Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3214

Search results for: anterior chamber depth

3214 Anterior Chamber Depth Measured with Orbscan and Pentacam Compared with Smith Method in 102 Phakic Eyes

Authors: Mohammad Ghandehari Motlagh


Purpose: Comparing anterior chamber depth (ACD) measured with Orbscan II and Pentacam HR compared with the Smith method results. Methods: Smith method (1979) is a reliable method of measuring ACD only with help of slit lamp. In this study 102 phakic eyes as PRK candidates were imaged with both OrbScan and Pentacam and finally ACD was measured thru Smith method with slit lamp. ACD measured with Smith method was presumed as the gold standard and was compared with ACD of the 2 imaging devices. Contraindication cases for PRK and pseudophakic eyes have been excluded from the study. Results: Mean age of the patients was 35.2 ±14.8 yrs/old including 56 M(54.9%)and 46 F(45.09%).Acceptable correlation of ACD measured thru Smith method with Orbscan and Pentacam are R=0.958 and R=0.942 respectively and so Orbscan results can be used in procedures relying on ACD. Conclusion: ACDs measured with OrbScan is more precise than Pentacam and so can be more useful in some surgery procedures relying ACD results such as phakic IOLs and in cycloplegia contraindications.

Keywords: orbscan, pentacam, anterior chamber depth, slit lamp

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3213 Comparative Evaluation of Postoperative Cosmesis, Mydriasis and Anterior Chamber Morphology after Single-Pass Four-Throw Pupilloplasty between Traumatic and Congenital Iris Defects

Authors: S. P. Singh, Shweta Gupta, Kshama Dwivedi, Shivangi Singh


Aim: To compare the postoperative pupil cosmesis, mydriasis, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) in traumatic and congenital iris defects after Single-Pass Four-Throw pupilloplasty (SFTP). Method: SFTP was performed along with cataract surgery in 6 patients, each of congenital and traumatic iris defects and pupil size, mydriasis, and ACD was compared after three months. Results: SFTP was successful in repairing congenital and traumatic cases except in 1 traumatic case with a large iris defect. Horizontal pupil diameter decreased while ACD increased in both groups and was comparable between the two groups. The traumatic group showed a significant decrease in pupil diameter while there was an insignificant change in the horizontal pupil diameter in the congenital group. Mydriasis was adequate for fundus examination and was comparable between the two groups. The effect of SFTP on ACD was inconclusive due to the confounding effect of cataract surgery. The incidence of iris atrophy was equal in both groups. Conclusion: SFTP results in anatomical and functional restoration in cases of iris defects with no inadvertent effect on mydriasis.

Keywords: anterior chamber depth, mydriasis, pupil cosmesis, single-pass four-throw pupilloplasty

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3212 Fundamental Research Dissension between Hot and Cold Chamber High Pressure Die Casting

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Surinder Pal, Rahul Kapoor


This paper is focused on to define the basic difference between hot and cold chamber high pressure die casting process which is not fully defined in a research before paper which we have studied. The pressure die casting is basically defined into two types (1) Hot chamber Die Casting (2) Cold chamber Die Casting. Cold chamber die casting is used for casting alloys that require high pressure and have a high melting temperature, such as brass, aluminum, magnesium, copper based alloys and other high melting point nonferrous alloys. Hot chamber die casting is suitable for casting zinc, tin, lead, and low melting point alloys. In hot chamber die casting machine, the molten metal is an integral pan of the machine. It mainly consists of hot chamber and gooseneck type metal container made of cast iron. This machine is mainly used for low melting alloys and alloys of metals like zinc, lead etc. Metals and alloys having a high melting point and those which are having an affinity for iron cannot be cast by this machine, which could otherwise attack the shot sleeve and damage the machine.

