Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Szilvia Veres

13 Effect of Arsenic Treatment on Element Contents of Sunflower, Growing in Nutrient Solution

Authors: Bela Kovacs, Eva Bodi, Szilvia Veres, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay

Abstract:

The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic. Consequences of arsenic toxicity in the plant organism is decreases the weight of the roots, and causes discoloration and necrosis of leaves. The toxicity of arsenic depends on the quality and quantity of the arsenic specialization. The arsenic in the soil and in the plant presents as a most hazardous specialization. A dicotyledon plant were chosen for the experiment, namely sunflower. The sunflower plants were grown in nutrient solution in different As(III) levels. The content of As, P, Fe were measured from experimental plants, using by ICP-MS.Negative correlation was observed between the higher concentration of As(V) and As(III) in the nutrition solution and the content of P in the sunflower tissue. The amount of Fe was decreasing if we used a higher concentration of arsenic (30 mg kg-1). We can tell the conclusion that the arsenic had a negative effect on the sunflower tissue P and Fe content.

Keywords: Toxicity, Arsenic, Sunflower, ICP-MS

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12 Effects of Molybdenum Treatments on Maize and Sunflower Seedlings

Authors: Bela Kovacs, Eva Bodi, Szilvia Veres, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Varallay

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to examine whether increasing molybdenum (Mo) concentration affects on the growth and Mo concentration of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Arena PR) seedlings within laboratory conditions. In this experiment calcareous chernozem soil was used and Mo was supplemented into the soil as ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O] in four different concentrations as follow: 0 (control), 30, 90 and 270 mg/kg. In this study we found that molybdenum in small amount (30 mg/kg) affects positively on growth of maize and sunflower seedlings, however, higher concentration of Mo reduces the dry weights of shoots and roots. In the case of maize the highest Mo treatment (270 mg/kg) and in sunflower 90 mg/kg treatment caused significant reduction in plant growth. In addition, we observed that molybdenum contents in the roots and shoots were very low in case of control soil but were significantly elevated with increasing concentration of Mo treatment. Only in case of sunflower the highest 270 mg/kg Mo treatment caused decrease in Mo concentration.

Keywords: Molybdenum, Sunflower, maize, dry weight

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11 Effect of Different Arsenic Treatments on Root Growth of Sunflower Seedlings in Rhizobox Experiment

Authors: Bela Kovacs, Eva Bodi, Szilvia Veres, Szilvia Várallyay, Farzeneh Garousi

Abstract:

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring substance that can be present in soil, water and air. Vegetables, fruits, and other plants that grow in contaminated soils which are able to accumulate arsenic. Arsenic when presents in plant cells, has various negative physiological effects and when presents in soil will be inorgaic form, namely arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)). These two forms of arsenic disrupt plant metabolism by inhibiting its growth and these arsenic species has negative effect on nutrient uptake. A rhizobox experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of arsenite and arsenate on root growth of sunflower seedlings. Sunflower plants were grown in climatic room under irradiance of 300 µmol m-2 s-1, 16-h day and 8-h night photoperiod, day/night temperature of 25/20°C and relative humidity of 65-75%. We applied arsenic in form of arsenite (NaAsO2) and arsenate (KH2AsO4), respectively. The applied arsenic treatments was 0, 10, 30, 90 mg.kg-1. After disinfection, seeds were germinated between moist filter papers. Seedlings with 2-3 cm coleoptils were placed into rhizoboxes. In the rhizoboxes the growing and daily growing rhythm of roots of sunflower can be followed up, moreover possible phytotoxic symptoms of roots resulting from increasing arsenic can be seen. Weights of rhizoboxes were measured daily and also evaporated water added each day. The lengths of roots were measured daily until seedlings roots get at the end of the rhizoboxes. Negative correlation was observed between the higher concentration of arsenic in the soil and the growth of sunflower seedlings roots. The effect of arsenic toxicity was more considerable in 90 mg.kg-1 arsenic treatment than lower concentration. The same arsenite concentration causes slower growth in case of sunflower plant than the same arsenate concentration produced.

