Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: audio-visual

47 The Spatial Circuit of the Audiovisual Industry in Argentina: From Monopoly and Geographic Concentration to New Regionalization and Democratization Policies

Authors: André Pasti

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Historically, the communication sector in Argentina is characterized by intense monopolization and geographical concentration in the city of Buenos Aires. In 2000, the four major media conglomerates in operation – Clarín, Telefónica, America and Hadad – controlled 84% of the national media market. By 2009, new policies were implemented as a result of civil society organizations demands. Legally, a new regulatory framework was approved: the law 26,522 of Audiovisual Communications Services. Supposedly, these policies intend to create new conditions for the development of the audiovisual economy in the territory of Argentina. The regionalization of audiovisual production and the democratization of channels and access to media were among the priorities. This paper analyses the main changes and continuities in the organization of the spatial circuit of the audiovisual industry in Argentina provoked by these new policies. These new policies aim at increasing the diversity of audiovisual producers and promoting regional audiovisual industries. For this purpose, a national program for the development of audiovisual centers within the country was created. This program fostered a federalized production network, based on nine audiovisual regions and 40 nodes. Each node has created technical, financial and organizational conditions to gather different actors in audiovisual production – such as SMEs, social movements and local associations. The expansion of access to technical networks was also a concern of other policies, such as ‘Argentina connected’, whose objective was to expand access to broadband Internet. The Open Digital Television network also received considerable investments. Furthermore, measures have been carried out in order to impose limits on the concentration of ownership as well as to eliminate the oligopolies and to ensure more competition in the sector. These actions intended to force a divide of the media conglomerates into smaller groups. Nevertheless, the corporations that compose these conglomerates resist strongly, making full use of their economic and judiciary power. Indeed, the absence of effective impact of such measures can be testified by the fact that the audiovisual industry remains strongly concentrated in Argentina. Overall, these new policies were designed properly to decentralize audiovisual production and expand the regional diversity of the audiovisual industry. However, the effective transformation of the organization of the audiovisual circuit in the territory faced several resistances. This can be explained firstly and foremost by the ideological and economic power of the media conglomerates. In the second place, there is an inherited inertia from the unequal distribution of the objects needed for the audiovisual production and consumption. Lastly, the resistance also relies on financial needs and in the excessive dependence of the state for the promotion of regional audiovisual production.

Keywords: Argentina, audiovisual industry, communication policies, geographic concentration, regionalization, spatial circuit

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46 The Stylistic Representation of Subjectivity in Exemplary Written and Audiovisual Biographical Records about the Brazilian Modernist Artist Tarsila Do Amaral

Authors: Juliane Noack Napoles, Vivian Martins Nogueira Napoles

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This paper operates at the stylistic level of biographical records about the artist Tarsila do Amaral (1886-1973) and the various biographical modes of representation of her subjectivity. Tarsila do Amaral was a Brazilian nationalistic painter, who took part in the first half of the last century in the Antoprofágico Moviment and in the Surrealistic Movement - artistic movements that emerged in the 1920’s. The paper will be developed in the field of Cultural and Media Science and based on an understanding of biography as a subgenre of historical records that will be discussed. Doing that, the theoretical principles about the history genre will also be discussed. In this context, the analytical focus of the present project is the stylistic forms of representation of subjectivity in the postmodern period as expressed in written and audiovisual biographical representation of Tarsila do Amaral. Some exemplary audiovisual biographical records about Tarsila do Amaral will be first analyzed on their own. Then, they will be related to some written biographical records about the painter. At the end, both written and audiovisual records and their stylistic forms of representation of Tarsila do Amaral’s subjectivity are going be analyzed. Tarsila do Amaral will be considered as a Subject Form, following actual concepts about this term in Cultural Studies. For these purposes, it will also be discussed about cultural identity – gender and national identity – and developed a heuristic model so that different understandings and conceptual proposals correlate, including those pertaining to the terms biography, gender, identity, mediality, style, subject and subjectivity. This model will finally be used for the analysis of the selected biographical records.

Keywords: biography, gender, identity, modernism, postmodernism, style, subject, subjectivity, surrealism, Tarsila do Amaral

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45 Experimenting the Influence of Input Modality on Involvement Load Hypothesis

Authors: Mohammad Hassanzadeh

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As far as incidental vocabulary learning is concerned, the basic contention of the Involvement Load Hypothesis (ILH) is that retention of unfamiliar words is, generally, conditional upon the degree of involvement in processing them. This study examined input modality and incidental vocabulary uptake in a task-induced setting whereby three variously loaded task types (marginal glosses, fill-in-task, and sentence-writing) were alternately assigned to one group of students at Allameh Tabataba’i University (n=2l) during six classroom sessions. While one round of exposure was comprised of the audiovisual medium (TV talk shows), the second round consisted of textual materials with approximately similar subject matter (reading texts). In both conditions, however, the tasks were equivalent to one another. Taken together, the study pursued the dual objectives of establishing a litmus test for the ILH and its proposed values of ‘need’, ‘search’ and ‘evaluation’ in the first place. Secondly, it sought to bring to light the superiority issue of exposure to audiovisual input versus the written input as far as the incorporation of tasks is concerned. At the end of each treatment session, a vocabulary active recall test was administered to measure their incidental gains. Running a one-way analysis of variance revealed that the audiovisual intervention yielded higher gains than the written version even when differing tasks were included. Meanwhile, task 'three' (sentence-writing) turned out the most efficient in tapping learners' active recall of the target vocabulary items. In addition to shedding light on the superiority of audiovisual input over the written input when circumstances are relatively held constant, this study for the most part, did support the underlying tenets of ILH.

Keywords: Keywords— Evaluation, incidental vocabulary learning, input mode, Involvement Load Hypothesis, need, search.