Keywords: hot chamber die casting, cold chamber die casting, metals and alloys, casting technology

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3211 Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of a Combustion Chamber using ANSYS Computational Fluid Dynamics to Estimate the Thermocouple Positioning in a Chamber Wall

Authors: Muzna Tariq, Ihtzaz Qamar


In most engineering cases, the working temperatures inside a combustion chamber are high enough that they lie beyond the operational range of thermocouples. Furthermore, design and manufacturing limitations restrict the use of internal thermocouples in many applications. Heat transfer inside a combustion chamber is caused due to interaction of the post-combustion hot fluid with the chamber wall. Heat transfer that involves an interaction between the fluid and solid is categorized as Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT). Therefore, to satisfy the needs of CHT, CHT Analysis is performed by using ANSYS CFD tool to estimate theoretically precise thermocouple positions at the combustion chamber wall where excessive temperatures (beyond thermocouple range) can be avoided. In accordance with these Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results, a combustion chamber is designed, and a prototype is manufactured with multiple thermocouple ports positioned at the specified distances so that the temperature of hot gases can be measured on the chamber wall where the temperatures do not exceed the thermocouple working range.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, conduction, conjugate heat transfer, convection, fluid flow, thermocouples

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3210 A Hybrid Combustion Chamber Design for Diesel Engines

Authors: R. Gopakumar, G. Nagarajan


Both DI and IDI systems possess inherent advantages as well as disadvantages. The objective of the present work is to obtain maximum advantages of both systems by implementing a hybrid design. A hybrid combustion chamber design consists of two combustion chambers viz., the main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber. A fuel injector supplies major quantity of fuel to the auxiliary chamber. Due to the increased swirl motion in auxiliary chamber, mixing becomes more efficient which contributes to reduction in soot/particulate emissions. Also, by increasing the fuel injection pressure, NOx emissions can be reduced. The main objective of the hybrid combustion chamber design is to merge the positive features of both DI and IDI combustion chamber designs, which provides increased swirl motion and improved thermal efficiency. Due to the efficient utilization of fuel, low specific fuel consumption can be ensured. This system also aids in increasing the power output for same compression ratio and injection timing as compared with the conventional combustion chamber designs. The present system also reduces heat transfer and fluid dynamic losses which are encountered in IDI diesel engines. Since the losses are reduced, overall efficiency of the engine increases. It also minimizes the combustion noise and NOx emissions in conventional DI diesel engines.

Keywords: DI, IDI, hybrid combustion, diesel engines

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3209 The Influence of the Moving Speeds of DNA Droplet on Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Jyh Jyh Chen, Fu H. Yang, Chen W. Wang, Yu M. Lin


In this work, a reaction chamber is reciprocated among three temperature regions by using an oscillatory thermal cycling machine. Three cartridge heaters are collocated to heat three aluminum blocks in order to achieve PCR requirements in the reaction chamber. The effects of various chamber moving speeds among different temperature regions on the chamber temperature profiles are presented. To solve the evaporation effect of the sample in the PCR experiment, the mineral oil and the cover lid are used. The influences of various extension times on DNA amplification are also demonstrated. The target fragments of the amplification are 385-bp and 420-bp. The results show when the forward speed is set at 6 mm/s and the backward speed is 2.4 mm/s, the temperature required for the experiment can be achieved. It is successful to perform the amplification of DNA fragments in our device.

Keywords: oscillatory, polymerase chain reaction, reaction chamber, thermal cycling machine

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3208 Combustion Chamber Sizing for Energy Recovery from Furnace Process Gas: Waste to Energy

Authors: Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen, Stein Tore Johansen


The Norwegian ferroalloy industry is a world leader in sustainable production of ferrosilicon, silicon and manganese alloys with the lowest global specific energy consumption. One of the byproducts during the metal reduction process is energy rich off-gas and usually this energy is not harnessed. A novel concept for sustainable energy recovery from ferroalloy off-gas is discussed. The concept is founded on the idea of introducing a combustion chamber in the off-gas section in which energy rich off-gas mainly consisting of CO will be combusted. This will provide an additional degree of freedom for optimizing energy recovery. A well-controlled and high off-gas temperature will assure a significant increase in energy recovery and reduction of emissions to the atmosphere. Design and operation of the combustion chamber depend on many parameters, including the total power capacity of the combustion chamber, sufficient residence time for combusting the complex Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), NOx, as well as converting other potential pollutants. The design criteria for the combustion chamber have been identified and discussed and sizing of the combustion chamber has been carried out considering these design criteria. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been utilized extensively for sizing the combustion chamber. The results from our CFD simulations of the flow in the combustion chamber and exploring different off-gas fuel composition are presented. In brief, the paper covers all aspect which impacts the sizing of the combustion chamber, including insulation thickness, choice of insulating material, heat transfer through extended surfaces, multi-staging and secondary air injection.