Keywords: Arsenic, Sunflower, rhizobox experiment, root growth

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10 The Role of Management Information Systems in the Strategic Management of Institutions of Higher Education

Authors: Szilvia Vincze, Zoltán Bács

Abstract:

It has become increasingly important for institutions of higher education as well to use available resources as effectively as possible for the implementation of the institution’s strategic plans and, at the same time, to ensure a stable future. This is the responsibility of the management and administration of the institution. Having access to complete and comprehensive information is indispensable for making dynamic and well-founded decisions that consider the realization of objectives to be primary and that manage possibly emerging risks, etc. The present paper introduces the role of Management Information Systems (MIS) at the University of Debrecen, one of the largest institutions of higher education in Hungary, and also discusses the utilization of this and associated information systems in management functions.

Keywords: Higher Education, Strategy Formulation, management information system (MIS), Hungary

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9 Role of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants in Chlorophyll A and B Content

Authors: E. Bodi, F. Garousi, B. Kovacs, S. Veres, S. Várallyay

Abstract:

Extracting and determining chlorophyll pigments (chlorophyll a and b) in green leaves are the procedures based on the solvent extraction of pigments in samples using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (Se( IV)) and selenate (Se( VI)) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of chlorophyll a and b for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of Se( IV) and Se( VI) were not effective on maize plants’ chlorophyll a and b significantly although high level of 3 mg.kg-1 Se( IV) had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about Se( VI) samples we did not observe this state and our different considered Se( VI) concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: maize, sodium selenate, sodium selenite, chlorophyll a and b

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8 Effect of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants on Specific Leaf Area

Authors: E. Bodi, Sz. Veres, F. Garousi, Sz. Varallyay, B. Kovacs

Abstract:

Specific leaf area (SLA; cm2leaf g-1leaf) is a key ecophysiological parameter influencing leaf physiology, photosynthesis, and whole plant carbon gain and also can be used as a rapid and diagnostic tool. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (SeIV) and selenate (SeVI) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of SLA for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of SeIV and SeVI were not effective on maize plants’ SLA significantly although high level of 3 mg.kg-1 SeIV had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about SeVI samples we did not observe this state and our different considered SeVI concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: maize, sodium selenate, sodium selenite, specific leaf area

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7 Normally Closed Thermoplastic Microfluidic Valves with Microstructured Valve Seats: A Strategy to Avoid Permanently Bonded Valves during Channel Sealing

Authors: Kebin Li, Keith Morton, Matthew Shiu, Karine Turcotte, Luke Lukic, Teodor Veres

Abstract:

We present a normally closed thermoplastic microfluidic valve design that uses microstructured valve seats to locally prevent the membrane from bonding to the valve seat during microfluidic channel sealing. The microstructured valve seat reduces the adhesion force between the contact surfaces of the valve seat and the membrane locally, allowing valve open and close operations while simultaneously providing a permanent and robust bond elsewhere to cover and seal the microfluidic channel network. Dynamic valve operation including opening and closing times can be tuned by changing the valve seat diameter as well as the density of the microstructures on the valve seats. The influence of the microstructured valve seat on the general flow behavior through the microfluidic devices was also studied. A design window for the fabrication of valve structure is identified and discussed to minimize the fabrication complexity.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Microfabrication, Thermoplastic Elastomer, injection molding, hot-embossing, microvalves

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6 Light Sensitive Plasmonic Nanostructures for Photonic Applications

Authors: Istvan Csarnovics, Attila Bonyar, Miklos Veres, Laszlo Himics, Attila Csik, Judit Kaman, Julia Burunkova, Geza Szanto, Laszlo Balazs, Sandor Kokenyesi

Abstract:

