Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 631

Search results for: arc shaped slit

631 Multiband Multipolarized Planar Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

Authors: Sanjeeva Reddy, D. Vakula

Abstract:

A single layer, multi-band triangular patch antenna is proposed for WLAN/WiMAX applications with different polarization requirements. This probe feed patch is integrated with arc shaped slit to achieve circular polarized (CP) and linearly polarized (LP) radiation characteristics. The main contribution of antenna is to resonate the frequencies of 2.4 GHz with CP and 3.5 GHz, 5.28 GHz with LP. The design procedure of antenna is described and the performance is validated using measurements. Size of antenna is also reduced and provides stable gain at all resonant frequencies. Proposed structure also provides better enhancement in terms of 10-dB impedance bandwidth, achieved gain of 5.1, 5.6, and 2.9 dBi at respective bands.

Keywords: circular polarization, arc shaped slit, multi band antenna, triangular patch antenna, axial ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
630 Aqueous Hydrogen Sulphide in Slit-Shaped Silica Nano-Pores: Confinement Effects on Solubility, Structural and Dynamical Properties

Authors: Sakiru Badmos, David R. Cole, Alberto Striolo

Abstract:

It is known that confinement in nm-size pores affects many structural and transport properties of water and co-existing volatile species. Of particular interest for fluids in sub-surface systems, in catalysis, and in separations are reports that confinement can enhance the solubility of gases in water. Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed for aqueous H₂S confined in slit-shaped silica pores at 313K. The effect of pore width on the H₂S solubility in water was investigated. Other properties of interest include the molecular distribution of the various fluid molecules within the pores, the hydration structure for solvated H₂S molecules, and the dynamical properties of the confined fluids. The simulation results demonstrate that confinement reduces the H₂S solubility in water and that the solubility increases with pore size. Analysis of spatial distribution functions suggests that these results are due to perturbations on the coordination of water molecules around H₂S due to confinement. Confinement is found to dampen the dynamical properties of aqueous H₂S as well. Comparing the results obtained for aqueous H₂S to those reported elsewhere for aqueous CH₄, it can be concluded that H₂S permeates hydrated slit-shaped silica nano-pores faster than CH₄. In addition to contributing to better understanding the behavior of fluids in subsurface formations, these observations could also have important implications for developing new natural gas sweetening technologies.

Keywords: confinement, interfacial properties, molecular dynamic simulation, sub-surface formations

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
629 Story-Wise Distribution of Slit Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of RC Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Minjung Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a seismic retrofit scheme for a reinforced concrete shear wall structure using steel slit dampers was presented. The stiffness and the strength of the slit damper used in the retrofit were verified by cyclic loading test. A genetic algorithm was applied to find out the optimum location of the slit dampers. The effects of the slit dampers on the seismic retrofit of the model were compared with those of jacketing shear walls. The seismic performance of the model structure with optimally positioned slit dampers was evaluated by nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. Based on the analysis results, the simple procedure for determining required damping ratio using capacity spectrum method along with the damper distribution pattern proportional to the inter-story drifts was validated. The analysis results showed that the seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was more economical than the jacketing of the shear walls and that the capacity spectrum method combined with the simple damper distribution pattern led to satisfactory damper distribution pattern compatible with the solution obtained from the genetic algorithm.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, slit dampers, genetic algorithm, jacketing, capacity spectrum method

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
628 Seismic Retrofitting of Structures Using Steel Plate Slit Dampers Based on Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mohamed Noureldin, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimum locations of the slit dampers satisfying a target displacement. A seismic retrofit scheme for a building structure was presented using steel plate slit dampers. A cyclic loading test was used to verify the energy dissipation capacity of the slit damper. The seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was compared with the retrofit with enlarging shear walls. The capacity spectrum method was used to propose a simple damper distribution scheme proportional to the inter-story drifts. The validity of the simple story-wise damper distribution procedure was verified by comparing the results of the genetic algorithm. It was observed that the proposed simple damper distribution pattern was in a good agreement with the optimum distribution obtained from the genetic algorithm. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03032809).

Keywords: slit dampers, seismic retrofit, genetic algorithm, optimum design

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
627 Acoustic Finite Element Analysis of a Slit Model with Consideration of Air Viscosity

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

In very narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change due to the air viscosity. We have developed a new Finite Element Method (FEM) that includes the effects of air viscosity for modeling a narrow sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing FEM for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results for several three-dimensional slit models using the proposed FEM are validated against existing calculation methods.