Keywords: CFD, combustion chamber, arc furnace, energy recovery

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3207 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

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3206 The Correlation between Nasal Resistance and Obligatory Oronasal Switching Point in Non-Athletic Non-Smoking Healthy Men

Authors: Amir H. Bayat, Mohammad R. Alipour, Saeed Khamneh


As the respiration via nose is important physiologically, many studies have been done about nasal breathing that switches to oronasal breathing during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the role of anterior nasal resistance as one of the effective factors on this switching. Twelve young, healthy, non-athletic and non-smoker male volunteers with normal BMI were selected after physical examination and participated in exercise protocol, including measurement of the ventilation, work load and oronasal switching point (OSP) during exercise, and anterior rhinomanometry at rest. The protocol was an incremental exercise with 25 watt increase in work load per minute up to OSP occurrence. There was a significant negative correlation between resting total anterior nasal resistance with OSP, work load and ventilation (p<0.05, r= -0.709). Resting total anterior nasal resistance can be considered as an important factor on OSP occurrence. So, the reducing the resistance of nasal passage may increase nasal respiration tolerance for longer time during exercise.

Keywords: anterior nasal resistance, exercise, OSP, ventilation, work load

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3205 Relative Depth Dose Profile and Peak Scatter Factors Measurement for Co-60 Teletherapy Machine Using Chemical Dosimetry

Authors: O. Moussous, T. Medjadj


The suitability of a Fricke dosimeter for the measurement of a relative depth dose profile and the peak scatter factors was studied. The measurements were carried out in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at CRNA Algiers using a collimated 60Co gamma source teletherapy machine. The measurements were performed for different field sizes at the phantom front face, at a fixed source-to-phantom distance of 80 cm. The dose measurements were performed by first placing the dosimeters free-in-air at the distance-source-detector (DSD) of 80.5 cm from the source. Additional measurements were made with the phantom in place. The water phantom type Med-Tec 40x40x40 cm for vertical beam was used in this work as scattering martial. The phantom was placed on the irradiation bench of the cobalt unit at the SSD of 80 cm from the beam focus and the centre of the field coincided with the geometric centre of the dosimeters placed at the depth in water of 5 mm Relative depth dose profile and Peak scatter factors measurements were carried out using our Fricke system. This was intercompared with similar measurements by ionization chamber under identical conditions. There is a good agreement between the relative percentage depth–dose profiles and the PSF values measured by both systems using a water phantom.

Keywords: Fricke dosimeter, depth–dose profiles, peak scatter factors, DSD

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3204 Bacterio-Algal Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Power Production, Wastewater Treatment, and Desalination

Authors: Ann D. Christy, Beenish Saba


The Microbial fuel Cell (MFC) is a successful integrated technology for power production and wastewater treatment. MFCs are recognized for their dual function, but research in this field is still ongoing to increase efficiency and power output. One such effort is successful integration of phototrophic and autotrophic microorganisms to create bacterio-algal MFCs for sustainable electricity production along with wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. An MFC is typically configured with an anaerobic anodic chamber containing exoelectrogenic microorganisms separated by a cation exchange membrane from an adjacent aerobic cathodic chamber. The two electrodes are connected by an external circuit. This conventional MFC can be converted into a phototrophic MFC by introducing photosynthetic microorganisms into the cathode chamber. This study examines adding a third desalination chamber to a two-chamber bacterio-algal MFC. Successful results have been observed from these three-chamber MFCs demonstrating wastewater treatment in the anodic chamber, phototrophic algal growth in the cathodic chamber, and desalination in the middle chamber. The present article will summarize successful results of the bacterio-algal fuel cells and offer insights about the mechanisms involved. Tables summarizing the input substrate along with optimized operational conditions and output performance in terms of power production and efficiencies of water and wastewater treatment will be presented. The negative impacts and challenges will be discussed, along with possible future research directions. Results suggest that the three chamber bacterio-algal desalination cell has potential as a feasible technology for power production, wastewater treatment and desalination, but it needs further investigation under optimized conditions.