In this work, the performance of gold nanoparticles were investigated for stimulation of photosensitive materials for photonic applications. It was widely used for surface plasmon resonance experiments, not in the last place because of the manifestation of optical resonances in the visible spectral region. The localized surface plasmon resonance is rather easily observed in nanometer-sized metallic structures and widely used for measurements, sensing, in semiconductor devices and even in optical data storage. Firstly, gold nanoparticles on silica glass substrate satisfy the conditions for surface plasmon resonance in the green-red spectral range, where the chalcogenide glasses have the highest sensitivity. The gold nanostructures influence and enhance the optical, structural and volume changes and promote the exciton generation in gold nanoparticles/chalcogenide layer structure. The experimental results support the importance of localized electric fields in the photo-induced transformation of chalcogenide glasses as well as suggest new approaches to improve the performance of these optical recording media. Results may be utilized for direct, micrometre- or submicron size geometrical and optical pattern formation and used also for further development of the explanations of these effects in chalcogenide glasses. Besides of that, gold nanoparticles could be added to the organic light-sensitive material. The acrylate-based materials are frequently used for optical, holographic recording of optoelectronic elements due to photo-stimulated structural transformations. The holographic recording process and photo-polymerization effect could be enhanced by the localized plasmon field of the created gold nanostructures. Finally, gold nanoparticles widely used for electrochemical and optical sensor applications. Although these NPs can be synthesized in several ways, perhaps one of the simplest methods is the thermal annealing of pre-deposited thin films on glass or silicon surfaces. With this method, the parameters of the annealing process (time, temperature) and the pre-deposited thin film thickness influence and define the resulting size and distribution of the NPs on the surface. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is a very sensitive optical phenomenon and can be utilized for a large variety of sensing purposes (chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensors, etc.). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical method which can significantly increase the yield of Raman scattering of target molecules adsorbed on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. The sensitivity of LSPR and SERS based devices is strongly depending on the used material and also on the size and geometry of the metallic nanoparticles. By controlling these parameters the plasmon absorption band can be tuned and the sensitivity can be optimized. The technological parameters of the generated gold nanoparticles were investigated and influence on the SERS and on the LSPR sensitivity was established. The LSPR sensitivity were simulated for gold nanocubes and nanospheres with MNPBEM Matlab toolbox. It was found that the enhancement factor (which characterize the increase in the peak shift for multi-particle arrangements compared to single-particle models) depends on the size of the nanoparticles and on the distance between the particles. This work was supported by GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00041 project, which is co-financed by the European Union and European Social Fund. Istvan Csarnovics is grateful for the support through the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities, supported by the ÚNKP-17-4 Attila Bonyár and Miklós Veres are grateful for the support of the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Keywords: Metallic Nanoparticles, Plasmonic Nanostructures, light sensitive nanocomposites, photonic application

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5 The Conceptual Exploration of Comfort Zone by Using Content Analysis

Authors: Lilla Szabó Hangya, Szilvia Jambori

Abstract:

The comfort zone is less studied area in the field of psychology. One of the most important definitions is that comfort zone is a psychological state in which things feel familiar to a person with low level of anxiety and stress. But the validity of comfort zone does not confirm till now. The aim of our pilot research is to test which psychological factors could determine how young adults behave during their decision process to stay in one’s comfort zone or to leave it. Every person has a number of comfort zones, so we are not able to measure it directly, only those personality traits which predict if someone leaves his comfort zone easier or harder. In our study at first we wanted to clarify the meaning of comfort zone. 110 young adults (male: 37, female: 73; ages from 18 to 70, average age: 26,6) took part in the study. Beside their demographic datas we asked them what does the comfort zone mean for them. The results showed that the meaning of the comfort zone can be grouped in five dimensions: comfort (49,6 %), leaving it-change (8,1%), ambivalent feelings (10,6%), related to other people (10,6%), pursuit of self-realization (16,8%). Our results demonstrated age related characteristics. For young people at the age of 19 the comfort zone is related to other people, because during adolescents peer relationships become more important. Subjects at the age 20-30 answered that the comfort zone means comfort and stability for them. Their life becomes stable for a while, they are studying or working. But at the age of 25, when they finish university, most of them answered comfort zone means a changing process for them. On the other hand for subjects at the age of 27 the means of the comfort zone is pursuit of self-realization. After that period at the age of 31 when they have families and stable job the stability will also dominant. We saw that the comfort zone has much more meaning besides a pleasant psychological trait. Further we would like to determine which psychological factors relate to comfort zone, and what kind of personality traits could predict leaving or staying in one’s comfort zone. We want to observe the relationship between comfort zone and subjective well-being, life satisfaction self-efficacy or self-esteem.