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44 Manipulation of Ideological Items in the Audiovisual Translation of Voiced-Over Documentaries in the Arab World

Authors: S. Chabbak

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In a widely globalized world, the influence of audiovisual translation on the culture and identity of audiences is unmistakable. However, in the Arab World, there is a noticeable disproportion between this growing influence and the research carried out in the field. As a matter of fact, the voiced-over documentary is one of the most abundantly translated genres in the Arab World that carries lots of ideological elements which are in many cases rendered by manipulation. However, voiced-over documentaries have hardly received any focused attention from researchers in the Arab World. This paper attempts to scrutinize the process of translation of voiced-over documentaries in the Arab World, from French into Arabic in the present case study, by sub-categorizing the ideological items subject to manipulation, identifying the techniques utilized in their translation and exploring the potential extra-linguistic factors that prompt translation agents to opt for manipulative translation. The investigation is based on a corpus of 94 episodes taken from a series entitled 360° GEO Reports, produced by the French German network ARTE in French, and acquired, translated and aired by Al Jazeera Documentary Channel for Arab audiences. The results yielded 124 cases of manipulation in four sub-categories of ideological items, and the use of 10 different oblique procedures in the process of manipulative translation. The study also revealed that manipulation is in most of the instances dictated by the editorial line of the broadcasting channel, in addition to the religious, geopolitical and socio-cultural peculiarities of the target culture.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, ideological items, manipulation, voiced-over documentaries

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43 Analysis of Feminist Translation in Subtitling from Arabic into English: A Case Study

Authors: Ghada Ahmed

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Feminist translation is one of the strategies adopted in the field of translation studies when a gendered content is being rendered from one language to another, and this strategy has been examined in previous studies on written texts. This research, however, addresses the practice of feminist translation in audiovisual texts that are concerned with the screen, dialogue, image and visual aspects. In this thesis, the objectives are studying feminist translation and its adaptation in subtitling from Arabic into English. It addresses the connections between gender and translation as one domain and feminist translation practices with particular consideration of feminist translation strategies in English subtitles. It examines the visibility of the translator throughout the process, assuming that feminist translation is a product directed by the translator’s feminist position, culture, and ideology as a means of helping unshadow women. It also discusses how subtitling constraints impact feminist translation and how the image that has a narrative value can be integrated into the content of the English subtitles. The reasons for conducting this research project are to study language sexism in English and look into Arabic into English gendered content, taking into consideration the Arabic cultural concepts that may lose their connotations when they are translated into English. This research is also analysing the image in an audiovisual text and its contribution to the written dialogue in subtitling. Thus, this research attempts to answer the following questions: To what extent is there a form of affinity between a gendered content and translation? Is feminist translation an act of merely working on a feminist text or feminising the language of any text, by incorporating the translator’s ideology? How can feminist translation practices be applied in an audiovisual text? How likely is it to adapt feminist translation looking into visual components as well as subtitling constraints? Moreover, the paper searches into the fields of gender and translation; feminist translation, language sexism, media studies, and the gap in the literature related to feminist translation practice in visual texts. For my case study, the "Speed Sisters" film has been chosen so as to analyze its English subtitles for my research. The film is a documentary that was produced in 2015 and directed by Amber Fares. It is about five Palestinian women who try to break the stereotypes about women, and have taken their passion about car-racing forward to be the first all-women car-racing driving team in the Middle East. It tackles the issue of gender in both content and language and this is reflected in the translation. As the research topic is semiotic-channelled, the choice for the theoretical approaches varies and combines between translation studies, audiovisual translation, gender studies, and media studies. Each of which will contribute to understanding a specific field of the research and the results will eventually be integrated to achieve the intended objectives in a way that demonstrates rendering a gendered content in one of the audiovisual translation modes from a language into another.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, feminist translation, films gendered content, subtitling conventions and constraints

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42 Teaching Audiovisual Translation (AVT):Linguistic and Technical Aspects of Different Modes of AVT

Authors: Juan-Pedro Rica-Peromingo

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Teachers constantly need to innovate and redefine materials for their lectures, especially in areas such as Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) and Translation Studies (TS). It is therefore essential for the lecturers to be technically skilled to handle the never-ending evolution in software and technology, which are necessary elements especially in certain courses at university level. This need becomes even more evident in Audiovisual Translation (AVT) Modules and Courses. AVT has undergone considerable growth in the area of teaching and learning of languages for academic purposes. We have witnessed the development of a considerable number of masters and postgraduate courses where AVT becomes a tool for L2 learning. The teaching and learning of different AVT modes are components of undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Universities, in which AVT is offered as part of their teaching programme or training, make use of professional or free software programs. This paper presents an approach in AVT withina specific university context, in which technology is used by means of professional and nonprofessional software. Students take an AVT subject as part of their English Linguistics Master’s Degree at the Complutense University (UCM) in which they are using professional (Spot) and nonprofessional (Subtitle Workshop, Aegisub, Windows Movie Maker) software packages. The students are encouraged to develop their tasks and projects simulating authentic professional experiences and contexts in the different AVT modes: subtitling for hearing and deaf and hard of hearing population, audio description and dubbing. Selected scenes from TV series such as X-Files, Gossip girl, IT Crowd; extracts from movies: Finding Nemo, Good Will Hunting, School of Rock, Harry Potter, Up; and short movies (Vincent) were used. Hence, the complexity of the audiovisual materials used in class as well as the activities for their projects were graded. The assessment of the diverse tasks carried out by all the students are expected to provide some insights into the best way to improve their linguistic accuracy and oral and written productions with the use of different AVT modes in a very specific ESP university context.