Keywords: bacterio-algal MFC, three chamber, microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment and desalination

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3203 Performing a Chamber Theatre Adaptation of Nick Joaquin's 'the Summer Solstice'

Authors: Allen B. Baylosis


Chamber Theatre has been one of the least articulated staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies. This creative exploratory-descriptive study responds to this gap by employing the staging technique in a Chamber Theatre production based on Nick Joaquin’s The Summer Solstice. Specifically, this study opts to understand three processes involved in the Chamber Theatre creative thesis production of The Summer Solstice as performance: performance of the theatre-maker, performance of the spect-actors, and performance of the spectators. For this purpose, the theatre-maker describes the creative process of transforming The Summer Solstice text to a Chamber Theatre production—from text to staging. The theatre-maker also analyzes the performers’ experiences and the spectators’ responses as they participate in a Chamber Theatre performance. In doing so, the theatre-maker collects qualitative data from seventeen (17) performers and qualitative feedback from twenty (20) spectators. For the mode of data analysis, this study employed Ranciere’s concept on the Emancipated Spectator (2008) and Schechner’s Performance Theory (1988). The study’s findings examine how the theatre-maker, the performers, and the spectators become distant viewers of their respective restored behavior performances. Through these viewed performances, this study implies that it is possible to ascertain a reasonable definition of purpose for Chamber Theatre. Hence, despite the existence of other modern staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies, this study concludes that Chamber Theatre remains to be a relevant staging technique.

Keywords: adaptation of text, chamber theatre, experimental theater, oral interpretation

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3202 A Measurement Device of Condensing Flow Rate, an Order of MilliGrams per Second

Authors: Hee Joon Lee


There are many difficulties in measuring a small flow rate of an order of milli grams per minute (LPM) or less using a conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a flow meter with minimal loss and based on a new concept was designed as part of this paper. A chamber was manufactured with a level transmitter and an on-off control valve. When the level of the collected condensed water reaches the top of the chamber, the valve opens to allow the collected water to drain back into the tank. To allow the water to continue to drain when the signal is lost, the valve is held open for a few seconds by a time delay switch and then closed. After an examination, the condensing flow rate was successfully measured with the uncertainty of ±5.7% of the full scale for the chamber.

Keywords: chamber, condensation, flow meter, milli-grams

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3201 Study of Acoustic Resonance of Model Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber and Its Suppression

Authors: Vimal O. Kumar, C. K. Muthukumaran, P. Rakesh


Liquid rocket engine (LRE) combustion chamber is subjected to pressure oscillation during the combustion process. The combustion noise (acoustic noise) is a broad band, small amplitude, high frequency component pressure oscillation. They constitute only a minor fraction ( < 1%) of the entire combustion process. However, this high frequency oscillation is huge concern during the design phase of LRE combustion chamber as it would cause catastrophic failure of the chamber. Depends on the chamber geometry, certain frequencies form standing wave pattern, and they resonate with high amplitude and are known as Eigen modes. These Eigen modes could cause failures unless it is suppressed to be within safe limits. These modes are categorized into radial, tangential, and azimuthal modes, and their structure inside the combustion chamber is of interest to the researchers. In the present proposal, experimental as well as numerical simulation will be performed to obtain the frequency-amplitude characteristics of the model combustion chamber for different baffle configuration. The main objective of this study is to find effect of baffle configuration that would provide better suppression of acoustic modes. The experimental study aims at measuring the frequency amplitude characteristics at certain points in the chamber wall. The experimental measurement will be also used for scheme used in numerical simulation. In addition to experiments, numerical simulation would provide detailed structure of the Eigenmodes exhibited and their level of suppression with the aid of different baffle configurations.

