Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 158

Search results for: appreciation

158 Weight Status, Body Appreciation Correlated with Husbands' Satisfaction in Saudi Women

Authors: Hala Hzam Al Otaibi


Background: Obesity is more common among Saudi women compared to men, with 75–88% of adult women suffering from overweight or obesity and most of them married. Weight status and body appreciation are an important factor in maintaining or loss weight behaviors and for husbands satisfaction. Aims: To assess weight status, body appreciation and related factors, including age, level of education, occupation status husbands satisfaction in adult women. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 326 married women, aged 18 to 60 years old in Eastern of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected by face to face interview, height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and husbands satisfied were evaluated through questioning. Results: The majority of women has a university education, not employed and less than 40 years old (66.5%, 69.9%, 67.5%; respectively). Fifty-four percent of women overweight/obese and the rest were normal weight, BAS mean score was lower in younger women (>40 years) 7.39+2.20 and obese women (6.83+2.16) which is reflected lower body appreciation. Husbands' satisfaction regarding the weight status shows 47.6% of normal weight believed their husbands were dissatisfied with their weight and consider them as overweight/obese, 28.3% of overweight/obese thought their husbands satisfied with their weight and consider them as normal weight. Body appreciation correlated with age (r.139,p<0.05) and no correlation found for level of education and employed status. Husbands satisfaction strongly correlated with body appreciation (r.189,p<0.01) and weight status (r .570,p <0.01). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that women had a low body appreciation related to age, weight status and husbands' dissatisfaction. Future interventions aimed to weight reduction, it is important to consider husband satisfaction, as well as we need more assessment of weight satisfaction in younger women.

Keywords: body appreciation, husbands satisfaction, weight status, women

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157 A Study on Classic Literature Education in Primary School Using Out-of-School Literature Appreciation Program: An Practice Study Applied to Primary School in Korea

Authors: Hyo Jung Lee


The purpose of this study is to develop a literature appreciation education program for classic literatures and apply them to the field, and to derive the achievements and improvement points. Classic literature is a work of value recognized in the context of literature history and culture history, and learners can develop interest in literature and inherit tradition through appreciation of classic literature. However, in Korean educational environment, classic literature is a means for college entrance examination, and many learners analyze contents and language in textbooks and concentrate on memorizing the whole plot. This study is one of the reasons that classic literature appreciation education is not done properly and it is not able to give an opportunity to appreciate the whole work in the early learning stage. In Korean primary education, classic literature is used as a means to achieve the goals of reading, writing, speaking and listening, rather than being used as a material for its own appreciation. It is problematic to make the piece appreciation experience fragmentary. This study proposes a program to experience classic literatures by linking school education and school library with primary school students in grades 4-6. We work with local primary schools (siheung-si, gyeonggi-do, Korea) to provide appropriate activities and rewards to learners, observe their participation, and introduce student learning outcomes. Through this, we are able to systematically improve the learner 's ability to appreciate the literature and to diversify primary education.

Keywords: classic literature education, primary education, out-of-school program, learning by appreciation experience

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156 Associations Between Positive Body Image, Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in Young Adults

Authors: Samrah Saeed


Introduction: This study considers a measure of positive body image and the associations between body appreciation, beauty ideals internalization, dietary habits, and physical activity in young adults. Positive body image is assessed by Body Appreciation Scale 2. It is used to assess a person's acceptance of the body, the degree of positivity, and respect for the body.Regular physical activity and healthy eating arebasically important for the body, and they play an important role in creating a positive image of the body. Objectives: To identify the associations between body appreciation and beauty ideals internalization. To compare body appreciation and body ideals internalization among students of different physical activity. To explore the associations between dietary habits (unhealthy, healthy), body appreciation and body ideals internalization. Research methods and organization: Study participants were young adult students, aged 18-35, both male and female.The research questionnaire consisted of four areas: body appreciation, beauty ideals internalization, dietary habits, and physical activity.The questionnaire was created in Google Forms online survey platform.The questionnaire was filled out anonymously Result and Discussion: Physical dissatisfaction, diet, eating disorders and exercise disorders are found in young adults all over the world.Thorough nutrition helps people understand who they are by reassuring them that they are okay without judging or accepting themselves. Social media can positively influence body image in many ways.A healthy body image is important because it affect self-esteem, self-acceptance, and your attitude towards food and exercise.