Keywords: ESP, audiovisual translation, technology, university teaching, teaching

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41 Electroencephalography Correlates of Memorability While Viewing Advertising Content

Authors: Victor N. Anisimov, Igor E. Serov, Ksenia M. Kolkova, Natalia V. Galkina

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The problem of memorability of the advertising content is closely connected with the key issues of neuromarketing. The memorability of the advertising content contributes to the marketing effectiveness of the promoted product. Significant directions of studying the phenomenon of memorability are the memorability of the brand (detected through the memorability of the logo) and the memorability of the product offer (detected through the memorization of dynamic audiovisual advertising content - commercial). The aim of this work is to reveal the predictors of memorization of static and dynamic audiovisual stimuli (logos and commercials). An important direction of the research was revealing differences in psychophysiological correlates of memorability between static and dynamic audiovisual stimuli. We assumed that static and dynamic images are perceived in different ways and may have a difference in the memorization process. Objective methods of recording psychophysiological parameters while watching static and dynamic audiovisual materials are well suited to achieve the aim. The electroencephalography (EEG) method was performed with the aim of identifying correlates of the memorability of various stimuli in the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. All stimuli (in the groups of statics and dynamics separately) were divided into 2 groups – remembered and not remembered based on the results of the questioning method. The questionnaires were filled out by survey participants after viewing the stimuli not immediately, but after a time interval (for detecting stimuli recorded through long-term memorization). Using statistical method, we developed the classifier (statistical model) that predicts which group (remembered or not remembered) stimuli gets, based on psychophysiological perception. The result of the statistical model was compared with the results of the questionnaire. Conclusions: Predictors of the memorability of static and dynamic stimuli have been identified, which allows prediction of which stimuli will have a higher probability of remembering. Further developments of this study will be the creation of stimulus memory model with the possibility of recognizing the stimulus as previously seen or new. Thus, in the process of remembering the stimulus, it is planned to take into account the stimulus recognition factor, which is one of the most important tasks for neuromarketing.

Keywords: memory, commercials, neuromarketing, EEG, branding

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40 Effects of Audiovisual Contextualization of L2 Idioms on Enhancing Students’ Comprehension and Retention

Authors: Monica Karlsson

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The positive effect of a supportive written context on comprehension and retention when faced with a previously unknown idiomatic expression is today an indisputable fact, especially if relevant clues are given in close proximity of the item in question. Also, giving learners a chance of visualizing the meaning of an idiom by offering them its source domain and/or by elaborating etymologically, i.e. providing a mental picture in addition to the spoken/written form (referred to as dual coding), seems to enhance comprehension and retention even further, especially if the idiom is of a more transparent kind. For example, by explaining that walk the plank has a maritime origin and a canary in a coal mine comes from the time when canaries were kept in cages to warn miners if gas was leaking out at which point the canaries succumbed immediately, learners’ comprehension and retention have been shown to increase. The present study aims to investigate whether contextualization of an audiovisual kind could help increase comprehension and retention of L2 idioms. 40 Swedish first-term university students studying English as part of their education to become middle-school teachers participated in the investigation, which tested 24 idioms, all of which were ascertained to be previously unknown to the informants. While half of the learners were subjected to a test in which they were asked to watch scenes from various TV programmes, each scene including one idiomatic expression in a supportive context, the remaining 20 students, as a point of reference, were only offered written contexts, though equally supportive. Immediately after these sessions, both groups were given the same idioms in a decontextualized form and asked to give their meaning. After five weeks, finally, the students were subjected to yet another decontextualized comprehension test. Furthermore, since mastery of idioms in one’s L1 appears to correlate to a great extent with a person’s ability to comprehend idioms in an L2, all the informants were also asked to take a test focusing on idioms in their L1. The result on this test is thus seen to indicate each student’s potential for understanding and memorizing various idiomatic expressions from a more general perspective. Preliminary results clearly show that audiovisual contextualization indeed has a positive effect on learners’ retention. In addition, preliminary results also show that those learners’ who were able to recall most meanings were those who had a propensity for idiom comprehension in their L1.

Keywords: English, L2, idioms, audiovisual context

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39 The Challenges of Intercultural Transfer: The Italian Reception of Aotearoa/New Zealand Films

Authors: Martina Depentor

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While the cinematic medium contributes to bringing images of a culture to foreign audiences, Audiovisual Translation contributes to deciphering those cultural representations to those same audiences. Through Audiovisual Translation, in fact, elements permeate the reception system and contribute to forging a cultural image of the original/source system in the target/reception system. By analyzing a number of Italian critical reviews, blogs and forum posts, this paper examines the impact and reception in Italy of five of the most successful and influential New Zealand films of the last two decades - An Angel at my Table (1990), The Piano (1993), Heavenly Creatures (1994), Once Were Warriors (1994), Whale Rider (2002) - with the aim of exploring how the adaptation of New Zealand films might condition the representation of New Zealand in the Italian imaginary. The analysis seeks to identify whether a certain degree of cultural loss results from the 'translation' of these films. The films selected share common ground in that they all reveal cultural, social and historical characteristics of New Zealand, from aspects that are unique to this country and that on the surface may render it difficult to penetrate (unfamiliar landscapes, aspects of indigenous culture) to more universal themes (intimate family stories, dysfunctional relationship). They contributed to situating New Zealand on an international stage and to bringing images of the country to many audiences, the Italian one included, with little previous cultural knowledge of the social and political history of New Zealand. Differences in film types pose clearly different levels of interpretative challenges to non-New Zealander audiences, and examples from the films will show how these challenges are or are not overcome if the adaptations display misinterpretations or rendition gaps, and how the process of intercultural transfer further 'domesticates' or 'exoticises' the source culture.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, cultural representation, intercultural transfer, New Zealand Films

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38 The Relation between Subtitling and General Translation from a Didactic Perspective

Authors: Sonia Gonzalez Cruz

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Subtitling activities allow for acquiring and developing certain translation skills, and they also have a great impact on the students' motivation. Active subtitling is a relatively recent activity that has generated a lot of interest particularly in the field of second-language acquisition, but it is also present within both the didactics of general translation and language teaching for translators. It is interesting to analyze the level of inclusion of these new resources into the existent curricula and observe to what extent these different teaching methods are being used in the translation classroom. Although subtitling has already become an independent discipline of study and it is considered to be a type of translation on its own, it is necessary to do further research on the different didactic varieties that this type of audiovisual translation offers. Therefore, this project is framed within the field of the didactics of translation, and it focuses on the relationship between the didactics of general translation and active subtitling as a didactic tool. Its main objective is to analyze the inclusion of interlinguistic active subtitling in general translation curricula at different universities. As it has been observed so far, the analyzed curricula do not make any type of reference to the use of this didactic tool in general translation classrooms. However, they do register the inclusion of other audiovisual activities such as dubbing, script translation or video watching, among others. By means of online questionnaires and interviews, the main goal is to confirm the results obtained after the observation of the curricula and find out to what extent subtitling has actually been included into general translation classrooms.

