Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2149

Search results for: freedom of expression

2149 Freedom with Limitations: The Nature of Free Expression in the European Case-Law

Authors: Laszlo Vari

Abstract:

In the digital age, the spread of the mobile world and the nature of the cyberspace, offers many new opportunities for the prevalence of the fundamental right to free expression, and therefore, for free speech and freedom of the press; however, these new information communication technologies carry many new challenges. Defamation, censorship, fake news, misleading information, hate speech, breach of copyright etc., are only some of the violations, all of which can be derived from the harmful exercise of freedom of expression, all which become more salient in the internet. Here raises the question: how can we eliminate these problems, and practice our fundamental freedom rightfully? To answer this question, we should understand the elements and the characteristic of the nature of freedom of expression, and the role of the actors whose duties and responsibilities are crucial in the prevalence of this fundamental freedom. To achieve this goal, this paper will explore the European practice to understand instructions found in the case-law of the European Court of Human rights for the rightful exercise of freedom of expression.

Keywords: collision of rights, European case-law, freedom opinion and expression, media law, freedom of information, online expression

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2148 Freedom of Expression and Its Restriction in Audiovisual Media

Authors: Sevil Yildiz

Abstract:

Audio visual communication is a type of collective expression. Collective expression activity informs the masses, gives direction to opinions and establishes public opinion. Due to these characteristics, audio visual communication must be subjected to special restrictions. This has been stipulated in both the Constitution and the European Human Rights Agreement. This paper aims to review freedom of expression and its restriction in audio visual media. For this purpose, the authorisation of the Radio and Television Supreme Council to impose sanctions as an independent administrative authority empowered to regulate the field of audio visual communication has been reviewed with regard to freedom of expression and its limits.

Keywords: audio visual media, freedom of expression, its limits, radio and television supreme council

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2147 Freedom of Information and Freedom of Expression

Authors: Amin Pashaye Amiri

Abstract:

Freedom of information, according to which the public has a right to have access to government-held information, is largely considered as a tool for improving transparency and accountability in governments, and as a requirement of self-governance and good governance. So far, more than ninety countries have recognized citizens’ right to have access to public information. This recognition often took place through the adoption of an act referred to as “freedom of information act”, “access to public records act”, and so on. A freedom of information act typically imposes a positive obligation on a government to initially and regularly release certain public information, and also obliges it to provide individuals with information they request. Such an act usually allows governmental bodies to withhold information only when it falls within a limited number of exemptions enumerated in the act such as exemptions for protecting privacy of individuals and protecting national security. Some steps have been taken at the national and international level towards the recognition of freedom of information as a human right. Freedom of information was recognized in a few countries as a part of freedom of expression, and therefore, as a human right. Freedom of information was also recognized by some international bodies as a human right. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled in 2006 that Article 13 of the American Convention on Human Rights, which concerns the human right to freedom of expression, protects the right of all people to request access to government information. The European Court of Human Rights has recently taken a considerable step towards recognizing freedom of information as a human right. However, in spite of the measures that have been taken, public access to government information is not yet widely accepted as an international human right. The paper will consider the degree to which freedom of information has been recognized as a human right, and study the possibility of widespread recognition of such a human right in the future. It will also examine the possible benefits of such recognition for the development of the human right to free expression.

Keywords: freedom of information, freedom of expression, human rights, government information

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2146 Religio-Cultural Ethos and Mental Health

Authors: Haveesha Buddhdev

Abstract:

The most important right for a human being in a society is the freedom of expression as stated by Article 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human rights pledged by member states of United Nations. Will it be fair to expect him/her to be of sound mental health if this right is taken away? Religion as a primary social institution controls many rights, freedoms and duties of people in a society. It does so by imposing certain values and beliefs on people which would either enhance quality of life or curb their freedom adversely thus affecting individual mental health. This paper aims to study the positive and negative role that religion plays in influencing one’s freedom of expression. This paper will focus on reviewing existing studies on the positive and negative impacts of religion on mental health. It will also contain data collected by the researcher about the impacts of religion on freedom of expression which will be obtained by surveying a sample of 30 adolescents and young adults. The researcher will use a Likert scale for these purpose, with response options ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree and quantify it accordingly. Descriptive statistics would be used to analyse the data. Such research would help to identify possible problems faced by adolescents and young adults when it comes to religio-cultural ethos and also facilitate further researches to study the role that religion plays in mental health.