Keywords: Development, young adults, personality trait, comfort zone

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4 Steps toward the Support Model of Decision-Making in Hungary: The Impact of the Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on the Hungarian National Legislation

Authors: Szilvia Halmos

Abstract:

Hungary was one of the first countries to sign and ratify the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereinafter: CRPD). Consequently, Hungary assumed an obligation under international law to review the national law in the light of the Article 12 of the CRPD requiring the States parties to guarantee the equality of persons with disabilities in terms of legal capacity, and to replace the regimes of substitute decision-making by the instruments of supported decision-making. This article is often characterized as one of the key norms of the CRPD, since the legal autonomy of the persons with disabilities is an essential precondition of their participation in the social life on an equal basis with others, envisaged by the social paradigm of disability. This paper examines the impact of the CRPD on the relevant Hungarian national legal norms, with special focus on the relevant rules of the recently codified Civil Code. The employed research methodologies include (1) the specification of the implementation requirements imposed by the Article 12 of the CRPD, (2) the determination of the indicators of the appropriate implementation, (3) the critical analysis of compliance of the relevant Hungarian legal regulation with the indicators, (4) with respect to the relevant case law of the Hungarian Constitutional Court and ordinary courts, the European Court of Human Rights and the Committee of Rights of Persons with Disabilities and (5) to the available empirical figures on the functioning of substitute and supported decision-making regimes. It will be established that the new Civil Code has made large steps toward the equality of persons with disabilities in terms of legal capacity and the support model of decision-making by the introduction of some specific instruments of supported decision-making and the restriction of the application of guardianship. Nevertheless, the regulation currently in effect fails to represent some crucial principles of the Article 12 of the CRPD, such as the non-discrimination of persons with psycho-social disabilities, the support of the articulation of the will and preferences of the individual instead of his/her best interest in the course of decision-making. The changes in the practice of the substitute and the support model brought about by the new legal norms can also be assessed as significant, however, so far unsatisfactory. The number of registered supporters is rather low, and the preconditions of the effective functioning of the support (e.g. the proper training of the supporters) are not ensured.

Keywords: Article 12 of the UN CRPD, Hungarian law on legal capacity, persons with intellectual and psycho-social disabilities, supported decision-making

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3 What Are the Problems in the Case of Analysis of Selenium by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in Food and Food Raw Materials?

Authors: Bela Kovacs, Eva Bodi, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay, Dávid Andrási

Abstract:

For analysis of elements in different food, feed and food raw material samples generally a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS), a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS), an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) are applied. All the analytical instruments have different physical and chemical interfering effects analysing food and food raw material samples. The smaller the concentration of an analyte and the larger the concentration of the matrix the larger the interfering effects. Nowadays, it is very important to analyse growingly smaller concentrations of elements. From the above analytical instruments generally the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. The applied ICP-MS instrument has Collision Cell Technology (CCT) also. Using CCT mode certain elements have better detection limits with 1-3 magnitudes comparing to a normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT mode has better detection limits mainly for analysis of selenium (arsenic, germanium, vanadium, and chromium). To elaborate an analytical method for selenium with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer the most important interfering effects (problems) were evaluated: 1) isobaric elemental, 2) isobaric molecular, and 3) physical interferences. Analysing food and food raw material samples an other (new) interfering effect emerged in ICP-MS, namely the effect of various matrixes having different evaporation and nebulization effectiveness, moreover having different quantity of carbon content of food, feed and food raw material samples. In our research work the effect of different water-soluble compounds furthermore the effect of various quantity of carbon content (as sample matrix) were examined on changes of intensity of selenium. So finally we could find “opportunities” to decrease the error of selenium analysis. To analyse selenium in food, feed and food raw material samples, the most appropriate inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is a quadrupole instrument applying a collision cell technique (CCT). The extent of interfering effect of carbon content depends on the type of compounds. The carbon content significantly affects the measured concentration (intensities) of Se, which can be corrected using internal standard (arsenic or tellurium).

Keywords: Food, Selenium, ICP-MS, food raw material

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2 Problems and Solutions in the Application of ICP-MS for Analysis of Trace Elements in Various Samples

Authors: Bela Kovacs, Eva Bodi, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay, Dávid Andrási, Áron Soós, Xénia Vágó

Abstract:

In agriculture for analysis of elements in different food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples generally flame atomic absorption spectrometers (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometers (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) are routinely applied. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is capable for analysis of 70-80 elements in multielemental mode, from 1-5 cm3 volume of a sample, moreover the detection limits of elements are in µg/kg-ng/kg (ppb-ppt) concentration range. All the analytical instruments have different physical and chemical interfering effects analysing the above types of samples. The smaller the concentration of an analyte and the larger the concentration of the matrix the larger the interfering effects. Nowadays there is very important to analyse growingly smaller concentrations of elements. From the above analytical instruments generally the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. The applied ICP-MS instrument has Collision Cell Technology (CCT) also. Using CCT mode certain elements have better (smaller) detection limits with 1-3 magnitudes comparing to a normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT mode has better detection limits mainly for analysis of selenium, arsenic, germanium, vanadium and chromium. To elaborate an analytical method for trace elements with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer the most important interfering effects (problems) were evaluated: 1) Physical interferences; 2) Spectral interferences (elemental and molecular isobaric); 3) Effect of easily ionisable elements; 4) Memory interferences. Analysing food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples an other (new) interfering effect emerged in ICP-MS, namely the effect of various matrixes having different evaporation and nebulization effectiveness, moreover having different quantity of carbon content of food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples. In our research work the effect of different water-soluble compounds furthermore the effect of various quantity of carbon content (as sample matrix) were examined on changes of intensity of the applied elements. So finally we could find “opportunities” to decrease or eliminate the error of the analyses of applied elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Pb, Bi). To analyse these elements in the above samples, the most appropriate inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is a quadrupole instrument applying a collision cell technique (CCT). The extent of interfering effect of carbon content depends on the type of compounds. The carbon content significantly affects the measured concentration (intensities) of the above elements, which can be corrected using different internal standards.

Keywords: Interference Effects, elements, ICP-MS, environmental and food samples

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1 Ultra-Rapid and Efficient Immunomagnetic Separation of Listeria Monocytogenes from Complex Samples in High-Gradient Magnetic Field Using Disposable Magnetic Microfluidic Device

Authors: X. Zhang, L. Malic, D. Brassard, L. Clime, J. Daoud, C. Luebbert, V. Barrere, A. Boutin, S. Bidawid, N. Corneau, J. Farber, T. Veres

Abstract:

The incidence of infections caused by foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) poses a great potential threat to public health and safety. These issues are further exacerbated by legal repercussions due to “zero tolerance” food safety standards adopted in developed countries. Unfortunately, a large number of related disease outbreaks are caused by pathogens present in extremely low counts currently undetectable by available techniques. The development of highly sensitive and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens is therefore crucial, and requires robust and efficient pre-analytical sample preparation. Immunomagnetic separation is a popular approach to sample preparation. Microfluidic chips combined with external magnets have emerged as viable high throughput methods. However, external magnets alone are not suitable for the capture of nanoparticles, as very strong magnetic fields are required. Devices that incorporate externally applied magnetic field and microstructures of a soft magnetic material have thus been used for local field amplification. Unfortunately, very complex and costly fabrication processes used for integration of soft magnetic materials in the reported proof-of-concept devices would prohibit their use as disposable tools for food and water safety or diagnostic applications. We present a sample preparation magnetic microfluidic device implemented in low-cost thermoplastic polymers using fabrication techniques suitable for mass-production. The developed magnetic capture chip (M-chip) was employed for rapid capture and release of L. monocytogenes conjugated to immunomagnetic nanoparticles (IMNs) in buffer and beef filtrate. The M-chip relies on a dense array of Nickel-coated high-aspect ratio pillars for capture with controlled magnetic field distribution and a microfluidic channel network for sample delivery, waste, wash and recovery. The developed Nickel-coating process and passivation allows generation of switchable local perturbations within the uniform magnetic field generated with a pair of permanent magnets placed at the opposite edges of the chip. This leads to strong and reversible trapping force, wherein high local magnetic field gradients allow efficient capture of IMNs conjugated to L. monocytogenes flowing through the microfluidic chamber. The experimental optimization of the M-chip was performed using commercially available magnetic microparticles and fabricated silica-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were optimized to achieve the desired magnetic moment and surface functionalization was tailored to allow efficient capture antibody immobilization. The integration, validation and further optimization of the capture and release protocol is demonstrated using both, dead and live L. monocytogenes through fluorescence microscopy and plate- culture method. The capture efficiency of the chip was found to vary as function of listeria to nanoparticle concentration ratio. The maximum capture efficiency of 30% was obtained and the 24-hour plate-culture method allowed the detection of initial sample concentration of only 16 cfu/ml. The device was also very efficient in concentrating the sample from a 10 ml initial volume. Specifically, 280% concentration efficiency was achieved in 17 minutes only, demonstrating the suitability of the system for food safety applications. In addition, flexible design and low-cost fabrication process will allow rapid sample preparation for applications beyond food and water safety, including point-of-care diagnosis.

Keywords: array of pillars, bacteria isolation, immunomagnetic sample preparation, polymer microfluidic device

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