Keywords: subtitling, general translation, didactics, translation competence

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37 Study of Multimodal Resources in Interactions Involving Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Fernanda Miranda da Cruz

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This paper aims to systematize, descriptively and analytically, the relations between language, body and material world explored in a specific empirical context: everyday co-presence interactions between children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disease ASD and various interlocutors. We will work based on 20 hours of an audiovisual corpus in Brazilian Portuguese language. This analysis focuses on 1) the analysis of daily interactions that have the presence/participation of subjects with a diagnosis of ASD based on an embodied interaction perspective; 2) the study of the status and role of gestures, body and material world in the construction and constitution of human interaction and its relation with linguistic-cognitive processes and Autistic Spectrum Disorders; 3) to highlight questions related to the field of videoanalysis, such as: procedures for recording interactions in complex environments (involving many participants, use of objects and body movement); the construction of audiovisual corpora for linguistic-interaction research; the invitation to a visual analytical mentality of human social interactions involving not only the verbal aspects that constitute it, but also the physical space, the body and the material world.

Keywords: autism spectrum disease, multimodality, social interaction, non-verbal interactions

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36 Influence of Auditory Visual Information in Speech Perception in Children with Normal Hearing and Cochlear Implant

Authors: Sachin, Shantanu Arya, Gunjan Mehta, Md. Shamim Ansari

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The cross-modal influence of visual information on speech perception can be illustrated by the McGurk effect which is an illusion of hearing of syllable /ta/ when a listener listens one syllable, e.g.: /pa/ while watching a synchronized video recording of syllable, /ka/. The McGurk effect is an excellent tool to investigate multisensory integration in speech perception in both normal hearing and hearing impaired populations. As the visual cue is unaffected by noise, individuals with hearing impairment rely more than normal listeners on the visual cues.However, when non congruent visual and auditory cues are processed together, audiovisual interaction seems to occur differently in normal and persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, this study aims to observe the audiovisual interaction in speech perception in Cochlear Implant users compares the same with normal hearing children. Auditory stimuli was routed through calibrated Clinical audiometer in sound field condition, and visual stimuli were presented on laptop screen placed at a distance of 1m at 0 degree azimuth. Out of 4 presentations, if 3 responses were a fusion, then McGurk effect was considered to be present. The congruent audiovisual stimuli /pa/ /pa/ and /ka/ /ka/ were perceived correctly as ‘‘pa’’ and ‘‘ka,’’ respectively by both the groups. For the non- congruent stimuli /da/ /pa/, 23 children out of 35 with normal hearing and 9 children out of 35 with cochlear implant had a fusion of sounds i.e. McGurk effect was present. For the non-congruent stimulus /pa/ /ka/, 25 children out of 35 with normal hearing and 8 children out of 35 with cochlear implant had fusion of sounds.The children who used cochlear implants for less than three years did not exhibit fusion of sound i.e. McGurk effect was absent in this group of children. To conclude, the results demonstrate that consistent fusion of visual with auditory information for speech perception is shaped by experience with bimodal spoken language during early life. When auditory experience with speech is mediated by cochlear implant, the likelihood of acquiring bimodal fusion is increased and it greatly depends on the age of implantation. All the above results strongly support the need for screening children for hearing capabilities and providing cochlear implants and aural rehabilitation as early as possible.

Keywords: cochlear implant, congruent stimuli, mcgurk effect, non-congruent stimuli

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35 Neural Network Based Control Algorithm for Inhabitable Spaces Applying Emotional Domotics

Authors: Sergio A. Navarro Tuch, Martin Rogelio Bustamante Bello, Leopoldo Julian Lechuga Lopez

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In recent years, Mexico’s population has seen a rise of different physiological and mental negative states. Two main consequences of this problematic are deficient work performance and high levels of stress generating and important impact on a person’s physical, mental and emotional health. Several approaches, such as the use of audiovisual stimulus to induce emotions and modify a person’s emotional state, can be applied in an effort to decreases these negative effects. With the use of different non-invasive physiological sensors such as EEG, luminosity and face recognition we gather information of the subject’s current emotional state. In a controlled environment, a subject is shown a series of selected images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in order to induce a specific set of emotions and obtain information from the sensors. The raw data obtained is statistically analyzed in order to filter only the specific groups of information that relate to a subject’s emotions and current values of the physical variables in the controlled environment such as, luminosity, RGB light color, temperature, oxygen level and noise. Finally, a neural network based control algorithm is given the data obtained in order to feedback the system and automate the modification of the environment variables and audiovisual content shown in an effort that these changes can positively alter the subject’s emotional state. During the research, it was found that the light color was directly related to the type of impact generated by the audiovisual content on the subject’s emotional state. Red illumination increased the impact of violent images and green illumination along with relaxing images decreased the subject’s levels of anxiety. Specific differences between men and women were found as to which type of images generated a greater impact in either gender. The population sample was mainly constituted by college students whose data analysis showed a decreased sensibility to violence towards humans. Despite the early stage of the control algorithm, the results obtained from the population sample give us a better insight into the possibilities of emotional domotics and the applications that can be created towards the improvement of performance in people’s lives. The objective of this research is to create a positive impact with the application of technology to everyday activities; nonetheless, an ethical problem arises since this can also be applied to control a person’s emotions and shift their decision making.