Keywords: pysical activity, dietary habits, body image, beauty ideals internalization, body appreciation

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155 Use and Appreciation of a Type of Mathematics Textbook for Secondary Education

Authors: Verónica Díaz Quezada


Despite the wide variety of educational resources on the market and the advances produced in the technological field, the practice of teaching continues to be supported mainly by textbooks. This article reports on descriptive research with qualitative methodology carried out on secondary school mathematics teachers in a region of Chile, in order to describe the use and the indicators of appreciation that teachers have on the textbooks distributed by the official body to public educational establishments. Data were collected through an open response opinion questionnaire. According to the results, among the texts available for the annual performance of their teaching work, the expository and technological books predominate, to the detriment of comprehensive books. The exhibition structure favors master expositions and repetitive exercises, while, with the technological structure, a productive exercise is attempted, proposing numerous applications with the intention of giving meaning to the different mathematical rules and procedures. In relation to the indicators of appreciation that teachers have regarding the use of mathematics textbooks, the suitability and quality of the teaching resources are verified as the most satisfying characteristic.

Keywords: mathematics, secondary school, teachers, textbooks

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154 Investigation of Perception of Humor in Older Adults

Authors: Ng Ziyi Zoe, Yow Wei Quin


Humor plays a pivotal role in our interaction with people. According to the age-related positivity effect, older adults (OA) demonstrate more positive emotions and are better able to modulate negative emotional states than younger adults (YA), suggesting an increase in humor appreciation with age. However, different types of humor might show different patterns of change in appreciation with age (e.g., incongruity-resolution humor, aggressive humor, self-vs.-other-deprecating humor). Thus, we aim to explore age-related effects in the perception of different types of humor in a single study, including the impact of local slang in humor appreciation. Twenty OA aged 60-and-above and 24 YA aged 13-20 were watched four short videos (i.e., benign, violent, satire+local slang, and others-deprecating humor) and rated how funny the videos were (from a scale of 1-not funny-at-all to 5-very funny). Participants were also asked to rank the videos in the order of most- to least-entertaining. Repeated measures of ANOVA found significant main effects of age, F(3,39)=12,88, p < .001, where OA gave higher ratings than YA (M=3.20 vs. 2.63), and humor type, F(3,123)=19.66, p < .001. Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant linear contrast where benign and violent humor had the lowest ratings while others-deprecating humor had the highest ratings. No significant interaction effect was found. The distribution of ranking ratings also differed between OA and YA (e.g., preferred satire+local slang and others-deprecating humor vs. overwhelmingly preferred other-deprecating humor, respectively). Overall, OA displayed a greater appreciation across various types of humor than YA. Humor perception will be discussed in the larger context of cognitive, societal, and cultural implications.

Keywords: humor, older adults, perception, age differences

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153 UKIYO-E: User Knowledge Improvement Based on Youth Oriented Entertainment, Art Appreciation Support by Interacting with Picture

Authors: Haruya Tamaki, Tsugunosuke Sakai, Ryuichi Yoshida, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Fusako Kusunoki, Miki Namatame, Masanori Sugimoto, Hiroshi Mizoguchi


Art appreciation is important as part of children education. Art appreciation can enrich sensibility and creativity. To enrich sensibility and creativity, the children have to learning knowledge of picture such as social and historical backgrounds and author intention. High learning effect can acquire by actively learning. In short, it is important that encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively. It is necessary that children feel like interest to encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively. In a general art museum, comments on pictures are done through writing. Thus, we expect that this method cannot arouse the interest of the children in pictures, because children feel like boring. In brief, learning about the picture information is difficult. Therefore, we are developing an art-appreciation support system that will encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively by children feel like interest. This system uses that Interacting with Pictures to learning of the knowledge about pictures. To Interacting with Pictures, children have to utterance by themselves. We expect that will encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively by Interacting with Pictures. To more actively learning, children can choose who talking with by information that location and movement of the children. This system must be able to acquire real-time knowledge of the location, movement, and voice of the children. We utilize the Microsoft’s Kinect v2 sensor and its library, namely, Kinect for Windows SDK and Speech Platform SDK v11 for this purpose. By using these sensor and library, we can determine the location, movement, and voice of the children. As the first step of this system, we developed ukiyo-e game that use ukiyo-e to appreciation object. Ukiyo-e is a traditional Japanese graphic art that has influenced the western society. Therefore, we believe that the ukiyo-e game will be appreciated. In this study, we applied talking to pictures to learn information about the pictures because we believe that learning information about the pictures by talking to the pictures is more interesting than commenting on the pictures using only texts. However, we cannot confirm if talking to the pictures is more interesting than commenting using texts only. Thus, we evaluated through EDA measurement whether the user develops an interest in the pictures while talking to them using voice recognition or by commenting on the pictures using texts only. Hence, we evaluated that children have interest to picture while talking to them using voice recognition through EDA measurement. In addition, we quantitatively evaluate that enjoyed this game or not and learning information about the pictures for primary schoolchildren. In this paper, we summarize these two evaluation results.