Keywords: baffle, instability, liquid rocket engine, pressure response of chamber

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3200 Relationship between Left Ventricle Position and Hemodynamic Parameters during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Pig Model

Authors: Hyun Chang Kim, Yong Hun Jung, Kyung Woon Jeung


Background: From the viewpoint of cardiac pump theory, the area of the left ventricle (LV) subjected to compression increases as the LV lies closer to the sternum, possibly resulting in higher blood flow in patients with LV closer to the sternum. However, no study has evaluated LV position during cardiac arrest or its relationship with hemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The objectives of this study were to determine whether the position of the LV relative to the anterior-posterior axis representing the direction of chest compression shifts during cardiac arrest and to examine the relationship between LV position and hemodynamic parameters during CPR. Methods: Subcostal view echocardiograms were obtained from 15 pigs with the transducer parallel to the long axis of the sternum before inducing ventricular fibrillation (VF) and during cardiac arrest. Computed tomography was performed in three pigs to objectively observe LV position during cardiac arrest. LV position parameters including the shortest distance between the anterior-posterior axis and the mid-point of the LV chamber (DAP-MidLV), the shortest distance between the anterior-posterior axis and the LV apex (DAP-Apex), and the area fraction of the LV located on the right side of the anterior-posterior axis (LVARight/LVATotal) were measured. Results: DAP-MidLV, DAP-Apex, and LVARight/LVATotal decreased progressively during untreated VF and basic life support (BLS), and then increased during advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant time effects for these parameters. During BLS, the end-tidal carbon dioxide and systolic right atrial pressure were significantly correlated with the LV position parameters. During ACLS, systolic arterial pressure and systolic right atrial pressure were significantly correlated with DAP-MidLV and DAP-Apex. Conclusions: LV position changed significantly during cardiac arrest compared to the pre-arrest baseline. LV position during CPR had significant correlations with hemodynamic parameters.

Keywords: heart arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, heart ventricle, hemodynamics

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3199 A Simple Technique for Centralisation of Distal Femoral Nail to Avoid Anterior Femoral Impingement and Perforation

Authors: P. Panwalkar, K. Veravalli, M. Tofighi, A. Mofidi


Introduction: Anterior femoral perforation or distal anterior nail position is a known complication of femoral nailing specifically in pertrochantric fractures fixed with cephalomedullary nail. This has been attributed to wrong entry point for the femoral nail, nail with large radius of curvature or malreduced fracture. Left alone anterior perforation of femur or abutment of nail on anterior femur will result in pain and risk stress riser at distal femur and periprosthetic fracture. There have been multiple techniques described to avert or correct this problem ranging from using different nail, entry point change, poller screw to deflect the nail position, use of shorter nail or use of curved guidewire or change of nail to ensure a nail with large radius of curvature Methods: We present this technique which we have used in order to centralise the femoral nail either when the nail has been put anteriorly or when the guide wire has been inserted too anteriorly prior to the insertion of the nail. This technique requires the use of femoral reduction spool from the nailing set. This technique was used by eight trainees of different level of experience under supervision. Results: This technique was easily reproducible without any learning curve without a need for opening of fracture site or change in the entry point with three different femoral nailing sets in twenty-five cases. The process took less than 10 minutes even when revising a malpositioned femoral nail. Conclusion: Our technique of using femoral reduction spool is easily reproducible and repeatable technique for avoidance of non-centralised femoral nail insertion and distal anterior perforation of femoral nail.

Keywords: femoral fracture, nailing, malposition, surgery

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3198 Power Generation through Water Vapour: An Approach of Using Sea/River/Lake Water as Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Riad


As present world needs more and more energy in a low cost way, it needs to find out the optimal way of power generation. In the sense of low cost, renewable energy is one of the greatest sources of power generation. Water vapour of sea/river/lake can be used for power generation by using the greenhouse effect in a large flat type water chamber floating on the water surface. The water chamber will always be kept half filled. When water evaporates by sunlight, the high pressured gaseous water will be stored in the chamber. By passing through a pipe and by using aerodynamics it can be used for power generation. The water level of the chamber is controlled by some means. As a large amount of water evaporates, an estimation can be highlighted, approximately 3 to 4 thousand gallons of water evaporates from per acre of surface (this amount will be more by greenhouse effect). This large amount of gaseous water can be utilized for power generation by passing through a pipe. This method can be a source of power generation.