Keywords: data analysis, emotional domotics, performance improvement, neural network

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34 The Expression of the Social Experience in Film Narration: Cinematic ‘Free Indirect Discourse’ in the Dancing Hawk (1977) by Grzegorz Krolikiewicz

Authors: Robert Birkholc

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One of the basic issues related to the creation of characters in media, such as literature and film, is the representation of the characters' thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. This paper is devoted to the social perspective (or the focalization) expressed in film narration. The aim of the paper is to show how social point of view of the hero –conditioned by his origin and the environment from which he comes– can be created by using non-verbal, purely audiovisual means of expression. The issue will be considered on the example of the little-known polish movie The Dancing Hawk (1977) by Grzegorz Królikiewicz, based on the novel by Julian Kawalec. The thesis of the paper is that the polish director uses a narrative figure, which is somewhat analogous to literary form of free indirect discourse. In literature, free indirect discourse is formally ‘spoken’ by the external narrator, but the narration is clearly filtered through the language and thoughts of the character. According to some scholars (such as Roy Pascal), the narrator in this form of speech does not cite the character's words, but uses his way of thinking and imitates his perspective – sometimes with a deep irony. Free indirect discourse is frequently used in Julian Kawalec’s novel. Through the linguistic stylization, the author tries to convey the socially determined perspective of a peasant who migrates to the big city after the Second World War. Grzegorz Królikiewicz expresses the same social experience by pure cinematic form in the adaptation of the book. Both Kawalec and Królikiewicz show the consequences of so-called ‘social advancement’ in Poland after 1945, when the communist party took over political power. On the example of the fate of the main character, Michał Toporny, the director presents the experience of peasants who left their villages and had to adapt to new, urban space. However, the paper is not focused on the historical topic itself, but on the audiovisual form of the movie. Although Królikiewicz doesn’t use frequently POV shots, the narration of The Dancing Hawk is filtered through the sensations of the main character, who feels uprooted and alienated in the new social space. The director captures the hero's feelings through very complex audiovisual procedures – high or low points of view (representing the ‘social position’), grotesque soundtrack, expressionist scenery, and associative editing. In this way, he manages to create the world from the perspective of a socially maladjusted and internally split subject. The Dancing Hawk is a successful attempt to adapt the subjective narration of the book to the ‘language’ of the cinema. Mieke Bal’s notion of focalization helps to describe ‘free indirect discourse’ as a transmedial figure of representing of the characters’ perceptions. However, the polysemiotic medium of the film also significantly transforms this figure of representation. The paper shows both the similarities and differences between literary and cinematic ‘free indirect discourse.’

Keywords: film and literature, free indirect discourse, social experience, subjective narration

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33 Elderly Blacks: Exception Narrative in Soap Operas

Authors: Valmir Moratelli

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This paper discusses the construction of the narrative of television fiction from the point of view of the invisibility of the representation of elderly black characters. Through the appointment of social and contemporary elements, we analyze why the theme of old age of black people is practically non-existent in brazilian soap operas of TV Globo. By raising characteristic aspects of the leaflet narrative, we want to discuss how the cancellation of identity discourses about elderly blacks and their relationship with aspects of social life is constructed.

Keywords: audiovisual, black, erderly, television

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32 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audiovisual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

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Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Collective expression activity informs the masses, gives direction to opinions and establishes public opinion. Due to these characteristics, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorisation of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, radio and television supreme council

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31 Comparison of Dubbing and Subtitling through Critical Discourse Analysis: Detecting Lexical Differences and Similarities in the Movie 'The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo'

Authors: Saber Noie, F. Jafarpour

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Translation of the movies was one of important issues of the translators. In this study, the notions of ‘foreignization’, ‘domestication’, and ‘critical discourse analysis’ (CDA) in translation studies were discussed. This study is a comparative study and attempts towards clarifying the lexical differences and similarities between dubbing and subtitling in audiovisual translation through CDA. The strategies proposed by Venuti (1995) and Newmark (1988) used first by researcher and then, the researcher went back to the Van Dijk’s CDA (1995), in the part dominance. This study shows that according to CDA, the dominant strategy in subtitling is foreignization and dominant strategy in dubbing is domestication.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, CDA, dub, subtitle, foreignization, domestication

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30 Work Experience and Employability: Results and Evaluation of a Pilot Training Course on Skills for Company Tutors

Authors: Javier Barraycoa, Olga Lasaga

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Work experience placements are one of the main routes to employment and acquiring professional experience for recent graduates. The effectiveness of these work experience placements is conditioned to the training in skills, especially teaching skills, of company tutors. For this reason, a manual specifically designed for training company tutors in these skills has been developed. Similarly, a pilot semi-attendance course to provide the resources that enable tutors to improve their role as instructors was carried out. The course was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated with the aim of assessing its effectiveness, detecting shortcomings and areas to be improved, and revising the manual contents. One of the biggest achievements was the raising of awareness in the participating tutors of the importance of their work and of the need to develop teaching skills. As a result of this project, we have detected a need to design specific training supplements according to knowledge areas and sectors, to collate good practices and to create easily accessible audiovisual materials.

Keywords: company tutors, employability, teaching skills, work experience

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29 Modes of Seeing in Interactive Exhibitions: A Study on How Technology Can Affect the Viewer and Transform the Exhibition Spaces

Authors: Renata P. Lopes

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The current art exhibit scenario presents a multitude of visualization features deployed in experiences that instigate a process of art production and design. The exhibition design through multimedia devices - from the audiovisual to the touch screen - has become a medium from which art can be understood and contemplated. Artistic practices articulated, during the modern period, the spectator's perception in the exhibition space, often challenging the architecture of museums and galleries. In turn, the museum institution seeks to respond to the challenge of welcoming the viewer whose experience is mediated by technological artifacts. When the beholder, together with the technology, interacts with the exhibition space, important displacements happen. In this work, we will analyze the migrations of the exhibition space to the digital environment through mobile devices triggered by the viewer. Based not on technological determinism, but on the conditions of the appearance of this spectator, this work is developed, with the aim of apprehending the way in which technology demarcates the differences between what the spectator was and what becomes in the contemporary atmosphere of the museums and galleries. These notions, we believe, will contribute to the formation of an exhibition design space in conformity with this participant.