Keywords: actively learning, art appreciation, EDA, Kinect V2

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152 Research on the Aesthetic Characteristics of Calligraphy Art Under The Cross-Cultural Background Based on Eye Tracking

Authors: Liu Yang


Calligraphy has a unique aesthetic value in Chinese traditional culture. Calligraphy reflects the physical beauty and the dynamic beauty of things through the structure of writing and the order of strokes to standardize the style of writing. In recent years, Chinese researchers have carried out research on the appreciation of calligraphy works from the perspective of psychology, such as how Chinese people appreciate the beauty of stippled lines, the beauty of virtual and real, and the beauty of the composition. However, there is currently no domestic research on how foreigners appreciate Chinese calligraphy. People's appreciation of calligraphy is mainly in the form of visual perception, and psychologists have been working on the use of eye trackers to record eye tracking data to explore the relationship between eye tracking and psychological activities. The purpose of this experimental study is to use eye tracking recorders to analyze the eye gaze trajectories of college students with different cultural backgrounds when they appreciate the same calligraphy work to reveal the differences in cognitive processing with different cultural backgrounds. It was found that Chinese students perceived calligraphy as words when viewing calligraphy works, so they first noticed fonts with easily recognizable glyphs, and the overall viewed time was short. Foreign students perceived calligraphy works as graphics, and they first noticed novel and abstract fonts, and the overall viewing time is longer. The understanding of calligraphy content has a certain influence on the appreciation of calligraphy works by foreign students. It is shown that when foreign students who understand the content of calligraphy works. The eye tracking path is more consistent with the calligraphy writing path, and it helps to develop associations with calligraphy works to better understand the connotation of calligraphy works. This result helps us understand the impact of cultural background differences on calligraphy appreciation and helps us to take more effective strategies to help foreign audiences understand Chinese calligraphy art.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, eye-tracking, cross-cultural, cultural communication

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151 Fostering Non-Traditional Student Success in an Online Music Appreciation Course

Authors: Linda Fellag, Arlene Caney


E-learning has earned an essential place in academia because it promotes learner autonomy, student engagement, and technological aptitude, and allows for flexible learning. However, despite advantages, educators have been slower to embrace e-learning for ESL and other non-traditional students for fear that such students will not succeed without the direct faculty contact and academic support of face-to-face classrooms. This study aims to determine if a non-traditional student-friendly online course can produce student retention and performance rates that compare favorably with those of students in standard online sections of the same course aimed at traditional college-level students. One Music faculty member is currently collaborating with an English instructor to redesign an online college-level Music Appreciation course for non-traditional college students. At Community College of Philadelphia, Introduction to Music Appreciation was recently designated as one of the few college-level courses that advanced ESL, and developmental English students can take while completing their language studies. Beginning in Fall 2017, the course will be critical for international students who must maintain full-time student status under visa requirements. In its current online format, however, Music Appreciation is designed for traditional college students, and faculty who teach these sections have been reluctant to revise the course to address the needs of non-traditional students. Interestingly, presenters maintain that the online platform is the ideal place to develop language and college readiness skills in at-risk students while maintaining the course's curricular integrity. The two faculty presenters describe how curriculum rather than technology drives the redesign of the digitized music course, and self-study materials, guided assignments, and periodic assessments promote independent learning and comprehension of material. The 'scaffolded' modules allow ESL and developmental English students to build on prior knowledge, preview key vocabulary, discuss content, and complete graded tasks that demonstrate comprehension. Activities and assignments, in turn, enhance college success by allowing students to practice academic reading strategies, writing, speaking, and student-faculty and peer-peer communication and collaboration. The course components facilitate a comparison of student performance and retention in sections of the redesigned and existing online sections of Music Appreciation as well as in previous sections with at-risk students. Indirect, qualitative measures include student attitudinal surveys and evaluations. Direct, quantitative measures include withdrawal rates, tests of disciplinary knowledge, and final grades. The study will compare the outcomes of three cohorts in the two versions of the online course: ESL students, at-risk developmental students, and college-level students. These data will also be compared with retention and student outcomes data of the three cohorts in f2f Music Appreciation, which permitted non-traditional student enrollment from 1998-2005. During this eight-year period, the presenter addressed the problems of at-risk students by adding language and college success support, which resulted in strong retention and outcomes. The presenters contend that the redesigned course will produce favorable outcomes among all three cohorts because it contains components which proved successful with at-risk learners in f2f sections of the course. Results of their study will be published in 2019 after the redesigned online course has met for two semesters.

Keywords: college readiness, e-learning, music appreciation, online courses

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150 An Exploration of the Effects of Individual and Interpersonal Factors on Saudi Learners' Motivation to Learn English as a Foreign Language

Authors: Fakieh Alrabai


This paper presents an experimental study designed to explore some of the learner’s individual and interpersonal factors (e.g. persistence, interest, regulation, satisfaction, appreciation, etc.) that Saudi learners experience when learning English as a Foreign Language and how learners’ perceptions of these factors influence various aspects of their motivation to learn English language. As part of the study, a 27-item structured survey was administered to a randomly selected sample of 105 Saudi learners from public schools and universities. Data collected through the survey were subjected to some basic statistical analyses, such as "mean" and "standard deviation". Based on the results from the analysis, a number of generalizations and conclusions are made in relation to how these inherent factors affect Saudi learners’ motivation to learn English as a foreign language. In addition, some recommendations are offered to Saudi academics on how to effectively make use of such factors, which may enable Saudi teachers and learners of English as a foreign language to achieve better learning outcomes in an area widely associated by Saudis with lack of success.

