: Betul Altinok

Abstract:

The aim of this study is researching servant leadership behaviors of sports managers. For this purpose, Servant Leadership behaviors of Sport Managers (N=69) working as Dean, School Principal and Head of Department in Sport Sciences Faculties, Physical Education and Sport Schools and Departments educating Physical Education and Sport investigated via questionnaires applied to academicians (N=1185) working in these institutions. Servant Leadership Questionnaire sent via e-mail to all Academicians working in Physical Education and Sport educating Faculties, Schools of Universities and Departments in Turkey. 406 survey which is responded and accurately completed by Academicians were evaluated. In this study, Servant Leadership Questionnaire developed and conducted validity and reliability analysis by Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) used to investigate sports managers servant leadership behaviors. Scale translated into Turkish then validity and reliability analysis were conducted. After measurement model of servant leadership questionnaire verified, Shapiro Wilk normality test was applied to obtained data to determine whether has got a normal distribution or not, depending on gender, job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. Results of practiced normality test showed that data has not got a normal distribution (nonparametric). After normality test, Mann Whitney-U test applied at 0.05 value for determining whether there is a difference between servant leadership scores according to gender and Kruskal Wallis Test applied at 0.05 value for determining whether there is a difference between servant leadership scores according to job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. Test results showed that there were not differences between Altruistic Calling (p>0.05), Emotional Healing (p>0.05), Wisdom (p>0.05), Persuasive Mapping (p>0.05) and (p>0.05), Organizational Stewardship sub-dimensions according to gender. Test results showed that there were not differences between Altruistic Calling (p>0.05), Emotional Healing (p>0.05), Wisdom (p>0.05), Persuasive Mapping (p>0.05) and (p>0.05), Organizational Stewardship sub-dimensions according to job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. In the light of study results, it can be said that applied survey is objective and unfurls evaluated managers servant leadership behaviors. Empirical and practical contribution of this study is to test sports managers servant leadership behaviors in Turkey for the very first time.

Keywords: academicians, management, servant leadership, sport

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558 Characteristics of Children Heart Rhythm Regulation with Acute Respiratory Diseases

Authors: D. F. Zeynalov, T. V. Kartseva, O. V. Sorokin

Abstract:

Currently, approaches to assess cardiointervalography are based on the calculation of data variance intervals RR. However, they do not allow the evaluation of features related to a period of the cardiac cycle, so how electromechanical phenomena during cardiac subphase are characterized by differently directed changes. Therefore, we have proposed a method of subphase analysis of the cardiac cycle, developed in the department of hominal physiology Novosibirsk State Medical University to identify the features of the dispersion subphase of the cardiac cycle. In the present paper we have examined the 5-minute intervals cardiointervalography (CIG) to isolate RR-, QT-, ST-ranges in healthy children and children with acute respiratory diseases (ARD) in comparison. It is known that primary school-aged children suffer at ARD 5-7 times per year. Consequently, it is one of the most relevant problems in pediatrics. It is known that the spectral indices and indices of temporal analysis of heart rate variability are highly sensitive to the degree of intoxication during immunological process. We believe that the use of subphase analysis of heart rate will allow more thoroughly evaluate responsiveness of the child organism during the course of ARD. The study involved 60 primary school-aged children (30 boys and 30 girls). In order to assess heart rhythm regulation, the record CIG was used on the "VNS-Micro" device of Neurosoft Company (Ivanovo) for 5 minutes in the supine position and 5 minutes during active orthostatic test. Subphase analysis of variance QT-interval and ST-segment was performed on the "KardioBOS" software Biokvant Company (Novosibirsk). In assessing the CIG in the supine position and in during orthostasis of children with acute respiratory diseases only RR-intervals are observed typical trend of general biological reactions through pressosensitive compensation mechanisms to lower blood pressure, but compared with healthy children the severity of the changes is different, of sick children are more pronounced indicators of heart rate regulation. But analysis CIG RR-intervals and analysis subphase ST-segment have yielded conflicting trends, which may be explained by the different nature of the intra- and extracardiac influences on regulatory mechanisms that implement the various phases of the cardiac cycle.

Keywords: acute respiratory diseases, cardiointervalography, subphase analysis, cardiac cycle

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