Keywords: exhibition, museum, exhibition design, digital media

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28 The Influence of Screen Translation on Creative Audiovisual Writing: A Corpus-Based Approach

Authors: John D. Sanderson

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The popularity of American cinema worldwide has contributed to the development of sociolects related to specific film genres in other cultural contexts by means of screen translation, in many cases eluding norms of usage in the target language, a process whose result has come to be known as 'dubbese'. A consequence for the reception in countries where local audiovisual fiction consumption is far lower than American imported productions is that this linguistic construct is preferred, even though it differs from common everyday speech. The iconography of film genres such as science-fiction, western or sword-and-sandal films, for instance, generates linguistic expectations in international audiences who will accept more easily the sociolects assimilated by the continuous reception of American productions, even if the themes, locations, characters, etc., portrayed on screen may belong in origin to other cultures. And the non-normative language (e.g., calques, semantic loans) used in the preferred mode of linguistic transfer, whether it is translation for dubbing or subtitling, has diachronically evolved in many cases into a status of canonized sociolect, not only accepted but also required, by foreign audiences of American films. However, a remarkable step forward is taken when this typology of artificial linguistic constructs starts being used creatively by nationals of these target cultural contexts. In the case of Spain, the success of American sitcoms such as Friends in the 1990s led Spanish television scriptwriters to include in national productions lexical and syntactical indirect borrowings (Anglicisms not formally identifiable as such because they include elements from their own language) in order to target audiences of the former. However, this commercial strategy had already taken place decades earlier when Spain became a favored location for the shooting of foreign films in the early 1960s. The international popularity of the then newly developed sub-genre known as Spaghetti-Western encouraged Spanish investors to produce their own movies, and local scriptwriters made use of the dubbese developed nationally since the advent of sound in film instead of using normative language. As a result, direct Anglicisms, as well as lexical and syntactical borrowings made up the creative writing of these Spanish productions, which also became commercially successful. Interestingly enough, some of these films were even marketed in English-speaking countries as original westerns (some of the names of actors and directors were anglified to that purpose) dubbed into English. The analysis of these 'back translations' will also foreground some semantic distortions that arose in the process. In order to perform the research on these issues, a wide corpus of American films has been used, which chronologically range from Stagecoach (John Ford, 1939) to Django Unchained (Quentin Tarantino, 2012), together with a shorter corpus of Spanish films produced during the golden age of Spaghetti Westerns, from una tumba para el sheriff (Mario Caiano; in English lone and angry man, William Hawkins) to tu fosa será la exacta, amigo (Juan Bosch, 1972; in English my horse, my gun, your widow, John Wood). The methodology of analysis and the conclusions reached could be applied to other genres and other cultural contexts.

Keywords: dubbing, film genre, screen translation, sociolect

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27 Affective Communities of Women in the Classic Spanish-Mexican-Argentinian Cinema. A Comparative Perspective from a South-South Gaze

Authors: Invernizzi Agostina

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From the 1930s, it is possible to find a phenomenon that persists through to the sixties in the national filmographies of different southern latitudes (Spain, Mexico, Argentina): the proliferation of ensemble films of groups of women who serve base to elaborate broader social conflicts and to construct imaginaries of the nation and of genders. This paper will address the modes of figuration of some affective imaginaries among women where the forms of sociability and the bonds of sisterhood are determined by the spaces in which the women are grouped. In these films, there are forms of affectivity that dispute the meanings of the patriarchal order of the time. One of the hypotheses is that these films formulate communities of women that carry out a reconfiguration of affective and transnational spaces. This research presents a multidisciplinary approach that simultaneously combines film and audiovisual studies, gender studies, decolonial feminist theories, and affects theories. The study of this phenomenon will provide us with keys for articulating with current problematics, such as the genealogies of women's movements, of which the cinema offers echoes and is a privileged medium for reflection and social change, as well as the international contact flows between these three geographical points, their migratory processes and cultural exchanges, transnationalism and integration.

Keywords: affects, feminisms, film studies, gender

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26 A Study on Explicitation Strategies Employed in Persian Subtitling of English Crime Movies

Authors: Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Azizeh Chalak, Hossein Enayat

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The present study seeks to investigate the application of expansion strategy in Persian subtitles of English crime movies. More precisely, this study aims at classifying the different types of expansion used in subtitles as well as investigating the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the application of each type. To achieve this end, three English movies; namely, The Net (1995), Contact (1997) and Mission Impossible 2 (2000), available with Persian subtitles, were selected for the study. To collect the data, the above mentioned movies were watched and those parts of the Persian subtitles in which expansion had been used were identified and extracted along with their English dialogs. Then, the extracted Persian subtitles were classified based on the reason that led to expansion in each case. Next, the appropriateness or inappropriateness of using expansion in the extracted Persian subtitles was descriptively investigated. Finally, an equivalent not containing any expansion was proposed for those cases in which the meaning could be fully transferred without this strategy. The findings of the study indicated that the reasons range from explicitation (explicitation of visual, co-textual and contextual information), mistranslation and paraphrasing to the preferences of subtitlers. Furthermore, it was found that the employment of expansion strategy was inappropriate in all cases except for those caused by explicitation of contextual information since correct and shorter equivalents which were equally capable of conveying the intended meaning could be posited for the original dialogs.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, English crime movies, expansion strategies, Persian subtitles

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25 Translation Quality Assessment in Fansubbed English-Chinese Swearwords: A Corpus-Based Study of the Big Bang Theory

Authors: Qihang Jiang

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Fansubbing, the combination of fan and subtitling, is one of the main branches of Audiovisual Translation (AVT) having kindled more and more interest of researchers into the AVT field in recent decades. In particular, the quality of so-called non-professional translation seems questionable due to the non-transparent qualification of subtitlers in a huge community network. This paper attempts to figure out how YYeTs aka 'ZiMuZu', the largest fansubbing group in China, translates swearwords from English to Chinese for its fans of the prevalent American sitcom The Big Bang Theory, taking cultural, social and political elements into account in the context of China. By building a bilingual corpus containing both the source and target texts, this paper found that most of the original swearwords were translated in a toned-down manner, probably due to Chinese audiences’ cultural and social network features as well as the strict censorship under the Chinese government. Additionally, House (2015)’s newly revised model of Translation Quality Assessment (TQA) was applied and examined. Results revealed that most of the subtitled swearwords achieved their pragmatic functions and exerted a communicative effect for audiences. In conclusion, this paper enriches the empirical research concerning House’s new TQA model, gives a full picture of the subtitling of swearwords in AVT field and provides a practical guide for the practitioners in their career of subtitling.