Keywords: persistence, interest, appreciation, satisfaction, SL/FL motivation

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149 Traditional Terms, Spaces, Forms and Artifacts in Cultural Semiotics of Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ajibade Adeyemo


The paper examined local terms used for spaces, forms and building practices in southwest Nigeria as cultural semiotics. Housing has more cultural meaning than mere shelter as shown in building terms such as ‘roof over my head’. The study is significant in the study area because its people were traditionally orally centered until ‘culture contact’ led to graphical presentation and appreciation in the form of drawings which is a modern language of architecture. This semiotic study will facilitate the understanding of the wholesomeness of traditional building practices and thoughts. This is in the culture of the traditional multi-sensory appreciation of architecture, urban design and the arts. It will analyze traditional aphoristic words and terms which are like proverbs which are significant in language because of their metaphorical essence. Many of such terms in the dominant Yoruba language of the study area are oftentimes phenomenal reducing universal terms like the earth and heaven to the simple module of housing. These words could be worth investigating because they are symbolic serve as codes which are cultural tool of regional ethnic significance. Sassure’s and Pierce’s concepts of Semiotics in line with Eco’s concept of semiotics of metaphor shall be deployed.

Keywords: traditional terms, spaces, forms, artifacts, cultural semiotics, southwest

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148 Innovative Techniques of Teaching Henrik Ibsen’s a Doll’s House

Authors: Shilpagauri Prasad Ganpule


The teaching of drama is considered as the most significant and noteworthy area in an ESL classroom. Diverse innovative techniques can be used to make the teaching of drama worthwhile and interesting. The paper presents the different innovative techniques that can be used while teaching Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House [2007]. The innovative techniques facilitate students’ understanding and comprehension of the text. The use of the innovative techniques makes them explore the dramatic text and uncover a multihued arena of meanings hidden in it. They arouse the students’ interest and assist them overcome the difficulties created by the second language. The diverse innovative techniques appeal to the imagination of the students and increase their participation in the classroom. They help the students in the appreciation of the dramatic text and make the teaching learning situation a fruitful experience for both the teacher and students. The students successfully overcome the problem of L2 comprehension and grasp the theme, story line and plot-structure of the play effectively. The innovative techniques encourage a strong sense of participation on the part of the students and persuade them to learn through active participation. In brief, the innovative techniques promote the students to perform various tasks and expedite their learning process. Thus the present paper makes an attempt to present varied innovative techniques that can be used while teaching drama. It strives to demonstrate how the use of innovative techniques improve and enhance the students’ understanding and appreciation of Ibsen’s A Doll’s House [2007].

Keywords: ESL classroom, innovative techniques, students’ participation, teaching of drama

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147 Environmental Awareness on Formal Education Level: A Program Approach through Physical Education Course

Authors: Jocelyn Floresca


This paper aimed to present the by-product of the introduction of environmental ecology awareness on a formal education level utilizing the program course of Physical Education, particularly in the tertiary level. It is based on the premise that the radical need for environmental protection may not only necessarily be the work of people in the pure sciences but also deemed necessary to look into more avenues of the school setting particularly in the field of Physical Education. In the Philippines, most schools’ Physical Education focuses on the advancement of sports, fitness and wellness which are mostly done in the confines of a closed building. The paper dwells into the introduction of Physical Education as an outdoor recreation activity where in the participants of the study had the opportunity to indulge in activities undertaken outside the confines of buildings and going into large areas of the environment. It looked into the individual participant’s environmental social behaviour and effects on the participant’s perceptions in terms of the set objectives of Physical Education before and after the study’s intervention. The study utilized the formal course in Physical Education on nature walks, mountaineering and bird watching as interventions to gain perceptions and understanding. The introduction of the environmental ecology activities as a formal Physical Education course has resulted in deeper awareness that led to understanding the need to protect the environment, appreciation of the value of natural areas and acquiring behaviour for a sustainable use of the environment during the practice of Physical Education. Also, prior to the introduction of environmental ecology in Physical Education as a formal study; participants have no knowledge of what dwells in the identified sites of intervention. Whereas after the study, participants were able to identify various species of birds and plants found in the sites of the study that may lead to further conservation of the particular species.