Keywords: simulation, FEM, air viscosity, slit

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
626 Numerical Simulation of a Single Cell Passing through a Narrow Slit

Authors: Lanlan Xiao, Yang Liu, Shuo Chen, Bingmei Fu

Abstract:

Most cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis. Metastasis is a complex, multistep processes including the detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor and the migration to distant targeted organs through blood and/or lymphatic circulations. During hematogenous metastasis, the emigration of tumor cells from the blood stream through the vascular wall into the tissue involves arrest in the microvasculature, adhesion to the endothelial cells forming the microvessel wall and transmigration to the tissue through the endothelial barrier termed as extravasation. The narrow slit between endothelial cells that line the microvessel wall is the principal pathway for tumor cell extravasation to the surrounding tissue. To understand this crucial step for tumor hematogenous metastasis, we used Dissipative Particle Dynamics method to investigate an individual cell passing through a narrow slit numerically. The cell membrane was simulated by a spring-based network model which can separate the internal cytoplasm and surrounding fluid. The effects of the cell elasticity, cell shape and cell surface area increase, and slit size on the cell transmigration through the slit were investigated. Under a fixed driven force, the cell with higher elasticity can be elongated more and pass faster through the slit. When the slit width decreases to 2/3 of the cell diameter, the spherical cell becomes jammed despite reducing its elasticity modulus by 10 times. However, transforming the cell from a spherical to ellipsoidal shape and increasing the cell surface area only by 3% can enable the cell to pass the narrow slit. Therefore the cell shape and surface area increase play a more important role than the cell elasticity in cell passing through the narrow slit. In addition, the simulation results indicate that the cell migration velocity decreases during entry but increases during exit of the slit, which is qualitatively in agreement with the experimental observation.

Keywords: dissipative particle dynamics, deformability, surface area increase, cell migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
625 Development and Structural Performance Evaluation on Slit Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of slit circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. The main parameters considered are: diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio and slit length-to-width ratio (l/w). Depending on these parameters three different buckling modes and hysteretic behaviors were found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation, and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. The susceptible location at which the possible crack is initiated is also identified for selected specimens using rupture index.

Keywords: slit circular shear panel damper, hysteresis characteristics, slip length-to-width ratio, D/t ratio, FE analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
624 Cost Effectiveness of Slit-Viscoelastic Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of Structures

Authors: Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In order to reduce or eliminate seismic damage in structures, many researchers have investigated various energy dissipation devices. In this study, the seismic capacity and cost of a slit-viscoelastic seismic retrofit system composed of a steel slit plate and viscoelastic dampers connected in parallel are evaluated. The combination of the two different damping mechanisms is expected to produce enhanced seismic performance of the building. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in the nonlinear dynamic analysis software Perform 3D, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the displacement of the structure equipped with the hybrid dampers is smaller than that of the structure with slit dampers due to the enhanced self-centering capability of the system. It is also observed that the initial cost of hybrid system required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscoelastic dampers. Acknowledgement: This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the International Cooperative R&D program(N043100016_Development of low-cost high-performance seismic energy dissipation devices using viscoelastic material).

Keywords: damped cable systems, seismic retrofit, viscous dampers, self-centering

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
623 CPW-Fed Broadband Circularly Polarized Planar Antenna with Improved Ground

Authors: Gnanadeep Gudapati, V. Annie Grace

Abstract:

A broadband circular polarization (CP) feature is designed for a CPW-fed planar printed monopole antenna. A rectangle patch and an improved ground plane make up the antenna. The antenna's impedance bandwidth can be increased by adding a vertical stub and a horizontal slit in the ground plane. The measured results show that the proposed antenna has a wide 10-dB return loss bandwidth of 70.2% (4.35GHz, 3.7-8.1GHz) centered at 4.2 GHz.