Keywords: corpus-based approach, fansubbing, pragmatic functions, swearwords, translation quality assessment

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24 Compassion Fade: Effects of Mass Perception and Intertemporal Choice on Non-Volunteering Behavior

Authors: Mariel L. Alonzo, Patricia Mae T. Chi, Juliana Patrice P. Mayormita, Sanjana A. Sorio

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Compassion fade proposes an inverse relationship between the magnitude of stimuli to elicited compassion. This phenomenon is viewed within a framework that integrates a 3-Act Compassion structure with Latané and Darley’s Unresponsive Bystander Model and Prospect Theory of Decision-making under risk. Students (N=211) from Ateneo de Davao were sampled to examine the effects of mass perception (increasing number of needy persons) and intertemporal choice (soon versus later) on volunteering behavior. Collegiate classes in their natural setting were randomly assigned to five different treatment groups and were presented with audiovisual presentations featuring an increasing number of needy persons. The students were deceived to believe that two hypothetical feeding programs for Marawi refugees, taking place in 1 month and 6 months, were in need of volunteers for its preparatory phase. Results show a statistically significant (p=0.000; p=0.013) non-linear trend consistently for both feeding programs. There was a decrease in volunteered time means as identifiable victims increased from 0-47 and an increase as it progressed towards 267 non-identifiable victims. Highest interest was expressed for the 0 needy people shown and least for 47. The 0 hours volunteered was consistently the mode and median in all treatments. There was no statistically significant temporal discounting effect.

Keywords: compassion, group perception, identifiable victim, intertemporal choice, prosocial behavior, unresponsive bystander

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23 The Information-Seeking Behaviour of Kuwaiti Judges (KJs)

Authors: Essam Mansour

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The key purpose of this study is to show information-seeking behaviour of Kuwaiti Judges (KJs). Being one of the few studies about the information needs and information-seeking behaviour conducted in Arab and developing countries, this study is a pioneer one among many studies conducted in information seeking, especially with this significant group of information users. The authors tried to investigate this seeking behavior in terms of KJs' thoughts, perceptions, motivations, techniques, preferences, tools and barriers met when seeking information. The authors employed a questionnaire, with a response rate 77.2 percent. This study showed that most of KJs were likely to be older, educated and with a work experience ranged from new to old experience. There is a statistically reliable significant difference between KJs' demographic characteristics and some sources of information, such as books, encyclopedias, references and mass media. KJs were using information moderately to make a decision, to be in line with current events, to collect statistics and to make a specific/general research. The office and home were the most frequent location KJs were accessing information from. KJs' efficiency level of the English language is described to be moderately good, and a little number of them confirmed that their efficiency level of French was not bad. The assistance provided by colleagues, followed by consultants, translators, sectaries and librarians were found to be most strong types of assistance needed when seeking information. Mobile apps, followed by PCs, information networks (the Internet) and information databases were the highest technology tool used by KJs. Printed materials, followed by non-printed and audiovisual materials were the most preferred information formats KJs use. The use of languages, the recency of information and the place of information, the deficit role of the library to deliver information were at least significant barriers to KJs when seeking information.

Keywords: information users, information-seeking behaviour, information needs, judges, Kuwait

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22 Using a Neural Network to Identify Pornographic Materials Involving Minors: Case Study

Authors: Wojciech Oronowicz-Jaśkowiak, Piotr Girdwoyń, Piotr Wasilewski

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The aim of the article is to present the application of a neural network (using both supervised and unsupervised learning) to identify pornographic materials involving minors. In judicial practice, visual and audiovisual materials depicting minors engaging in sexual activity or presenting various degrees of nudity are considered pornographic materials involving minors. This will be presented as a case study – a summary of a forensic sexological opinion with an appropriate theoretical commentary and description of research methodology. The subject of the proceedings was the storage of pornographic materials involving minors; therefore, a forensic opinion of a sexology expert was sought in order to determine whether the prosecuted could be diagnosed with sexual preference disorders. The character and type of the secured materials were an important clinical premise for the expert. As a result of the preliminary analysis, it was found that the secured material contained a very large number of photographs and videos, exceeding the possibility of their manual evaluation. For this reason, it was decided to use a neural network to identify photographs corresponding to a given type of pornography. A neural network was created using the fast.ai library, an original architecture, and ResNet152 architecture, and both supervised learning (classification of pornographic materials into groups involving only adults and involving minors) and unsupervised learning techniques (using the modified SOM algorithm). This solution allowed to verify one of the theses put forward by the accused. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first application of a neural network in forensic sexology.