Keywords: appreciation, conservation, environmental ecology, outdoor

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146 Effect of Wheat Bran Granulometry and Concentration on the Organoleptic Quality of Bread and its Acceptability by the Consumer

Authors: Fatima Amirach, Mohammed Diouri


Consumption of high-fiber foods, such as whole-grain bread, reduces the risk of many diseases. However, the consumption of white bread is still dominant in households. It is important to understand the causes of this contradiction and to find ways to encourage fiber consumption. To this end, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of wheat bran granulometry and concentration on the organoleptic quality of bread and its acceptability by the consumer. Soft wheat bran, with three average particle sizes (approximately 1, 1.4 or 1.8 mm) and three concentrations (7, 14 or 21%), was mixed with white soft wheat flour, in a factorial experiment. The nine breads (receiving the nine treatments), in addition to a control (without added bran), were analyzed for moisture, specific volume, browning index, and porosity. These ten bread types were presented to 106 people, of different ages, genders and origins, to rate them for appearance and taste (after blindfolding), according to a completely randomized design. We used Pearson's correlation test to compare quantitative variables, and ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis test to compare treatments. This study revealed that increasing bran concentration causes a significant increase in bread crumb color intensity, bread cell size, and final bread moisture, and a significant decrease in bread specific volume and crumb porosity. Based on visual judgment, respondents expressed a strong preference for bread rich in wheat bran, with an intense brown color and a high porosity. However, after tasting, bread appreciation was negatively affected (P<0.05) by increasing bran concentration. Visual appreciation of bread was significantly higher in women than in men. Our results suggest that there is an awareness of fiber importance that has not yet translated into a preference. A flour containing 7 to 14% bran with a particle size of 1.4 mm seems to be the best, meeting bakery requirements and satisfying consumer preference.

Keywords: acceptance, bread, organoleptic quality, wheat bran

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145 Using the Notion of Terrorism Irrespective of the Principle of Legality While Countering Terrorism

Authors: Tugce Duygu Koksal


In recent years, given the fact that the acts of terrorism and the threat of the latter are taking place without any border and distinction, it has led the states to deal with the terrorism as a priority issue. More recently, as seen in different countries during state of emergency, the adoption of anti-terrorism measures motivated by the sole need of the prevention of terrorism targets directly the fundamental rights of individuals. Therefore, a contribution to the understanding of the value of the principle of legality is becoming more and more important nowadays. This paper aims to reflect the probable effects of the adoption of anti-terrorism measures regardless of the principle of legality, on the fundamental rights. In this respect, this paper will first discuss the margin of appreciation of the national authorities by countering terrorism, and then, the importance of the respect of the legality of the anti-terrorism measures will be examined in the light of actual examples. Indeed, one of the major findings of this study is the fact that the anti-terrorism laws and measures were taken in this framework must be subject to close scrutiny in democracies, which adopted the principle of the rule of law and respect human rights. Although the state's margin of appreciation in the field of counter-terrorism is broad, these measures which are based on the legitimate aim of a democracies’ legitimate right to protect itself against the activities of terrorist organizations should have the legal basis and be strictly required by the exigencies of the fight against terrorism. While combating terrorism, the legal basis shall only be achieved if the legal consequences of an individuals’ actions related to terrorism shall be clear and foreseeable by the individuals of a society. On the other hand, particularly during the state of emergency, the ambiguity of the law might be used to include a wide range of actions under acts of terrorism. This is becoming more dangerous where freedom of expression, freedom of the press, freedom of association and the right to information is in the substance of these actions. Disregarding the principle of legality is susceptible to create a chilling effect on the exercise of human rights, and therefore, the fight against terrorism can be transformed into a repressive regime on opponents. As a result, the efforts to counter terrorism of the national authorities irrespective of the principle of legality are susceptible to cause a transformation of the rule of law to a state of law which cannot be appreciated in a democratic society.

Keywords: anti-terrorism measures, chilling effect, predictability, the principle of legality, state of emergency

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144 Use of Smartphone in Practical Classes to Facilitate Teaching and Learning of Microscopic Analysis and Interpretation of Tissues Sections

Authors: Lise P. Labéjof, Krisnayne S. Ribeiro, Nicolle P. dos Santos


An unrecorded experiment of use of the smartphone as a tool for practical classes of histology is presented in this article. Behavior, learning of the students of three science courses at the University were analyzed and compared as well as the mode of teaching of this discipline and the appreciation of the students, using either digital photographs taken by phone or drawings for record microscopic observations, analyze and interpret histological sections of human or animal tissues.