Keywords: CPW-fed, circular polarised, FR4 epoxy, slit and stub

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
622 Anterior Chamber Depth Measured with Orbscan and Pentacam Compared with Smith Method in 102 Phakic Eyes

Authors: Mohammad Ghandehari Motlagh

Abstract:

Purpose: Comparing anterior chamber depth (ACD) measured with Orbscan II and Pentacam HR compared with the Smith method results. Methods: Smith method (1979) is a reliable method of measuring ACD only with help of slit lamp. In this study 102 phakic eyes as PRK candidates were imaged with both OrbScan and Pentacam and finally ACD was measured thru Smith method with slit lamp. ACD measured with Smith method was presumed as the gold standard and was compared with ACD of the 2 imaging devices. Contraindication cases for PRK and pseudophakic eyes have been excluded from the study. Results: Mean age of the patients was 35.2 ±14.8 yrs/old including 56 M(54.9%)and 46 F(45.09%).Acceptable correlation of ACD measured thru Smith method with Orbscan and Pentacam are R=0.958 and R=0.942 respectively and so Orbscan results can be used in procedures relying on ACD. Conclusion: ACDs measured with OrbScan is more precise than Pentacam and so can be more useful in some surgery procedures relying ACD results such as phakic IOLs and in cycloplegia contraindications.

Keywords: orbscan, pentacam, anterior chamber depth, slit lamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
621 Numerical Simulation of External Flow Around D-Shaped Cylinders

Authors: Ouldouz Nourani Zonouz, Mehdi Salmanpour

Abstract:

Investigation and analysis of flow behavior around different shapes bluff bodies is one of the reputed topics for several years. The importance of these researches is about the unwanted phenomena called flow separation. The location of separation and the size of the wake region should be considered in different industrial designs. In this research a bluff body with D-shaped cross section has been analyzed. In circular cylinder flow separation point changes with Reynolds number but in D-Shaped cylinder there is fix flow separation point. So there is more wake steadiness in D-Shaped cylinder as compared to Circular cylinder and drag reduction because of wake steadiness. In the present work CFD simulation is carried out for flow past a D-Shaped cylinder to see the wake behavior. The Reynolds number regime currently studied corresponds to low Reynolds number and nominally two-dimensional wake. Also the effect of D-Shaped cylinders on the rate of heat transfer has been considered. Various results such as velocity, pressure and temperature contours and also some dimensionless numbers like drag coefficient, pressure coefficient and Nusselt number calculated for different cases.

Keywords: D-shaped, CFD, external flow, low Reynolds number, square cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
620 Effective Width of Reinforced Concrete U-Shaped Walls Due to Shear Lag Effects

Authors: Ryan D. Hoult

Abstract:

The inherent assumption in the elementary theory of bending that plane sections remain plane is commonly used in the design of reinforced concrete members. However, in reality, a shear flow would develop in non-rectangular sections, where the longitudinal strains in between the web and flanges of the element would lag behind those at the boundary ends. This phenomenon, known as shear lag, can significantly reduce the expected moment capacity of non-rectangular reinforced concrete walls. This study focuses on shear lag effects in reinforced concrete U-shaped walls, which are commonly used as lateral load resisting elements in reinforced concrete buildings. An extensive number of finite element modelling analyses are conducted to estimate the vertical strain distributions across the web and flanges of a U-shaped wall with different axial load ratios and longitudinal reinforcement detailing. The results show that shear lag effects are prominent and sometimes significant in U-shaped walls, particularly for the wall sections perpendicular to the direction of loading.

Keywords: shear lag, walls, U-shaped, moment-curvature

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
619 The Tadpole-Shaped Polypeptides with Two Regulable (Alkyl Chain) Tails

Authors: Hua Jin, Il Kim

Abstract:

The biocompatible tadpole-shaped polypeptides with one cyclic polypeptides ring and two alkyl chain tails were synthesized by N-heterocyclic carbine (NHC)-mediated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs). First, the NHC precursor, denoted as [NHC(H)][HCO₃], with two alkyl chains at the nitrogen was prepared by a simple anion metathesis of imidazole(in)ium chlorides with KHCO₃. Then NHC releasing from the [NHC(H)][HCO₃] directly initiated the ROP of NCA to produce the cyclic polypeptides. Finally, the tadpole-shaped polypeptides with two regulable tails were obtained. The target polypeptides were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF MS). This pioneering approach simplifies the synthesis procedures of tadpole-shaped polypeptides compared to other methods, which usually requires specific intramolecular ring-closure reaction.

Keywords: cyclic polypeptides, α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides, N-heterocyclic carbene, ring-opening polymerization, tadpole-shaped

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
618 Chaos in a Stadium-Shaped 2-D Quantum Dot

Authors: Roger Yu

Abstract:

A numerical scheme has been developed to solve wave equations for chaotic systems such as stadium-shaped cavity. The same numerical method can also be used for finding wave properties of rectangle cavities with randomly placed obstacles. About 30k eigenvalues have been obtained accurately on a normal circumstance. For comparison, we also initiated an experimental study which determines both eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of a stadium-shaped cavity using pulse and normal mode analyzing techniques. The acoustic cavity was made adjustable so that the transition from nonchaotic (circle) to chaotic (stadium) waves can be investigated.

