Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: jacketing

10 Numerical Investigation of the Jacketing Method of Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: S. Boukais, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, A. Kezmane


The first intent of this study is to develop a finite element model that can predict correctly the behavior of the reinforced concrete column. Second aim is to use the finite element model to investigate and evaluate the effect of the strengthening method by jacketing of the reinforced concrete column, by considering different interface contact between the old and the new concrete. Four models were evaluated, one by considering perfect contact, the other three models by using friction coefficient of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. The simulation was carried out by using Abaqus software. The obtained results show that the jacketing reinforcement led to significant increase of the global performance of the behavior of the simulated reinforced concrete column.

Keywords: strengthening, jacketing, rienforced concrete column, Abaqus, simulation

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9 Story-Wise Distribution of Slit Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of RC Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Minjung Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Jinkoo Kim


In this study, a seismic retrofit scheme for a reinforced concrete shear wall structure using steel slit dampers was presented. The stiffness and the strength of the slit damper used in the retrofit were verified by cyclic loading test. A genetic algorithm was applied to find out the optimum location of the slit dampers. The effects of the slit dampers on the seismic retrofit of the model were compared with those of jacketing shear walls. The seismic performance of the model structure with optimally positioned slit dampers was evaluated by nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. Based on the analysis results, the simple procedure for determining required damping ratio using capacity spectrum method along with the damper distribution pattern proportional to the inter-story drifts was validated. The analysis results showed that the seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was more economical than the jacketing of the shear walls and that the capacity spectrum method combined with the simple damper distribution pattern led to satisfactory damper distribution pattern compatible with the solution obtained from the genetic algorithm.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, slit dampers, genetic algorithm, jacketing, capacity spectrum method

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8 A Study of the Carbon Footprint from a Liquid Silicone Rubber Compounding Facility in Malaysia

Authors: Q. R. Cheah, Y. F. Tan


In modern times, the push for a low carbon footprint entails achieving carbon neutrality as a goal for future generations. One possible step towards carbon footprint reduction is the use of more durable materials with longer lifespans, for example, silicone data cableswhich show at least double the lifespan of similar plastic products. By having greater durability and longer lifespans, silicone data cables can reduce the amount of trash produced as compared to plastics. Furthermore, silicone products don’t produce micro contamination harmful to the ocean. Every year the electronics industry produces an estimated 5 billion data cables for USB type C and lightning data cables for tablets and mobile phone devices. Material usage for outer jacketing is 6 to 12 grams per meter. Tests show that the product lifespan of a silicone data cable over plastic can be doubled due to greater durability. This can save at least 40,000 tonnes of material a year just on the outer jacketing of the data cable. The facility in this study specialises in compounding of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) material for the extrusion process in jacketing for the silicone data cable. This study analyses the carbon emissions from the facility, which is presently capable of producing more than 1,000 tonnes of LSR annually. This study uses guidelines from the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and World Resources Institute (WRI) to define the boundaries of the scope. The scope of emissions is defined as 1. Emissions from operations owned or controlled by the reporting company, 2. Emissions from the generation of purchased or acquired energy such as electricity, steam, heating, or cooling consumed by the reporting company, and 3. All other indirect emissions occurring in the value chain of the reporting company, including both upstream and downstream emissions. As the study is limited to the compounding facility, the system boundaries definition according to GHG protocol is cradle-to-gate instead of cradle-to-grave exercises. Malaysia’s present electricity generation scenario was also used, where natural gas and coal constitute the bulk of emissions. Calculations show the LSR produced for the silicone data cable with high fire retardant capability has scope 1 emissions of 0.82kg CO2/kg, scope 2 emissions of 0.87kg CO2/kg, and scope 3 emissions of 2.76kg CO2/kg, with a total product carbon footprint of 4.45kg CO2/kg. This total product carbon footprint (Cradle-to-gate) is comparable to the industry and to plastic materials per tonne of material. Although per tonne emission is comparable to plastic material, due to greater durability and longer lifespan, there can be significantly reduced use of LSR material. Suggestions to reduce the calculated product carbon footprint in the scope of emissions involve 1. Incorporating the recycling of factory silicone waste into operations, 2. Using green renewable energy for external electricity sources and 3. Sourcing eco-friendly raw materials with low GHG emissions.

Keywords: carbon footprint, liquid silicone rubber, silicone data cable, Malaysia facility

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7 Numerical Investigation for External Strengthening of Dapped-End Beams

Authors: A. Abdel-Moniem, H. Madkour, K. Farah, A. Abdullah


The reduction in dapped end beams depth nearby the supports tends to produce stress concentration and hence results in shear cracks, if it does not have an adequate reinforcement detailing. This study investigates numerically the efficiency of applying different external strengthening techniques to the dapped end of such beams. A two-dimensional finite element model was built to predict the structural behavior of dapped ends strengthened with different techniques. The techniques included external bonding of the steel angle at the re-entrant corner, un-bounded bolt anchoring, external steel plate jacketing, exterior carbon fiber wrapping and/or stripping and external inclined steel plates. The FE analysis results are then presented in terms of the ultimate load capacities, load-deflection and crack pattern at failure. The results showed that the FE model, at various stages, was found to be comparable to the available test data. Moreover, it enabled the capture of the failure progress, with acceptable accuracy, which is very difficult in a laboratory test.