Keywords: cell phone, digital micrographies, learning of sciences, teaching practices

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143 Reading and Teaching Poetry as Communicative Discourse: A Pragma-Linguistic Approach

Authors: Omnia Elkommos


Language is communication on several discourse levels. The target of teaching a language and the literature of a foreign language is to communicate a message. Reading, appreciating, analysing, and interpreting poetry as a sophisticated rhetorical expression of human thoughts, emotions, and philosophical messages is more feasible through the use of linguistic pragmatic tools from a communicative discourse perspective. The poet's intention, speech act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary goal can be better understood when communicative situational context as well as linguistic discourse structure theories are employed. The use of linguistic theories in the teaching of poetry is, therefore, intrinsic to students' comprehension, interpretation, and appreciation of poetry of the different ages. It is the purpose of this study to show how both teachers as well as students can apply these linguistic theories and tools to dramatic poetic texts for an engaging, enlightening, and effective interpretation and appreciation of the language. Theories drawn from areas of pragmatics, discourse analysis, embedded discourse level, communicative situational context, and other linguistic approaches were applied to selected poetry texts from the different centuries. Further, in a simple statistical count of the number of poems with dialogic dramatic discourse with embedded two or three levels of discourse in different anthologies outweighs the number of descriptive poems with a one level of discourse, between the poet and the reader. Poetry is thus discourse on one, two, or three levels. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and students in the area of ESL/EFL use the linguistics theories for a better understanding of poetry as communicative discourse. The practice of applying these linguistic theories in classrooms and in research will allow them to perceive the language and its linguistic, social, and cultural aspect. Texts will become live illocutionary acts with a perlocutionary acts goal rather than mere literary texts in anthologies.

Keywords: coda, commissives, communicative situation, context of culture, context of reference, context of utterance, dialogue, directives, discourse analysis, dramatic discourse interaction, duologue, embedded discourse levels, language for communication, linguistic structures, literary texts, poetry, pragmatic theories, reader response, speech acts (macro/micro), stylistics, teaching literature, TEFL, terms of address, turn-taking

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142 Socializing Young Females towards Sports

Authors: Mohinder Kumar


Sports are considered as the very prominent social institution in almost every society because it reflects the mores, values, and general culture of a society. Sports activity tend to pave the foundation for learning acceptable values and beliefs and for acquiring desirable character traits such as self-discipline, sportsmanship, and an appreciation for hard work, fairness, self-respect, leadership, followership, justice, perseverance, competition, and goal attainment. The present study focuses on ideal ways of socializing youngsters into sports. Influences of some socializing agents (e.g. family, school, community) are reviewed and suggestions made as to how these socializing agents can be oriented and made effective in carrying out functional processes toward target ends.

Keywords: sports, socializing, family, community, society

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141 QSAR Study and Haptotropic Rearrangement in Estradiol Derivatives

Authors: Mohamed Abd Esselem Dems, Souhila Laib, Nadjia Latelli, Nadia Ouddai


In this work, we have developed QSAR model for Relative Binding Affinity (RBA) of a large diverse set of estradiol among these derivatives, the organometallic derivatives. By dividing the dataset into a training set of 24 compounds and a test set of 6 compounds. The DFT method was used to calculate quantum chemical descriptors and physicochemical descriptors (MR and MLOGP) were performed using E-Dragon. All the validations indicated that the QSAR model built was robust and satisfactory (R2 = 90.12, Q2LOO = 86.61, RMSE = 0.272, F = 60.6473, Q2ext =86.07). We have therefore apply this model to predict the RBA, for two isomers β and α wherein Mn(CO)3 complex with the aromatic ring of estradiol, and the two isomers show little appreciation for the estrogenic receptor (RBAβ = 1.812 and RBAα = 1.741).

Keywords: DFT, estradiol, haptotropic rearrangement, QSAR, relative binding affinity

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140 Religious Diversity, Tolerance, and Understanding: Strategies to Restore Peace in Nigeria

Authors: Aboekwe, Mary Emilia


Nigeria is a country with different ethnic groups and diverse religious affiliations. Owing to these differences, there continue to arise at various points and times conflicts. Lives and unquantifiable amounts of property have been lost as a result. It is the aim of this paper to show that despite these diverse religious affiliations, there can be unity and peace. The paper using a phenomenological approach, argues that religion is fundamentally oriented towards peace. Hence, one who is truly religious is to be disposed towards peaceful coexistence. This paper advocates tolerance, respect, appreciation, love, willingness to cooperate, accepting other persons with all they have in common but their differences as well. In other words, there is need for dialogue between the religions, involving inter-religious conference and possible inter-religious prayer services.

Keywords: dialogue, diversity, tolerance, understanding.

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139 Lisbon Experience, Mobility, Quality of Life and Tourist Image: A Survey

Authors: Luca Zarrilli, Miguel Brito, Marianna Cappucci


Tourists recently awarded Lisbon as the best city break destination in Europe. This article analyses the various types of tourist experiences in the city of Lisbon. The research method is the questionnaire, aimed at investigating the choices of tourists in the area of mobility, their perception of the quality of life and their level of appreciation of neighbourhoods, landmarks and infrastructures. There is an obvious link between the quality of life and the quality of the tourist experience, but it is difficult to measure it. Through this questionnaire, we hope to have made a small contribution to the understanding of the perceptive sphere of the individual and his choices in terms of behaviour, which is an essential element of any strategy for tourism marketing.