Keywords: quantum dot, chaos, numerical method, eigenvalues

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
617 Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow around Two Cam Shaped Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement

Authors: Arash Mir Abdolah Lavasani, M. Ebrahimisabet

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In this paper, the 2-D unsteady viscous flow around two cam shaped cylinders in tandem arrangement is numerically simulated in order to study the characteristics of the flow in turbulent regimes. The investigation covers the effects of high subcritical and supercritical Reynolds numbers and L/D ratio on total drag coefficient. The equivalent diameter of cylinders is 27.6 mm The space between center to center of two cam shaped cylinders is define as longitudinal pitch ratio and it varies in range of 1.5 < L/D < 6. Reynolds number base on equivalent circular cylinder varies in range of 27×103 < Re < 166×103 Results show that drag coefficient of both cylinders depends on pitch ratio. However drag coefficient of downstream cylinder is more dependent on the pitch ratio.

Keywords: cam shaped, tandem, numerical, drag coefficient, turbulent

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
616 Complex Shaped Prepreg Part Drapability Using Vacuum Bagging

Authors: Saran Toure

Abstract:

Complex shaped parts manufactured using out of autoclave prepreg vacuum bagging has a high quality finish. This is not only due to in the control of resin to fibre ratio in prepregs, but also to a reduction in fibre misalignment, slippage and stresses occurring within plies during compaction. In a bid to further reduce deformation modes and control failure modes, we carried experiments where, we introduced wetted fabrics within a prepreg plybook during compaction. Here are presented the results obtained from the vacuum bagging of a complex shaped part. The shape is that of a turbine fan blade with smooth curves all throughout ending with sharp edged angles. The quality of the final part made from this blade is compared to that of the same blade made from standard vacuum bagging process of prepregs, without introducing wetted fabrics.

Keywords: complex shaped part, prepregs, drapability, vacuum bagging

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
615 The Relevance of the U-Shaped Learning Model to the Acquisition of the Difference between C'est and Il Est in the English Learners of French Context

Authors: Pooja Booluck

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A U-shaped learning curve entails a three-step process: a good performance followed by a bad performance followed by a good performance again. U-shaped curves have been observed not only in language acquisition but also in various fields such as temperature face recognition object permanence to name a few. Building on previous studies of the curve child language acquisition and Second Language Acquisition this empirical study seeks to investigate the relevance of the U-shaped learning model to the acquisition of the difference between cest and il est in the English Learners of French context. The present study was developed to assess whether older learners of French in the ELF context follow the same acquisition pattern. The empirical study was conducted on 15 English learners of French which lasted six weeks. Compositions and questionnaires were collected from each subject at three time intervals (after one week after three weeks after six weeks) after which students work were graded as being either correct or incorrect. The data indicates that there is evidence of a U-shaped learning curve in the acquisition of cest and il est and students did follow the same acquisition pattern as children in regards to rote-learned terms and subject clitics. This paper also discusses the need to introduce modules on U-shaped learning curve in teaching curriculum as many teachers are unaware of the trajectory learners undertake while acquiring core components in grammar. In addition this study also addresses the need to conduct more research on the acquisition of rote-learned terms and subject clitics in SLA.

Keywords: child language acquisition, rote-learning, subject clitics, u-shaped learning model

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
614 Depiction of a Circulated Double Psi-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Ku-Band Satellite Applications

Authors: M. Naimur Rahman, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mandeep Singh Jit Singh, Norbahiah Misran

Abstract:

This paper presents the architecture and exploration of a compact, circulated double Psi-shaped microstrip patch antenna for Ku-band satellite applications. The antenna is composed of the double Psi-shaped patch in opposite focus which is circulated with a ring. The antenna size is 24 mm × 18 mm and the prototype is imprinted on Rogers RT/duroid 5880 materials with the depth of 1.57 mm. The substrate has a relative permittivity of 2.2 and the dielectric constant of 0.0009. The excitation is supplied through a 50Ω microstrip line. The performance of the presented antenna has been simulated and verified with the High-Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS). The results depict that the antenna covers the frequency spectrum 14.6 - 17.4 GHz (Ku-band) with 10 dB return loss. The antenna has a 4.40 dBi maximum gain with stable radiation patterns throughout the operating band which makes the proposed antenna compatible for the satellite application in Ku-band.