Keywords: cultural Ethos, freedom of expression, adolescent mental health, social science

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2145 Human Trafficking: Stand for Freedom

Authors: Madhumitha Rajasekaran

Abstract:

Freedom is a short, powerful word we take for granted every day. It is hard to fully appreciate freedom when we have never had it snatched away from us. We get to choose our jobs, where we live, what we eat. If we are unhappy at work, we have the freedom to quit and find work elsewhere.

Keywords: human trafficking, standing for freedom, social work, social research

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2144 Freedom of Speech and Involvement in Hatred Speech on Social Media Networks

Authors: Sara Chinnasamy, Michelle Gun, M. Adnan Hashim

Abstract:

Federal Constitution guarantees Malaysians the right to free speech and expression; yet hatred speech can be commonly found on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. In Malaysia social media sphere, most hatred speech involves religion, race and politics. Recent cases of racial attacks on social media have created social tensions among Malaysians. Many Malaysians always argue on their rights to freedom of speech. However, there are laws that limit their expression to the public and protecting social media users from being a victim of hate speech. This paper aims to explore the attitude and involvement of Malaysian netizens towards freedom of speech and hatred speech on social media. It also examines the relationship between involvement in hatred speech among Malaysian netizens and attitude towards freedom of speech. For most Malaysians, practicing total freedom of speech in the open is unthinkable. As a result, the best channel to articulate their feelings and opinions liberally is the internet. With the advent of the internet medium, more and more Malaysians are conveying their viewpoints using the various internet channels although sensitivity of the audience is seldom taken into account. Consequently, this situation has led to pockets of social disharmony among the citizens. Although this unhealthy activity is denounced by the authority, netizens are generally of the view that they have the right to write anything they want. Using the quantitative method, survey was conducted among Malaysians aged between 18 and 50 years who are active social media users. Results from the survey reveal that despite a weak relationship level between hatred speech involvement on social media and attitude towards freedom of speech, the association is still considerably significant. As such, it can be safely presumed that hatred speech on social media occurs due to the freedom of speech that exists by way of social media channels.

Keywords: freedom of speech, hatred speech, social media, Malaysia, netizens

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2143 Aesthetics, Freedom and State in Hegel’s Philosophy

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

Many scholars consider Hegel’s philosophy of art as the greatest theory of aesthetics since Aristotle’s Poetics. ‘Freedom’ distinguishes modern, especially German Idealism with Greek philosophy. Therefore, introducing and contemplating on Hegel’s Aesthetics as a whole, freedom as the essence of art, Hegel’s controversial claim on the end of art, and the relation of art and state is the main theme of this study. Hegel’s aesthetics is to be understood in his whole system. According to Hegel’s speculative philosophy, being is to be understood as self-determining Reason or Idea. The self-determining Reason actualizes and realizes himself in the course of history. Idea in the process of self-actualization becomes more and more rational. It first actualizes itself in matter, then in non-conscious life, finally in conscious and self-conscious life. Self-conscious life is the most rational stage of development of Idea in which the subject can think and imagine, use language and exercise freedom. Hegel calls this self-conscious life Spirit (Geist). Therefore, emergence of human being is an essential moment in the process of self-determination of Reason. It is not accidental rather a necessity. The essence of spirit is freedom. Since the history is the process of the self-actualization if spirit, humankind becomes more and more, free. Spirit in its ‘Absolute’ form manifests itself into three forms; Art, Religion and philosophy. Art is the first stage in which Spirit understands itself. In fact, Art is the expression of human spirit, which is comprehended by our senses. Beauty is defined as the sensuous expression of free Spirit. The purpose of art is, therefore, to express, enjoy and contemplate on our freedom. State belongs to the realm of Objective spirit, while Art along with Religion and philosophy belong to the realm of Absolute Spirit. Absolute spirit is superior to Objective Spirit; therefore, state must not interfere in the realm of art. Limitation on art by state directly violates freedom and prevents development of national spirit. Genuine art leads us to freedom and richness of (national) Spirit. Using Hegel’s philosophy of art, we can comprehend why totalitarian states try to limit art and, why artists are the enemy of totalitarian states. In this philosophical system, we contemplate on art as a way to freedom and emancipation.