Keywords: Lisbon, mobility, quality of life, perception, tourism, hospitality

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138 Dance Skirts As Strategy For Gender Equality Work In Swedish Preschools Dance Education

Authors: Martha Pastorek Gripson, Anna Lindqvist


The research project points at, and discusses, strategies, problems and possibilities when preschool teachers describe their work with dance in two Swedish preschools. The use of dance itself is a strategy for a more inclusive preschool practice and the use of so-called “dance skirts” is regarded as central for facilitating both dance qualities and to promote gender equality. The research is carried out in an action research project, involving two preschools with specific focus on gender equality work. The result problematizes the use of so-called “dance skirts”, as those can be both a tool for appreciation of aesthetics associated with femininity but at the same time create dance mainly as ballet related activity.

Keywords: dance, body, education, preschool, gender

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137 The Consequences of Complaint Offenses against Copyright Protection

Authors: Chryssantus Kastowo, Theresia Anita Christiani, Anny Retnowati


Copyright infringement as a form of infringement does not always mean causing harm to the creator. This can be proven with so many copyright violations in society and there is no significant law enforcement effort when compared with the violations that occurred. Copyright law as a form of appreciation from the state to the creator becomes counter productive if there is omission of violations. The problem raised in this article is how is the model of copyright regulation in accordance with the purpose of the law of copyright protection. This article is based on normative legal research focusing on secondary data. The analysis used is a conceptual approach. The analysis shows that the regulation of copyright emphasizes as a subjective right that is wholly within the author's power. This perspective will affect the claim of rights by the creator or allow violations. The creator is obliged to maintain the overall performance of copyright protection, especially in the event of a violation.

Keywords: copyright, enforcement, law, violation

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136 A Learning Process for Aesthetics of Language in Thai Poetry for High School Teachers

Authors: Jiraporn Adchariyaprasit


The aesthetics of language in Thai poetry are emerged from the combination of sounds and meanings. The appreciation of such beauty can be achieved by means of education, acquisition of knowledge, and training. This research aims to study the learning process of aesthetics of language in Thai poetry for high school teachers in Bangkok and nearby provinces. There are 10 samples selected by purposive sampling for in-depth interviews. According to the research, there are four patterns in the learning process of aesthetics of language in Thai poetry which are 1) the study of characteristics and patterns of poetry, 2) the training of poetic reading, 3) the study of social and cultural contexts of poetry’s creation, and 4) the study of other sciences related to poetry such as linguistics, traditional dance, and so on.

Keywords: aesthetics, poetry, Thai poetry, poetry learning

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135 Information and Communication Technology in Architectural Education: The Challenges

Authors: Oluropo Stephen Ilesanmi, Oluwole Ayodele Alejo


Architectural education, beyond training the students to become architects, impacts in them the appreciation of the responsibilities relating to public health, safety, and welfare. Architecture is no longer a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individuals, rather, it has to consider everyday needs of the people and use technology to give a liveable environment. In the present age, architectural education must have to grapple with the recent integration of technology, in particular, facilities offered by information and communication technology. Electronic technologies have moved architecture from the drawing board to cyberspace. The world is now a global village in which new information and methods are easily and quickly available to people at different poles of the globe. It is the position of this paper that in order to remain relevant in the ever-competing forces within the building industry, architectural education must show the impetus to continue to draw from technological advancements associated with the use of computers.

Keywords: architecture, education, communication, information, technology

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134 New Innovation and Sustainability in a Developing Country: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Lema Catherine Forje


Innovation activates the system of an economy to a new level. Innovation follows a process. The first step in innovation is the idea-generation process. There is widespread appreciation that people go to great lengths, incur expenses: energy and materials to generate innovative ideas. People get inspired, create, and connect. The inspiration also enables the building of a culture of innovation. Data collection was done through a face-to-face interview with the producer of the first Cameroon beer that came out in the early 1960s, a rice producing company, a cement producing company, and 100 women following a type of dressing commonly worn by Cameroonian women (wrappa). There were a total number of one hundred and three interviewees. The implication of this study is for everybody. It sheds light on the factors that are likely to sustain an innovation. Conclusion emphasises continuous research to keep giving the innovation a face lift.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, ideas, innovation, sustainability

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133 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich


This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study. The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: narrative of monks, culture heroes, Songkhla province, social sustainability

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132 An Investigation of Sustainability: Scope of Eco Denim Fashion

Authors: Sneha Bhatnagar, Sachin Bhatnagar


Denim presently is the most widely accepted textile product and shows its hold even in future with its growing popularity. Denim today is no longer restricted to only a pair of jeans but has diversified in all different product categories. Although denim is considered as an expression of youth and demonstrates durability and comfort, denim raises issues of sustainability. Through an exploratory research, the researcher aims at addressing the possibilities of denim fashion promoting environmental sustainability by means of creativity, awareness, recycle and artisan appreciation. It also touches on how eco conscious fashion brands involve in development in terms of ideation and modification of denim as a fabric or product into diversified sustainable fashion. In conclusion, it is shown that blue denim fashion continues to evolve and shows eventual transformation in becoming green denim in future, nurturing values of both quality and sustainability.