Keywords: Ku-band antenna, microstrip antenna, psi-shaped antenna, satellite applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
613 Optimal Design of Propellant Grain Shape Based on Structural Strength Analysis

Authors: Chen Xiong, Tong Xin, Li Hao, Xu Jin-Sheng

Abstract:

Experiment and simulation researches on the structural integrity of propellant grain in solid rocket motor (SRM) with high volumetric fraction were conducted. First, by using SRM parametric modeling functions with secondary development tool Python of ABAQUS, the three dimensional parameterized modeling programs of star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain were accomplished. Then, the mechanical properties under different loads for star shaped grain were obtained with the application of automatically established finite element model in ABAQUS. Next, several optimization algorithms are introduced to optimize the star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain. After meeting the demands of burning surface changes and volumetric fraction, the optimum three dimensional shapes of grain were obtained. Finally, by means of parametric modeling functions, pressure data of SRM’s cold pressurization test was directly applied to simulation of grain in terms of mechanical performance. The results verify the reliability and practical of parameterized modeling program of SRM.

Keywords: cold pressurization test, ğarametric modeling, structural integrity, propellant grain, SRM

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
612 Studies on the Solubility of Oxygen in Water Using a Hose to fill the Air with Different Shapes

Authors: Wichan Lertlop

Abstract:

This research is to study the solubility of oxygen in water taking the form of aeration pipes that have different shaped objectives of the research to compare the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water, whice take the form of aeration pipes. Shaped differently When aeration 5 minutes on air for 10 minutes, and when air fills 30 minutes, as well as compare the durability of the oxygen is dissolved in the water of the inlet air refueling shaped differently when you fill the air 30 minutes and when. aeration and 60 minutes populations used in this study, the population of pond water from Rajabhat University in February 2014 used in this study consists of 1. Aerator 2. Hose using a hose to fill the air with 3 different shape, different shapes pyramid whose base is on the water tank. Shaped rectangular water tank onto the ground. And shapes in a vertical pipe. 3 meter, dissolved oxygen, dissolved in water to get the calibration standard. 4. The clock for timer 5. Three water tanks which are 39 cm wide, 51 cm long and 32 cm high.

Keywords: aeration, dissolve oxygen, different shapes

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
611 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach

Abstract:

A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design is composed of a rectangular patch with symmetric L-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875

Keywords: UWB planar antenna, L-shaped slots, wireless applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
610 Emperical Correlation for Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity of Spherical Shaped Food Products under Forced Convection Environment

Authors: M. Riaz, Inamur Rehman, Abhishek Sharma

Abstract:

The present work is the development of an experimental method for determining the thermal diffusivity variations with temperature of selected regular shaped solid fruits and vegetables subjected to forced convection cooling. Experimental investigations were carried on the sample chosen (potato and brinjal), which is approximately of spherical geometry. The variation of temperature within the food product is measured at several locations from centre to skin, under forced convection environment using a deep freezer, maintained at -10°C.This method uses one dimensional Fourier equation applied to regular shapes. For this, the experimental temperature data obtained from cylindrical and spherical shaped products during pre-cooling was utilised. Such temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles can be readily used with other information such as degradation rate, etc. to evaluate thermal treatments based on cold air cooling methods for storage of perishable food products.

Keywords: thermal diffusivity, skin temperature, precooling, forced convection, regular shaped

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609 Effect of Longitudinal Fins on Air-Flow Characteristics for Wing-Shaped Tubes in Cross Flow

Authors: Sayed Ahmed El Sayed, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief

Abstract:

A numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics, pressure distributions, and skin friction coefficient over a wing-shaped tubes bundle in staggered arrangement with the placement of longitudinal fins (LF) at downstream position of the tube. The air-side Rea were at 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103. The tubes bundle were employed with various fin height [hf] and fin thickness (δ) from (2 mm ≤ hf ≤ 12 mm) and (1.5 mm ≤ δ ≤ 3.5 mm) respectively at the considered Rea range. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle was predicted using the commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. The distribution of average skin friction coefficient around wing-shaped tubes bundle is studied. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc and skin friction coefficient (Cf) in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. Results indicated that the values of Pdc for hf = 6 mm are lower than these of NOF and hf = 2 mm by about 11 % and 13 % respectively for considered Rea range. Cf decreases as Rea increases. LFTH with hf = 6 mm offers lower form drag than that with hf = 12 mm and that of NOF. The lowest values of the pumping power are achieved for arrangements of hf = 6 mm for the considered Rea range. δ has negligible effect on skin friction coefficient, while has a slightly variation in ∆Pa. The wing-shaped tubes bundle heat exchanger with hf = 6 mm has the lowest values of ∆Pa, Pdc, Cf, and pumping power and hence the best performance comparing with the other bundles. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those obtained by similar previous studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: longitudinal fins, skin friction, flow characteristics, FLUENT, wing-shaped tubes

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608 Air Flow Characteristics and Pressure Distributions for Staggered Wing Shaped Tubes Bundle

Authors: Sayed A. Elsayed, Emad Z. Ibrahim, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief

Abstract:

An experimental and numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics and pressure drop distributions of a cross-flow heat exchanger employing staggered wing-shaped tubes at different angels of attack. The water-side Rew and the air-side Rea were at 5 x 102 and at from 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103, respectively. Three cases of the tubes arrangements with various angles of attack, row angles of attack and 90° cone angles were employed at the considered Rea range. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle were predicted by using commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. Results indicated that the values of Pdc were increased by increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 45°, while the opposite was true for angles of attack from 135° to 180°. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those, previously, obtained for similar available studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: wing-shaped tubes, cross-flow cooling, staggered arrangement, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
607 Numerical Simulation on Two Components Particles Flow in Fluidized Bed

Authors: Wang Heng, Zhong Zhaoping, Guo Feihong, Wang Jia, Wang Xiaoyi

Abstract:

Flow of gas and particles in fluidized beds is complex and chaotic, which is difficult to measure and analyze by experiments. Some bed materials with bad fluidized performance always fluidize with fluidized medium. The material and the fluidized medium are different in many properties such as density, size and shape. These factors make the dynamic process more complex and the experiment research more limited. Numerical simulation is an efficient way to describe the process of gas-solid flow in fluidized bed. One of the most popular numerical simulation methods is CFD-DEM, i.e., computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method. The shapes of particles are always simplified as sphere in most researches. Although sphere-shaped particles make the calculation of particle uncomplicated, the effects of different shapes are disregarded. However, in practical applications, the two-component systems in fluidized bed also contain sphere particles and non-sphere particles. Therefore, it is needed to study the two component flow of sphere particles and non-sphere particles. In this paper, the flows of mixing were simulated as the flow of molding biomass particles and quartz in fluidized bad. The integrated model was built on an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach which was improved to suit the non-sphere particles. The constructed methods of cylinder-shaped particles were different when it came to different numerical methods. Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed as an agglomerate of fictitious small particles in CFD part, which means the small fictitious particles gathered but not combined with each other. The diameter of a fictitious particle d_fic and its solid volume fraction inside a cylinder-shaped particle α_fic, which is called the fictitious volume fraction, are introduced to modify the drag coefficient β by introducing the volume fraction of the cylinder-shaped particles α_cld and sphere-shaped particles α_sph. In a computational cell, the void ε, can be expressed as ε=1-〖α_cld α〗_fic-α_sph. The Ergun equation and the Wen and Yu equation were used to calculate β. While in DEM method, cylinder-shaped particles were built by multi-sphere method, in which small sphere element merged with each other. Soft sphere model was using to get the connect force between particles. The total connect force of cylinder-shaped particle was calculated as the sum of the small sphere particles’ forces. The model (size=1×0.15×0.032 mm3) contained 420000 sphere-shaped particles (diameter=0.8 mm, density=1350 kg/m3) and 60 cylinder-shaped particles (diameter=10 mm, length=10 mm, density=2650 kg/m3). Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed by 2072 small sphere-shaped particles (d=0.8 mm) in CFD mesh and 768 sphere-shaped particles (d=3 mm) in DEM mesh. The length of CFD and DEM cells are 1 mm and 2 mm. Superficial gas velocity was changed in different models as 1.0 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2.0m/s. The results of simulation were compared with the experimental results. The movements of particles were regularly as fountain. The effect of superficial gas velocity on cylinder-shaped particles was stronger than that of sphere-shaped particles. The result proved this present work provided a effective approach to simulation the flow of two component particles.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, fluidized bed, multiphase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
606 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Hyungoo Kang, Hyungjun Shin

Abstract:

In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time.