Keywords: aesthetics, freedom, spirit, state

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2142 Constitution and Self-Consciousness in Hegel's Philosophy

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

According to Hegel’s philosophy, constitution of any given nation is the best expression of its national Self-Consciousness. Since constitution is the place in which freedom and Universal Rights is expressed, and since the essence of Self-consciousness is freedom, the development of self-consciousness and consequently freedom, is the direct cause of the development of constitution. Self-consciousness develops in the human history according to its own internal and external dialectic; therefore, it is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. However, constitution is supposed to be a stable foundation for the legal system of state and society. Therefore, the dilemma is: how the dynamic and contradictory nature of Self-Consciousness is the foundation of constitution that supposed to be the stable base of legal system of state and society. According to Hegel’s philosophy, the contradiction between the dynamic self- consciousness and the static constitution and state has an essential role in the formation of social movements within any given state. Self-consciousness is the phenomenology of Spirit in the human history. Subjective Spirit expresses itself in the different shapes of Self-consciousness in human spirit. These different shapes of self-consciousness must be identical with its contradiction; Objective Spirit. State is the highest form of the objective Spirit. Therefore, state and its foundation namely ‘constitution’ must be identical with Self-consciousness. "Spirit cannot remain forever alienated from its expression." Hegel states. Self-consciousness is the Subjective Spirit, it freely develops according to its internal and external contradictions, but since it must be always identical with its expression namely constitution, its development results to alienation. They way by which self-consciousness became again identical with the constitution determines the nature of legal and political development of any given society and state. In the democratic states, self-consciousness shows itself partially in the public opinion. In the process of election, this public opinion changes the ruling parties that construct the government. In democracies, self-consciousness or subjective spirit is in a dialectical relationship with state or the Objective Spirit. Therefore, it cannot remain alienated with its expression that is political system and its constitution. But, in the autocracies Self-consciousness cannot easily express itself in the government and its constitution. More Self-consciousness develops more it becomes alienated with its expression that is the state and its constitution. Rebel and revolution are the symptom of alienation of Spirit (self-consciousness) with its expression (state and its constitution).

Keywords: alienation, constitution, self-consciousness, spirit

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2141 Oakes Test and Proportionality Test: Balance between the Practical Costs of Limiting Rights and the Benefits Arising from the Law

Authors: Rafael Tedrus Bento

Abstract:

The analysis of proportionality as a test is raised as a basic foundation for the achievement of Fundamental Rights. We used legal dogmatics and empirical analysis to seek the expected results, from the reading of the RV Oakes trial by the Supreme Court of Canada. In cases involving freedom of expression, two tests are used to resolve disputes. The first examines whether, in fact, the case can be characterized as a violation of freedom of expression; the second assesses whether this violation can be justified by the reasonable limit clause. This test was defined in the RV Oakes trial by the Supreme Court of Canada, concluding with the Oakes Test, used worldwide as a proportionality test. Resulting is a proportionality between the effects of the limiting measure and the objective - the more serious the harmful effects of a measure, the more important the objective must be.

Keywords: Oakes, proportionality, fundamental rights, Supreme Court of Canada

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2140 From Protector to Violator: Assessing State's Role in Protecting Freedom of Religion in Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country that upholds the law, human rights and religious freedom. The freedom that implied in various laws and constitution (Undang-undang 1945) is not necessarily applicable in practice of religious life. In one side, the state has a duty as protector and guarantor of freedom, on the other side, however, it turns into one of the actors of freedom violations of religion minority. State action that interferes freedom of religion is done in various ways both intentionally or negligently or not to perform its obligations in the enforcement of human rights (human rights due diligence). Besides the state, non-state actors such as religious organizations, individuals also become violators of the rights of religious freedom. This article will discuss two fundamental issues that interfere freedom of religion in Indonesia after democratic era. In addition, this article also discusses a comprehensive state policy that discriminates minority religions to manifest their faith.

Keywords: religious freedom, constitution, minority faith, state actor

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2139 Freedom and the Value of Games: How to Overcome the Challenges in the Gamification of Necessary Learning Tasks

Authors: Jonathan May

Abstract:

This paper argues that the value of games relates to the sensation of freedom they create, and this in turn results from their nature as voluntary, non-necessary tasks. Attempts to gamify necessary learning tasks are therefore challenged to create this sensation of freedom and so they often fail to create the pleasure and value found in traditional games. It then demonstrates a route to creating this sensation of freedom through the maximization of varied and creative solutions to such problems.

Keywords: gamification, games, philosophy of games, freedom, voluntary action, necessity, motivation, value of games

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2138 When Journalism Becomes a Burden: Practical Effect of Journalism Practices in Nigeria’s Developing Democracy under Muhammadu Buhari

Authors: Israel Oguche

Abstract:

Journalism practice has faced several challenges across the globe, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria. While Nigeria has thrived under democratic experiment for twenty years since the return to democracy in 1999, there is still a great lacuna in freedom of expression, such that the presidents, though elected democratically, have had the tendencies to use military might in clamping down on journalism practices across the country. Under Muhammadu Buhari, it seems Nigeria has returned to the military era when powers were used against who says what, on a media, so today, in Nigeria, there are obvious cases of outright human rights violations and detention of journalists whose offenses were not spelled out. From Abiri Jones to Abba Jalingo and Omoyele Sowore, Nigeria journalists have been placed under the cocoon of the tyrannical administration of Muhammadu Buhari, the president, with subsequent clamping down on the instruments of freedoms such as access to justice and fair hearing. This paper gave vivid analytical and empirical perspectives of journalism practice under the dark days of Muhammadu Buhari as Nigeria’s president. The objectives include; examining the core cases of attacks on journalists since 2015 to date, determining the burden of practicing journalism in a tyrannical government, reeling out the effects of restrictive practices of journalism on freedom of expression among Nigerians and proffering solutions for improvement in the years ahead. Using the cognitive dissonance theory, the survey method was used for the study, with qualitative research analysis as a tool for data presentation. In the findings, the number of journalists in jail for publishing objectively under the Buhari administration remains high while the government has clamped down on freedom of expression among the people. The study concluded that there is a need for repelling of laws made by the Nigeria government in order to save the Nigerian journalism industry from total collapse.

Keywords: communication, developing democracy, press freedom, journalism practices

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2137 Academic Freedom Policy: A Case Study

Authors: Marlin Killen

Abstract:

The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) describes academic freedom as essential to the purposes of research and teaching. The importance of academic freedom as a bedrock foundation that supports the work of the professoriate cannot be overstated, and there have been innumerable challenges that have attempted to curtail it. These challenges come from a variety of sources that span legal, ethical, cultural, institutional, and professional perspective and are amplified by social media, traditional media, and political action efforts. Because of these challenges, the development of a comprehensive institutional policy on academic freedom that addresses the principles, practices, and appropriate responses to modern challenges can be a daunting task. This presentation will focus on a case study of a university’s effort to develop an updated, evolving policy on academic freedom that provides a framework and remedies for contemporary challenges to this critical function in higher education.

Keywords: academic freedom, academic freedom policy, higher education policy

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2136 Macronutrients and the FTO Gene Expression in Hypothalamus: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

Authors: Saeid Doaei

Abstract:

The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of the existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article) found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In conclusion, the level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.

Keywords: obesity, gene expression, FTO, macronutrients

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2135 Effect of Extraction Methods on the Fatty Acids and Physicochemical Properties of Serendipity Berry Seed Oil

Authors: Olufunmilola A. Abiodun, Adegbola O. Dauda, Ayobami Ojo, Samson A. Oyeyinka

Abstract:

Serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii diel) is a tropical dioecious rainforest vine and native to tropical Africa. The vine grows during the raining season and is used mainly as sweetener. The sweetener in the berry is known as monellin which is sweeter than sucrose. The sweetener is extracted from the fruits and the seed is discarded. The discarded seeds contain bitter principles but had high yield of oil. Serendipity oil was extracted using three methods (N-hexane, expression and expression/n-hexane). Fatty acids and physicochemical properties of the oil obtained were determined. The oil obtained was clear, liquid and have odour similar to hydrocarbon. The percentage oil yield was 38.59, 12.34 and 49.57% for hexane, expression and expression-hexane method respectively. The seed contained high percentage of oil especially using combination of expression and hexane. Low percentage of oil was obtained using expression method. The refractive index values obtained were 1.443, 1.442 and 1.478 for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively. Peroxide value obtained for expression-hexane was higher than those for hexane and expression. The viscosities of the oil were 125.8, 128.76 and 126.87 cm³/s for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively which showed that the oil from expression method was more viscous than the other oils. The major fatty acids in serendipity seed oil were oleic acid (62.81%), linoleic acid (22.65%), linolenic (6.11%), palmitic acid (5.67%), stearic acid (2.21%) in decreasing order. Oleic acid which is monounsaturated fatty acid had the highest value. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 91.574, 92.256 and 90.426% for hexane, expression, and expression-hexane respectively. Combination of expression and hexane for extraction of serendipity oil produced high yield of oil. The oil could be refined for food and non-food application.

Keywords: serendipity seed oil, expression method, fatty acid, hexane

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2134 The Ordinary Way of the Appeal in Penalty Part

Authors: Abdelkadir Elhaouari

Abstract:

The priciest thing in human life since his birth is his freedom, basing on this idea, the conflict exists till now, the fight against oppression, injustice, tyranny and slavery, searching for freedom and political resistances, and this makes the freedom is deeply related to the defense for its existence all over years. This project attempts using any way to preserve this freedom, and building and maintaining bases and rules to organize this life. Appeal is a one of the most important method that human uses to protect his freedom, and we will mention in this thesis our attempt to clarify this aspect to the individual. We can say that the law does not know just one color or one logic, and is not based on one rule to be taken by heart, but the law is neutrality, the diversity, abstraction and diligence diversity. The penal law is a valued law and it deserves to be studied and searched more… so that to attempt to master it. Our thesis is just a brief explanation of an important point in this law, where we attempt to clarify and simplify the image to the normal person, so that he can preserve his rights, and we hope that we had succeeded to choose the right topic for that.