Keywords: dapped-end beams, finite element, shear failure, strengthening techniques, reinforced concrete, numerical investigation

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6 Controlled Deconstruction and Rehabilitation of Fire Damaged Structure

Authors: Javed Y. Uppal


In this paper, a case study of a 13 storied multi storied main headquarters building of the Lahore Development Authority Lahore Pakistan has been presented, the 9th floor of which caught fire due to short circuiting and the flare spread through air-conditioning ducts to top three floors, and the building remained under fire for 15 hours before it was quenched. Some columns at the upper 3 floors started crumbling down, which were immediately propped. A visual inspection of site was first carried out, followed by onsite material tests and lab tests for residual strengths, which led to the decision of removal of the top 3 floors in a planned sequence of diamond cutting of middle strips, column strips, and shear walls, in panels and their lifting up by overhead cranes. The waffle slabs were stitched and jacketed with low viscosity polymer layer. The damaged bars were supplemented. The cracked columns were jacketed as well. The validity of rehabilitation procedure was established by load deflection behavior tests and long term performance observation over a period of 5 years. The paper concludes that the procedures adopted could be recommended for such events.

Keywords: fire damage, shotcrete, waffle slabs, delamination, drying cracking, jacketing

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5 Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing

Authors: Ebrahim Zamani Beydokhti, Hashem Shariatmadar


This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.

Keywords: concrete beam-column joints, CFRP sheets, lateral slab, axial load

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4 Experimental Study on Strengthening Systems of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Slabs

Authors: Aymen H. Khalil, Ashraf M. Heniegal, Bassam A. Abdelsalam


There are many problems related to cantilever slabs such as the time-dependent deformation, corrosion problems of steel reinforcement, and lack of experimental studies on the strength of strengthened cantilever slabs. This paper presents an investigation to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete cantilever slabs after strengthening with different techniques. Six medium scale specimens, divided into three groups, were tested along with a control slab. The first group consists of two specimens which were repaired and strengthened using reinforced concrete jacket above with and without shear connector bars, whereas the second group contained two slabs which were strengthened using two strips of two layers of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) covering 60% and 90% from the cantilever length. The last group involves two specimens strengthened with two steel plates. In one specimen, the steel plates were glued to the surface using epoxy resin. The second specimen, the steel plates were affixed to the concrete surface using expansion bolts. The loading was conducted in two phases. Firstly, the samples were subjected to 40% of the ultimate load of the control slab. Secondly, the specimens reloaded after being strengthened up to failure. The load-deflection, steel strain, concrete strain, failure mode, toughness, and ductility index are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: repair, strengthened, GFRP layers, reloaded, jacketing, cantilever slabs

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3 Probabilistic Seismic Loss Assessment of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Frame Buildings Pre- and Post-Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Flora, A. Di Lascio, D. Cardone, G. Gesualdi, G. Perrone


This paper considers the seismic assessment and retrofit of a pilotis-type RC frame building, which was designed for gravity loads only, prior to the introduction of seismic design provisions. Pilotis-type RC frame buildings, featuring an uniform infill throughout the height and an open ground floor, were, and still are, quite popular all over the world, as they offer large open areas very suitable for retail space at the ground floor. These architectural advantages, however, are of detriment to the building seismic behavior, as they can determine a soft-storey collapse mechanism. Extensive numerical analyses are carried out to quantify and benchmark the performance of the selected building, both in terms of overall collapse capacity and expected losses. Alternative retrofit strategies are then examined, including: (i) steel jacketing of RC columns and beam-column joints, (ii) steel bracing and (iv) seismic isolation. The Expected Annual Loss (EAL) of the selected case-study building, pre- and post-rehabilitation, is evaluated, following a probabilistic approach. The breakeven time of each solution is computed, comparing the initial cost of the retrofit intervention with expected benefit in terms of EAL reduction.

Keywords: expected annual loss, reinforced concrete buildings, seismic loss assessment, seismic retrofit

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2 Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece

Authors: Chrysanthos Maraveas, Argiris Plesias, Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Konstantinos Petronikolos


The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.

Keywords: earthquake resistance, pushover analysis, reinforced concrete, retrofit, strengthening

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1 An Experimental Investigation of Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete T-Beams Under Static Monotonic Increasing Loading

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Abdulla Alakad


An experimental investigation to study the behaviour of under flexure reinforced concrete T-Beams. Those Beams were loaded to pre-designated stress levels as percentage of calculated collapse loads. Repairing these beans by either reinforced concrete jacket, or by externally bolted steel plates were utilized. Twelve full scale beams were tested in this experimental program scheme. Eight out of the twelve beams were loaded under different loading levels. Tests were performed for the beams before and after repair with Reinforced Concrete Jacket (RCJ). The applied Load levels were 60%, 77% and 100% of the calculated collapse loads. The remaining four beams were tested before and after repair with Bolted Steel Plate (BSP). Furthermore, out previously mentioned four beams two beams were loaded to the calculated failure load 100% and the remaining two beams were not subjected to any load. The eight beams recorded for the RCJ test were repaired using reinforced concrete jacket. The four beams recorded for the BSP test were all repaired using steel plate at the bottom. All the strengthened beams were gradually loaded until failure occurs. However, in each loading case, the beams behaviour, before and after strengthening, were studied through close inspection of the cracking propagation, and by carrying out an extensive measurement of deformations and strength. The stress-strain curve for reinforcing steel and the failure strains measured in the tests were utilized in the calculation of failure load for the beams before and after strengthening. As a result, the calculated failure loads were close to the actual failure tests in case of beams before repair, ranging from 85% to 90% and also in case of beams repaired by reinforced concrete jacket ranging from 70% to 85%. The results were in case of beams repaired by bolted steel plates ranging from (50% to 85%). It was observed that both jacketing and bolted steel plate methods could effectively restore the full flexure capacity of the damaged beams. However, the reinforced jacket has increased the failure load by about 67%, whereas the bolted steel plates recovered the failure load.

Keywords: rehabilitation, strengthening, reinforced concrete, beams deflection, bending stresses

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