Keywords: renewable energy, greenhouse effect, water chamber, water vapour

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3197 Performance of an Optical Readout Gas Chamber for Charged Particle Track

Authors: Jing Hu, Xiaoping Ouyang


We develop an optical readout gas chamber based on avalanche-induced scintillation for energetic charged particles track. The gas chamber is equipped with a Single Anode Wires (SAW) structure to produce intensive electric field when the measured particles are of low yield or even single. In the presence of an intensive electric field around the single anode, primary electrons, resulting from the incident charged particles when depositing the energy along the track, accelerate to the anode effectively and rapidly. For scintillation gasses, this avalanche of electrons induces multiplying photons comparing with the primary scintillation excited directly from particle energy loss. The electric field distribution for different shape of the SAW structure is analyzed, and finally, an optimal one is used to study the optical readout performance. Using CF4 gas and its mixture with the noble gas, the results indicate that the optical readout characteristics of the chamber are attractive for imaging. Moreover, images of particles track including single particle track from 5.485MeV alpha particles are successfully acquired. The track resolution is quite well for the reason that the electrons undergo less diffusion in the intensive electric field. With the simple and ingenious design, the optical readout gas chamber has a high sensitivity. Since neutrons can be converted to charged particles when scattering, this optical readout gas chamber can be applied to neutron measurement for dark matter, fusion research, and others.

Keywords: optical readout, gas chamber, charged particle track, avalanche-induced scintillation, neutron measurement

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3196 Numerical Modeling of the Depth-Averaged Flow over a Hill

Authors: Anna Avramenko, Heikki Haario


This paper reports the development and application of a 2D depth-averaged model. The main goal of this contribution is to apply the depth averaged equations to a wind park model in which the treatment of the geometry, introduced on the mathematical model by the mass and momentum source terms. The depth-averaged model will be used in future to find the optimal position of wind turbines in the wind park. K-E and 2D LES turbulence models were consider in this article. 2D CFD simulations for one hill was done to check the depth-averaged model in practise.

Keywords: depth-averaged equations, numerical modeling, CFD, wind park model

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3195 RGB-D SLAM Algorithm Based on pixel level Dense Depth Map

Authors: Hao Zhang, Hongyang Yu


Scale uncertainty is a well-known challenging problem in visual SLAM. Because RGB-D sensor provides depth information, RGB-D SLAM improves this scale uncertainty problem. However, due to the limitation of physical hardware, the depth map output by RGB-D sensor usually contains a large area of missing depth values. These missing depth information affect the accuracy and robustness of RGB-D SLAM. In order to reduce these effects, this paper completes the missing area of the depth map output by RGB-D sensor and then fuses the completed dense depth map into ORB SLAM2. By adding the process of obtaining pixel-level dense depth maps, a better RGB-D visual SLAM algorithm is finally obtained. In the process of obtaining dense depth maps, a deep learning model of indoor scenes is adopted. Experiments are conducted on public datasets and real-world environments of indoor scenes. Experimental results show that the proposed SLAM algorithm has better robustness than ORB SLAM2.

Keywords: RGB-D, SLAM, dense depth, depth map

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3194 Development of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF) Peek Cage Based on the Korean Lumbar Anatomical Information

Authors: Chang Soo Chon, Cheol Woong Ko, Han Sung Kim


The aim of this study is to develop an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) PEEK cage suitable for Korean people. In this study, CT images were obtained from Korean male (173cm, 71kg) and 3D Korean lumbar models were reconstructed based on the CT images to investigate anatomical characteristics. Major design parameters of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) PEEK Cage were selected using the morphological measurement information of the Korean Lumbar models. Through finite element analysis and mechanical tests, the developed ALIF PEEK Cage prototype was compared with the Fidji Cage (Zimmer.Inc, USA) and it was found that the ALIF prototype showed similar and/or superior mechanical performance compared to the FidJi Cage. Also, clinical validation for the ALIF PEEK Cage prototype was carried out to check predictable troubles in surgical operations. Finally, it is considered that the convenience and stability of the prototype was clinically verified.