Keywords: appeal, penalization, judgement, criminal

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2133 Limiting Freedom of Expression to Fight Radicalization: The 'Silencing' of Terrorists Does Not Always Allow Rights to 'Speak Loudly'

Authors: Arianna Vedaschi

Abstract:

This paper addresses the relationship between freedom of expression, national security and radicalization. Is it still possible to talk about a balance between the first two elements? Or, due to the intrusion of the third, is it more appropriate to consider freedom of expression as “permanently disfigured” by securitarian concerns? In this study, both the legislative and the judicial level are taken into account and the comparative method is employed in order to provide the reader with a complete framework of relevant issues and a workable set of solutions. The analysis moves from the finding according to which the tension between free speech and national security has become a major issue in democratic countries, whose very essence is continuously endangered by the ever-changing and multi-faceted threat of international terrorism. In particular, a change in terrorist groups’ recruiting pattern, attracting more and more people by way of a cutting-edge communicative strategy, often employing sophisticated technology as a radicalization tool, has called on law-makers to modify their approach to dangerous speech. While traditional constitutional and criminal law used to punish speech only if it explicitly and directly incited the commission of a criminal action (“cause-effect” model), so-called glorification offences – punishing mere ideological support for terrorism, often on the web – are becoming commonplace in the comparative scenario. Although this is direct, and even somehow understandable, consequence of the impending terrorist menace, this research shows many problematic issues connected to such a preventive approach. First, from a predominantly theoretical point of view, this trend negatively impacts on the already blurred line between permissible and prohibited speech. Second, from a pragmatic point of view, such legislative tools are not always suitable to keep up with ongoing developments of both terrorist groups and their use of technology. In other words, there is a risk that such measures become outdated even before their application. Indeed, it seems hard to still talk about a proper balance: what was previously clearly perceived as a balancing of values (freedom of speech v. public security) has turned, in many cases, into a hierarchy with security at its apex. In light of these findings, this paper concludes that such a complex issue would perhaps be better dealt with through a combination of policies: not only criminalizing ‘terrorist speech,’ which should be relegated to a last resort tool, but acting at an even earlier stage, i.e., trying to prevent dangerous speech itself. This might be done by promoting social cohesion and the inclusion of minorities, so as to reduce the probability of people considering terrorist groups as a “viable option” to deal with the lack of identification within their social contexts.

Keywords: radicalization, free speech, international terrorism, national security

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2132 Ductility Reduction Factors for Displacement Spectra Corresponding to Soft Soil Zone of the Valley of Mexico

Authors: Noé D. Lazos-Gallardo, Sonia E. Ruiz, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran

Abstract:

A simplified mathematical expression to estimate ductility reduction factors of the displacement spectra corresponding to the soft soil zone of Mexico City is proposed. The aim is to allow a better characterization of the displacement spectra and provide a simple expression to be used in displacement based design (DBD). Emphasis is on the Mexico City Building Code. The study is based on the analysis of single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with elasto-plastic hysteretic behavior. Several seismic ground motions corresponding to subduction events with magnitudes equal to or greater than 6 and recorded in different stations of Mexico City are used. The proposed expression involves the ratio of elastic and inelastic pseudo-aceleration spectra, and depends on factors such the ductility demand and the vibration period of the structural system. The resulting ductility reduction factors obtained in this study are compared with others existing in the literature, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: displacement based design, displacements spectrum, ductility reduction factors, soft soil

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2131 Economic Analysis of Interaction Freedom, Institutions and Development in the countries of North Africa: Amartya Sen Approach of Capability

Authors: Essardi Omar, Razzouk Redouane

Abstract:

The concept of freedom requires notice of countries all over the world to consider welfare and the quality of life. Despite, many economics efforts in the field of development literature, they have often failed to incorporate the ideas of freedom and rights into their theoretical and empirical work. However, with Amartya Sen’s approach of capability and researches, we can provide a basis for moving forward in theory and measure of development. Indeed, with an approach based on the correlation and the analysis of data, particularly on the tool of principle component analysis, we are going to study assessments of World Bank, Freedom House, Fraster institute, and MINEFE experts. Our empirical objective is to reveal the existence of the institutional and freedom characteristics related to the development of the emergent countries. In order to help us to explain the recent performance reached by Central and Eastern Europe and Latine America in compared with the case of countries of North Africa. To do this, first we will try to build indicators based on dilemma liberties /institutions. Second we will introduce institutional variables and freedom variables to make comparisons in freedom, quality of institutions and development in the countries observed.