Keywords: child sexual abuse material, forensic sexology, data science, CSAM, COPINE

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21 The Potential Role of University Libraries in the Fight against Terrorism in Upper Egypt

Authors: Essam Mansour

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The purpose of this study is to explore the potential role of South Valley University (SVU) libraries’ manpower, collections and services in the fight against terrorism in the Upper Egypt. A quantitative research methodology was used in the form of a survey sent to 127 library staff at the SVU. The survey was undertaken from June to July 2015 with a response rate 73.2%. Printed materials were the most adequate collections in the SVU libraries. Other materials, such as CDs/DVDs, audiovisual materials, microfilm and microfiche, online resources and electronic materials respectively were inadequate at SVU libraries. Few of the services provided by SVU libraries were characterized as adequate services, some are inadequate and other services do not exist. The average of the facilities provided by SVU libraries was somewhat adequate. Activities, such as holding social field trips, holding training workshops and holding academic field trip were, at least, somewhat adequate to SVU libraries. SVU libraries had no a significant role in fighting terrorism in the Upper Egypt. There is no a relationship between the SVU library staff’s professional characteristics and the potential role that their libraries may play in the fight against this phenomenon. As a result of the lack of SVU libraries’ collections, services, facilities and activities, this study concluded that that such role could not be achieved. Almost all the library staff admitted that this severe lack has affected the provision of library patrons and members of the library community to these collections and services, which help in countering the threat of terrorism. Despite the significance of all these problems faced by SVU libraries in the fight against terrorism, it was found that the inadequacy of the library opening hours is significantly correlated with the professional characteristics of the library staff, particularly their job title and work experience.

Keywords: terrorism, national security, university libraries, south valley university, Egypt, survey

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20 Didactics of Literature within the Brechtian Theatre in Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and Ernest Lehman's Screenplay Adaptation from an Audiovisual Perspective

Authors: Angel Mauricio Castillo

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The background to the way theatrical performances and music dramas- as they were known in the mid-nineteenth century, provided the audience with a complete immersion into the feelings of the characters through poetry, music and other artistic representations which create a false sense of reality. However, a novel representation on stage some eighty years later, which is non-cathartic, is significant because it represents the antithesis to the common creations of the period and is originated by the separation of the elements as a dominant. A succinct description of the basic methodologies includes the sense of defamiliarization that results as a near translation of the German word Verfremdung will be referred to along this work as the V-effect (also known as the ‘alienation effect’) and will embody the representation of the performing techniques that enables the audience to watch a play being fully aware of its nature. A play might sometimes present the audience with a constant reminder that it is only a play; therefore, all elements will be introduced to provoke dissimilar reactions and opinions. A clear indication of the major findings of the study is that there is a strong correlation between Hegel, Marx and Brecht as it is disclosed how the didactics of Literature have been influencing not only Brecht’s productions but also every educational context in which these ideas are intertwined. The result is a new dialectical process that is to say, a new thesis that creates independent thinking skills on the part of the audience. Therefore, this model opposes to the Hegelian formula thesis-antithesis-synthesis in that the synthesis in the Brechtian theatre will inevitably fall into the category of a different thesis within an enlightening type of discourse. The confronting ideas of illusion versus reality will create a new dialectical thesis instead of resulting into a synthesis.

Keywords: Brechtian theatre, didactics, literature, education

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19 Colloquialism in Audiovisual Translation: English Subtitling of the Lebanese Film Capernaum as a Case Study

Authors: Fatima Saab

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This paper attempts to study colloquialism in audio-visual translation, with particular emphasis given to investigating the difficulties and challenges encountered by subtitlers in translating Lebanese colloquial into English. To achieve the main objectives of this study, ample and thorough cultural and translational analysis of examples drawn from the subtitled movie Capernaum are presented in order to identify the strategies used to overcome cultural barriers and differences and to show the process of decision-making by the translator. Also, special attention is given to explain the technicalities in translating subtitles and how they affect the translation process. The research is a descriptive analytical study whereby the writer sets out empirical observations, consisting of descriptive and analytical examination of the difficulties and problems associated with translating Arabic colloquialisms, specifically Lebanese, into English in the subtitled film, Capernaum. The research methodology utilizes a qualitative approach to group the selected data into the subtitling strategies presented by Gottlieb under the domesticating or foreignizing strategies according to Venuti's Model. It is shown that producing the same meanings to a foreign audience is not an easy task. The background of cultural elements and the stories that make up the history and mindset of the Lebanese and Arabic peoples leads to the use of the transfer and paraphrase methodologies most of the time (81% of the sample used for analysis). The research shows that translating and subtitling colloquialism needs special skills by the translators to overcome the challenges imposed by the limited presentation space as well as cultural differences. Translation of colloquial Arabic/Lebanese can be achieved to a certain extent and delivering the meaning and effect of the source language culture is accomplished in as much as the translator investigates and relates to the target culture.

Keywords: Lebanese colloquial, audio-visual translation, subtitling, Capernaum

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18 Informal Self-Governance: The Formation of an Alternative Urban Framework in a Cairo Region

Authors: Noor Abdelhamid

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Almost half of Cairo’s growing population is housed in self-built, self-governed informal settlements serving as an alternative in the absence of government-provided public housing. These settlements emerged as the spatial expression of informal practices or activities operating outside regulated, formal frameworks. A comprehensive narrative of political events, administrative decisions, and urban policies set the stage for the growth of informal expression in Egypt. The purpose of this qualitative inquiry is to portray informal self-governance practiced by residents in the Cairo region. This research argues that informal spatial practices offer an alternative urban framework for bottom-up development in the absence of government provisions. In the context of this study, informal self-governance is defined as the residents’ autonomous control and use of public urban space in informal settlements. The case study for this research is Ard al-Liwa, a semi-formal settlement representing the majority of informal settlement typologies in Egypt, which consist of the formal occupation of land through an uncontrolled land subdivision, zoning, and construction. An inductive methodological approach is adopted to first study informal practices as singular activities and then as components of a larger environment. The collected set of empirical data consists of audiovisual material and observations obtained during regular site visits and interviews with residents native to the settlement. Methods of analysis are synthesized to identify themes in the data: the static and dynamic use of sidewalks, the urban traces of informal building allocation and construction, the de facto right to urban space, and the resultant spatial patterns. The paper concludes by positioning the research in the context of the current architectural practice, questioning the role, and responsibility, of designers in these self-governed urban regions.

Keywords: Egypt, informal settlements, self-governance, urban framework

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