Keywords: slit dampers, friction dampers, seismic retrofit, life cycle cost, FEMA P-58, PACT

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
605 Propagation of W Shaped of Solitons in Fiber Bragg Gratings

Authors: Mezghiche Kamel

Abstract:

We present solitary wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger (PNLS) equation describing propagation of femtosecond light pulses through the fiber Bragg grating structure where the pulse dynamics is governed by the nonlinear-coupled mode (NLCM) equations. Using the multiple scale analysis, we reduce the NLCM equations into the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger (PNLS) type equation. Unlike the reported solitary wave solutions of the PNLS equation, the novel ones can describe W shaped of solitons and their properties.

Keywords: fiber bragg grating, nonlinear-coupled mode equations, w shaped of solitons, PNLS

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604 Obtain the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) in a Medium Containing a Penny-Shaped Crack by the Ritz Method

Authors: A. Tavangari, N. Salehzadeh

Abstract:

In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) of three-dimensional penny-Shaped crack is obtained in an isotropic elastic cylindrical medium with arbitrary dimensions under arbitrary loading at the top of the cylinder, by the semi-analytical method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This method that is based on minimizing the potential energy amount of the whole of the system, gives a very close results to the previous studies. Defining the displacements (elastic fields) by hypothetical functions in a defined coordinate system is the base of this research. So for creating the singularity conditions at the tip of the crack the appropriate terms should be found.

Keywords: penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, fracture mechanics, Ritz method

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603 Impact of a Novel Technique of S-Shaped Tracheostoma in Pediatric Tracheostomy in Intensive Care Unit on Success and Procedure Related Complications

Authors: Devendra Gupta, Sushilk K. Agarwal, Amit Kesari, P. K. Singh

Abstract:

Objectives: Pediatric patients often may experience persistent respiratory failure that requires tracheostomy placement in Pediatric ICU. We have designed a technique of tracheostomy in pediatric patients with S-shaped incision on the tracheal wall with higher success rate and lower complication rate. Technique: Following general anesthesia and positioning of the patient, the trachea was exposed in midline by a vertical skin incision. In order to make S-shaped tracheostoma, second tracheal ring was identified. The conventional vertical incision was made in second tracheal ring and then extended at both its ends laterally in the inter-cartilaginous space parallel to the tracheal cartilage in the opposite direction to make the incision S-shaped. The trachea was dilated with tracheal dilator and appropriate size of tracheostomy tube was then placed into the trachea. Results: S-shaped tracheostomy was performed in 20 children with mean age of 6.25 years (age range is 2-7) requiring tracheostomy placement. The tracheostomy tubes were successfully placed in all the patients in single attempt. There was no incidence of significant intra-operative bleeding, subcutaneous emphysema, vocal cord palsy or pneumothorax. Two patients developed pneumonia and expired within a year. However, there was no incidence of tracheo-esophageal fistula, suprastomal collapse or difficulty in decannulation on one year of follow up related to our technique. One patient developed late trachietis managed conservatively. Conclusion: S-shaped tracheoplasty was associated with high success rate, reduced risk of the early and late complications in pediatric patients requiring tracheostomy.

Keywords: peatrics, tracheostomy, ICU, tracheostoma

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602 Analysis of Vertical Hall Effect Device Using Current-Mode

Authors: Kim Jin Sup

Abstract:

This paper presents a vertical hall effect device using current-mode. Among different geometries that have been studied and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics, optimized cross-shaped model displayed the best sensitivity. The cross-shaped model emerged as the optimum plate to fit the lowest noise and residual offset and the best sensitivity. The symmetrical cross-shaped hall plate is widely used because of its high sensitivity and immunity to alignment tolerances resulting from the fabrication process. The hall effect device has been designed using a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 12μA. The applied magnetic field is from 0 mT to 20 mT. Simulation results achieved in COMSOL and validated with respect to the electrical behavior of equivalent circuit for Cadence. Simulation results of the one structure over the 13 available samples shows for the best geometry a current-mode sensitivity of 6.6 %/T at 20mT. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. R7117-16-0165, Development of Hall Effect Semiconductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: vertical hall device, current-mode, crossed-shaped model, CMOS technology

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