Keywords: freedoms, institutions, development, approach of capability, principle component analysis

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2130 The Impact of Financial News and Press Freedom on Abnormal Returns around Earnings Announcements in Greater China

Authors: Yu-Chen Wei, Yang-Cheng Lu, I-Chi Lin

Abstract:

This study examines the impacts of news sentiment and press freedom on abnormal returns during the earnings announcement in greater China including the Shanghai, Shenzhen and Taiwan stock markets. The news sentiment ratio is calculated by using the content analysis of semantic orientation. The empirical results show that news released prior to the event date may decrease the cumulative abnormal returns prior to the earnings announcement regardless of whether it is released in China or Taiwan. By contrast, companies with optimistic financial news may increase the cumulative abnormal returns during the announcement date. Furthermore, the difference in terms of press freedom is considered in greater China to compare the impact of press freedom on abnormal returns. The findings show that, the freer the press is, the more negatively significant will be the impact of news on the abnormal returns, which means that the press freedom may decrease the ability of the news to impact the abnormal returns. The intuition is that investors may receive alternative news related to each company in the market with greater press freedom, which proves the efficiency of the market and reduces the possible excess returns.

Keywords: news, press freedom, Greater China, earnings announcement, abnormal returns

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2129 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: BcL-2, immunohistochemistry, oral cancer, oral precancer

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2128 Expression of Interferon-Lambda Receptor-(IFN-λRα) in Mononuclear Phagocyte Cells (MPCs) Is Influenced by the Levels of Newly Discovered Type III IFN-λ4 in Vitro

Authors: Hashaam Akhtar

Abstract:

IFNλR1 and IL10R2 collectively construct a heterodimer, which is an acknowledged functional receptor for all type III interferons (IFNs). Expression of IFNλR1 is highly tissue specific, which can help in making type III IFNs a drug of choice as comparable to its analogue, type I IFNs, for treating hepatitis C in the near future. Although, expression of IFNλR1 also varies with the concentration of type I IFNs, but in this study it was shown that the expression of IFNλR1 varies with the protein titers of IFN-α, IFN-λ3 and the newly discovered IFN-λ4. High dosage of IFN-α reduces the expression of IFNλR1 in HepG2 cells, which can affect the antiviral activity of type III IFNs in vivo. We premeditated an experimental strategy to differentiate monocytes into dendritic cells (DCs), type I and type II macrophages in vitro and quantified the expression of the IFNλR1 by qPCR. The exposure of newly discovered IFN-λ4 to macrophages and DCs also raised the expression of its own receptor, which shows that expression of IFN-λ4 protein in hepatitis C patient may augment type I treatment and help ease off viral titers. The results of this study may contribute in some understanding towards the mechanisms involved in the selective expression of IFNLR1 and exceptionalities associated with the receptor.

Keywords: IFNLR1, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFN-λ4), Mononuclear Phagocyte Cells (MPCs), expression

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2127 MicroRNA 200c-3p Regulates Autophagy Mediated Upregulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in PC-3 Cells

Authors: Eun Jung Sohn, Hwan Tae Park

Abstract:

Autophagy is a cellular response to stress or environment on cell survival. Here, we investigated the role of ectopic expression of miR 200c-3p in autophagy. Ectopic expression of miR 200c-3p increased the expression of IRE1alpha, ATF6 and CHOP by western blot and RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the level of microRNA 200c-3p was enhanced by treatment of TG or overexpression of GRP 78. Also, ectopic expression of miR200c-3p increased the LC3 II expression by western blot and RT-qPCR. Also, we found that western blot assay showed that miR200c-3p inhibitor was blocked the starvation–induced LC3II levels. Furthermore, starvation stress increased the level of miR200c-3p in different kinetics. Ectopic expression of miR200c-3p attenuated LC3II expression in IRE1 siRNA transfected PC3 cells. Here, we first demonstrate that miR200c-3p regulates autophagy via ER stress pathway.