Keywords: inter-body anterior fusion, ALIF cage, PEEK, Korean lumbar, CT image, animal test

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3193 Characterization of an Extrapolation Chamber for Dosimetry of Low Energy X-Ray Beams

Authors: Fernanda M. Bastos, Teógenes A. da Silva


Extrapolation chambers were designed to be used as primary standard dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose in a medium in beta radiation and low energy x-rays. The International Organization for Standardization established series of reference x-radiation for calibrating and determining the energy dependence of dosimeters that are to be reproduced in metrology laboratories. Standardization of the low energy x-ray beams with tube potential lower than 30 kV may be affected by the instrument used for dosimetry. In this work, parameters of a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber were determined aiming its use in low energy x-ray beams as a reference instrument.

Keywords: extrapolation chamber, low energy x-rays, x-ray dosimetry, X-ray metrology

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3192 The Origin Variability of the Obturator Artery

Authors: Halimah Al Hifzi, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Hassan Al Mousa, Zainab Al-Hashim, Roger Soames


The obturator artery is one branches of anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It passes on the lateral wall of pelvis to escape into thigh region via obturator foremen. Based on previous research studies, it found to be extremely variable in origin and course. It may arise from internal or external iliac artery. The current study includes 82 dissected specimens to investigate the origin of the obturator artery and explain the clinical importance. The obturator artery arises from the internal iliac artery in 75% either from its anterior or posterior division in 46.9% or 25% respectively. Further, it arises neither from the anterior nor posterior division of the internal iliac artery but it arises between them in 3.1%. In 25%, the obturator artery arises from the external iliac artery. In case of aneurysmectomy of posterior division, carries a high risk of insufficient of vascular supply for demand structures such as proximal adductors attachment and hip joint. Therefore, vascular surgeons have to pay attention to the posterior division being an origin of the obturator artery beside its usual three classical branches: superior gluteal, iliolumbar and lateral sacral arteries. Further, the obturator artery arising from the external iliac system is in great dangerous of laceration in case of anterior pelvic fracture. Therefore, it may lead to haemorrhagic shock threatening life.

Keywords: obturator artery, external iliac, internal iliac artery, anterior division, posterior division, superior gluteal, iliolumbar and lateral sacral, pubic fracture, aneurysm, shock

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3191 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin in United Kingdom Population

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Ali Al Dorazi, Roger Soames


The inferior gluteal artery is a largest branch of the anterior division of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Present study explores the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose directly from the anterior division of internal iliac artery in 39% and 45.7% indirectly as with the internal pudendal artery. Further, it arose indirectly from anterior division with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk in 1.5%. Therefore, it arose from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 86.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch (as from the sciatic artery) in 1.5%. It neither arose from anterior or posterior division in 1.5% as from gluteopudendal trunk arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy or gluteal claudication due to prolonged ligation in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal pudendal, sciatic nerve, sciatic artery, gluteal claudication, sciatic neuopathy

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3190 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-Type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim


Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: combustion, emission, can-type combustion chamber, CFD, motility of holes, swirl flow

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3189 Analytical Solution for End Depth Ratio in Rectangular Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman


Free over-fall is an instrument for measuring discharge in open channels by measuring end depth. A comprehensive researchers investigated theoretically and experimentally brink phenomenon with various approaches for different cross-sectional shapes. Anderson's method, based on Boussinq's approximation and energy approach was used to derive a pressure distribution factor at end depth. Applying the one-dimensional momentum equation and the principles of limit slope analysis, a relevant analytical solution may be derived for brink depth ratio (EDR) in prismatic rectangular channel. Also relationships between end depth ratio and slope ratio for a given non-dimensional normal or critical depth with upstream supercritical flow regime are presented. Simple indirect procedure is used to estimate the end depth discharge ratio (EDD) for subcritical and supercritical flow using measured end depth. The comparison of this analysis with all previous theoretical and experimental studies showed an excellent agreement.