Keywords: Autophagy, ER stress, LC3II, miR200c-3p

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2126 Finding Bicluster on Gene Expression Data of Lymphoma Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: Alhadi Bustaman, Soeganda Formalidin, Titin Siswantining

Abstract:

DNA microarray technology is used to analyze thousand gene expression data simultaneously and a very important task for drug development and test, function annotation, and cancer diagnosis. Various clustering methods have been used for analyzing gene expression data. However, when analyzing very large and heterogeneous collections of gene expression data, conventional clustering methods often cannot produce a satisfactory solution. Biclustering algorithm has been used as an alternative approach to identifying structures from gene expression data. In this paper, we introduce a transform technique based on singular value decomposition to identify normalized matrix of gene expression data followed by Mixed-Clustering algorithm and the Lift algorithm, inspired in the node-deletion and node-addition phases proposed by Cheng and Church based on Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC). Experimental study on standard datasets demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm in gene expression data.

Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), biclustering, gene expression data, lymphoma, singular value decomposition (SVD)

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2125 The Experience of Head Nurse: Phenomenological Research of Implementing Islamic Leadership Style in Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital

Authors: Jamaludin Tarkim, Yoga Teguh Guntara, Maftuhah

Abstract:

Islamic leadership style is model of leadership style applied by the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Islamic leadership style is applied, namely Syura (deliberation), ‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality), and Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. This research aims to gain an overview of the experience of Head Nurse in the implementation of Islamic leadership style. This research is a qualitative one with descriptive phenomenology design through in-depth interviews. Participants were occupied as Head Nurse at the Hospital room Syarif Hidayatullah, set directly (purposive) with the principle of suitability (appropriateness) and sufficiency (adequacy). Retrieval of data and research conducted during the month of June 2014. Data collected in the form of recording in-depth interviews and analysis with Collazi method. This research identified four themes Syura (deliberation);‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality); Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. The results of this research can provide a review of the Head Room experience in the application of Islamic leadership style at Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital already skilled leadership during the process, but the application is still not maximized. Required further research on in-depth exploration of how to get more comprehensive results from room Head Nurse experience in the application of Islamic leadership style, as well as subsequent researchers can choose a wider scope and complex so get more complete data.

Keywords: experience, Islamic leadership style, head nurse, nursing management

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2124 Reminiscence Bump in Autobiographical Memory of Freedom Fighters in Bangladesh

Authors: Eamin Zahan Heanoy, Asheek Mohammad Shimul

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to address theoretical issues of reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory using the freedom fighters of Bangladesh as participants. It was assumed that they had a lot of negative memories during the liberation war in 1971 and those events would reflect the construction of reminiscence bump. Three hundred and twenty (320) freedom fighters were selected using mixed method (purposive and random) sampling technique. The freedom fighters were taken from 10 randomly chosen districts of 64. The participants recalled and dated autobiographical memories from across the lifespan. The age of the participants was between 50 to 80+ years. Memories were encoded at the time of the age when the events occurred. As expected the reminiscence bump, preferential recall of memories from second and third decade was observed. Results indicate that the bump for the participants was found 16 to 26 years. And most remarkably, they recalled most of the memories from 1971, the liberation war. Different retrieval curve has been found for male and female participants. The results have been discussed in the light of recent developments in reminiscence bump research.

Keywords: autobiographical memory, freedom fighters, liberation war, reminiscence bump

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2123 The Language Use of Middle Eastern Freedom Activists' Speeches: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas

Abstract:

Examining the role of Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech based on gender perspective is considered noteworthy because the society in the Middle East is patriarchal. This research aims to examine the language use of the Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speeches through gender perspective. The data sources are from male and female Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech videos. In analyzing the data, the theories employed are about Language Style from Gender Perspective and The Language for Speech. The result reveals that there are sets of spoken language differences between male and female speakers. In using the language for speech, both male and female speakers produce metaphor, euphemism, the ‘rule of three’, parallelism, and pronouns in random frequency of production, which cannot be separated by genders. Moreover, it cannot be concluded that one gender is more potential than the other to influence the audience in delivering speech. There are other factors, particularly non-verbal factors, existing to give impacts on how a speech can influence the audience.

Keywords: gender perspective, language use, Middle Eastern freedom activists, speech

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2122 Real Time PCR Analysis of microRNA Expression in Oral Cancer

Authors: Karl Kingsley

Abstract:

Many mechanisms are involved in the control of cellular differentiation and growth, which are often dysregulated in many cancers. Many distinct pathways are involved in these mechanisms of control, including deoxyribonuclease (DNA) methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activation that controls both genetic and epigenetic modifications and micro ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression. Less is known about the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and HDAC in oral cancers and the effect on microRNA expression. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of DNMT and HDAC family members in oral cancer and the concomitant expression of cancer-associated microRNAs. Using commercially available oral cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-4, SCC-9, SCC-15, and SCC-25, RNA was extracted and screened for DNMT, HDAC, and microRNA expression using highly-specific primers and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These data revealed low or absent expression of DNMT-1, which is associated with cellular differentiation but increased expression of DNMT-3a and DNMT-3b in all SCC cell lines compared with normal non-cancerous cell controls. In addition, no expression of HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression was found among the normal, non-cancerous cells but was highly expressed in each of the SCC cell lines examined. Differential expression of oncogenic and cancer-associated microRNAs was also observed among the SCC cell lines, including miR-21, miR-133, miR-149, miR-155, miR-365, and miR-720. These findings also appeared to vary according to observed growth rates among these cells. These data may be the first to demonstrate the expression and association between HDAC and DNMT3 family members among oral cancers. In addition, the differential expression of these epigenetic modifiers may be associated with the expression of specific microRNAs in these cancers, which have not previously been observed to the best of the author's knowledge. In addition, some associations and relationships may exist between the expression of these biomarkers and the rates of growth and proliferation, which may suggest that these expression patterns might represent potentially useful biomarkers to determine tumor aggressiveness and other phenotypic behaviors among oral cancers.

Keywords: oral cancer, DNA methyltransferase, histone deacetylase, microRNA

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2121 Complex Rigid-Plastic Deformation Model of Tow Degree of Freedom Mechanical System under Impulsive Force

Authors: Abdelouaheb Rouabhi

Abstract:

In order to study the plastic resource of structures, the elastic-plastic single degree of freedom model described by Prandtl diagram is widely used. The generalization of this model to tow degree of freedom beyond the scope of a simple rigid-plastic system allows investigating the plastic resource of structures under complex disproportionate by individual components of deformation (earthquake). This macro-model greatly increases the accuracy of the calculations carried out. At the same time, the implementation of the proposed macro-model calculations easier than the detailed dynamic elastic-plastic calculations existing software systems such as ANSYS.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, single degree of freedom model, rigid-plastic system, plastic resource, complex plastic deformation, macro-model

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2120 A Comparative Analysis on the Impact of the Prevention and Combating of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill of 2016 on the Rights to Human Dignity, Equality, and Freedom in South Africa

Authors: Tholaine Matadi

Abstract:

South Africa is a democratic country with a historical record of racially-motivated marginalisation and exclusion of the majority. During the apartheid era the country was run along pieces of legislation and policies based on racial segregation. The system held a tight clamp on interracial mixing which forced people to remain in segregated areas. For example, a citizen from the Indian community could not own property in an area allocated to white people. In this way, a great majority of people were denied basic human rights. Now, there is a supreme constitution with an entrenched justiciable Bill of Rights founded on democratic values of social justice, human dignity, equality and the advancement of human rights and freedoms. The Constitution also enshrines the values of non-racialism and non-sexism. The Constitutional Court has the power to declare unconstitutional any law or conduct considered to be inconsistent with it. Now, more than two decades down the line, despite the abolition of apartheid, there is evidence that South Africa still experiences hate crimes which violate the entrenched right of vulnerable groups not to be discriminated against on the basis of race, sexual orientation, gender, national origin, occupation, or disability. To remedy this mischief parliament has responded by drafting the Prevention and Combatting of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill. The Bill has been disseminated for public comment and suggestions. It is intended to combat hate crimes and hate speech based on sheer prejudice. The other purpose of the Bill is to bring South Africa in line with international human rights instruments against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related expressions of intolerance identified in several international instruments. It is against this backdrop that this paper intends to analyse the impact of the Bill on the rights to human dignity, equality, and freedom. This study is significant because the Bill was highly contested and creates a huge debate. This study relies on a qualitative evaluative approach based on desktop and library research. The article recurs to primary and secondary sources. For comparative purpose, the paper compares South Africa with countries such as Australia, Canada, Kenya, Cuba, and United Kingdom which have criminalised hate crimes and hate speech. The finding from this study is that despite the Bill’s expressed positive intentions, this draft legislation is problematic for several reasons. The main reason is that it generates considerable controversy mostly because it is considered to infringe the right to freedom of expression. Though the author suggests that the Bill should not be rejected in its entirety, she notes the brutal psychological effect of hate crimes on their direct victims and the writer emphasises that a legislature can succeed to combat hate-crimes only if it provides for them as a separate stand-alone category of offences. In view of these findings, the study recommended that since hate speech clauses have a negative impact on freedom of expression it can be promulgated, subject to the legislature enacting the Prevention and Combatting of Hate-Crimes Bill as a stand-alone law which criminalises hate crimes.

Keywords: freedom of expression, hate crimes, hate speech, human dignity

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