Keywords: analytical solution, brink depth, end depth, flow measurement, free over fall, hydraulics, rectangular channel

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3188 Optimization of Transmission Loss on a Series-Coupled Muffler by Taguchi Method

Authors: Jing-Fung Lin, Jer-Jia Sheu


In this study, an approach has been developed for the noise reduction of a muffler. The transmission loss (TL) in the muffler is maximized by the use of a double-chamber muffler, and a baffle with a hole is inserted between chambers. Taguchi method is used to optimize the design for the acoustical performance of the muffler. The TL performance is evaluated by COMSOL software. The excellent parameter combination for the maximum TL is attained as high as 35.30 dB in a wide frequency range from 10 Hz to 1400 Hz. The influence sequence of four parameters on TL is determined by the range analysis. The effects of length and expansion ratio of the first chamber on TL performance for the excellent program were discussed. Comparisons of the TL results from different designs are made.

Keywords: acoustics, baffle, chamber, muffler, Taguchi method, transmission loss

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3187 Evaluation of the Golden Proportion and Golden Standard of Maxillary Anterior Teeth in Relation to Smile Attractiveness

Authors: Marwan Ahmed Swileh, Amal Hussein Abuaffan


Objective: This study aimed to explore the existence of golden proportion (GP) between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth and golden standard (GS) for width to height ratio of maxillary central incisor in individuals with attractive and non-attractive smiles. Materials and methods: A total of 82 females were recruited and divided into 2 groups: attractive smile (n= 41) and non-attractive smile (n= 41). Frontal photographs were taken, scanned, and saved on a personal computer. The apparent mesiodistal width of each anterior tooth was measured. The data were analyzed using the appropriate statistical tests at p-value < 0.05. Results: Frequency of GP was very low among the total sample, and most proportions were higher than GP. No significant differences were found between both groups in relation to central-to-lateral ratio while significant differences were found in relation to canine-to-lateral ratio. Similarly, most proportions of width to height ratio were higher than GS. Difference between groups was significant for left side and for both sides (p < 0.05) but was not for right side (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Frequency of golden proportion was very low among the study population. Smile attractiveness is not related that much to the proportions between the teeth.

Keywords: golden proportion, golden standard, attractive smile, esthetic, anterior teeth

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3186 Experimental Approach for Determining Hemi-Anechoic Characteristics of Engineering Acoustical Test Chambers

Authors: Santiago Montoya-Ospina, Raúl E. Jiménez-Mejía, Rosa Elvira Correa Gutiérrez


An experimental methodology is proposed for determining hemi-anechoic characteristics of an engineering acoustic room built at the facilities of Universidad Nacional de Colombia to evaluate the free-field conditions inside the chamber. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones in both, the source and the sound propagation inside the chamber. Acoustic source was modeled by using monopole radiation pattern from punctual sources and the image method was considered for dealing with the reflective plane of the room, that means, the floor without insulation. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was implemented to calculate the sound pressure value at every spatial point of the chamber. Comparison between theoretical and experimental data yields to minimum error, giving satisfactory results for the hemi-anechoic characterization of the chamber.

Keywords: acoustic impedance, finite-difference time-domain, hemi-anechoic characterization

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3185 Spectral Re-Evaluation of the Magnetic Basement Depth over Yola Arm of Upper Benue Trough Nigeria Using Aeromagnetic Data

Authors: Emberga Terhemb Opara Alexander, Selemo Alexader, Onyekwuru Samuel


The aeromagnetic data have been used to re-evaluate parts of the Upper Benue Trough Nigeria using spectral analysis technique in order to appraise the mineral accumulation potential of the area. The regional field was separated with a first order polynomial using polyfit program. The residual data was subdivided into 24 spectral blocks using OASIS MONTAJ software program. Two prominent magnetic depth source layers were identified. The deeper source depth values obtained ranges from 1.56km to 2.92km with an average depth of 2.37km as the magnetic basement depth while for the shallower sources, the depth values ranges from -1.17km to 0.98km with an average depth of 0.55km. The shallow depth source is attributed to the volcanic rocks that intruded the sedimentary formation and this could possibly be responsible for the mineralization found in parts of the study area.

Keywords: spectral analysis, Upper Benue Trough, magnetic basement depth, aeromagnetic

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