Keywords: arts, craft, creativity, denim, fashion, recycle, sustainability

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131 Analyzing the Mission Drift of Social Business: Case Study of Restaurant Providing Professional Training to At-Risk Youth

Authors: G. Yanay-Ventura, H. Desivilya Syna, K. Michael


Social businesses are based on the idea that an enterprise can be established for the sake of profit and, at the same time, with the aim of fulfilling social goals. Yet, the question of how these goals can be integrated in practice to derive parallel benefit in both realms still needs to be examined. Particularly notable in this context is the ‘governance challenge’ of social businesses, meaning the danger of the mission drifts from the social goal in the pursuit of good business. This study is based on an evaluation study of a social business that operates as a restaurant providing professional training to at-risk youth. The evaluation was based on the collection of a variety of data through interviews with stakeholders in the enterprise (directors and managers, business partners, social partners, and position holders in the restaurant and the social enterprise), a focus group consisting of the youth receiving the professional training, observations of the restaurant’s operation, and analysis of the social enterprise’s primary documents. The evaluation highlighted significant strengths of the social enterprise, including reaching relatively fast business sustainability, effective management of the restaurant, stable employment of the restaurant staff, and effective management of the social project. The social enterprise and business management have both enjoyed positive evaluations from a variety of stakeholders. Clearly, the restaurant was deemed by all a promising young business. However, the social project suffered from a 90% dropout rate among the youth entering its ranks, extreme monthly fluctuation in the number of youths participating, and a distinct minority of the youth who have succeeded in completing their training period. Possible explanations of the high dropout rate included the small number of cooks, which impeded the effectiveness of the training process and the provision of advanced cooking skills; lack of clarity regarding the essence and the elements of training; and lack of a meaningful peer group for the youth engaged in the program. Paradoxically, despite the stakeholders’ great appreciation for the social enterprise, the challenge of governability was also formidable, revealing a tangible risk of mission drift in the reduction of the social enterprise’s target population and a breach of the commitment made to the youth with regard to practical training. The risk of mission drifts emerged as a hidden and evasive issue for the stakeholders, who revealed a deep appreciation for the management and the outcomes of the social enterprise. The challenge of integration, therefore, requires an in-depth examination of how to maintain a successful business without hindering the achievement of the social goal. The study concludes that clear conceptualization of the training process and its aims, increased cooks’ participation in the social project, and novel conceptions with regard to the evaluation of success could serve to benefit the youth and impede mission drift.

Keywords: evaluation study, management, mission drift, social business

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130 A Comparative Study on Compliment Response between Indonesian EFL Students and English Native Speakers

Authors: Maria F. Seran


In second language interaction, an EFL student always carries his knowledge of targeted language and sometimes gets influenced by his first language cultures which makes him transfer his utterances from the first language to the second language. The influence of L1 cultures somehow can lead to face-threatening act when it comes to responding on speech act, for instance, compliment. A speaker praises a compliment to show gratitude, and in return, he expects for compliment respond uttered by the hearer. While Western people use more acceptance continuum on compliment response, Indonesians utter more denial continuum which can somehow put the speakers into a face-threating situation and offense. This study investigated compliment response employed by EFL students and English native speakers. The study was distinct as none compliment response studies had been conducted to compare the compliment response between English native speakers and two different Indonesian EFL proficiency groups in which this research sought to meet this need. This study was significant for EFL teachers because it gave insight on cross-cultural understanding and brought pedagogical implication on explicit pragmatic instruction. Two research questions were set, 1. How do Indonesian EFL students and English native speakers respond compliments? 2. Is there any correlation between Indonesia EFL students’ proficiency and their compliment response use in English? The study involved three groups of participants; 5 English native speakers, 10 high-proficiency and 10 low-proficiency Indonesian EFL university students. The research instruments used in this study were as follows, an online TOEFL prediction test, focusing on grammar skill which was modified from Barron TOEFL exercise test, and a discourse completion task (DCT), consisting of 10 compliment respond items. Based on the research invitation, 20 second-year university students majoring in English education at Widya Mandira Catholic University, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia who willingly participated in the research took the TOEFL prediction test online from the link provided. Students who achieved score 75-100 in test were categorized as high-proficiency students, while, students who attained score below 74 were considered as low-proficiency students. Then, the DCT survey was administered to these EFL groups and the native speaker group. Participants’ responses were coded and analyzed using categories of compliment response framework proposed by Tran. The study found out that 5 native speakers applied more compliment upgrades and appreciation token in compliment response, whereas, Indonesian EFL students combined some compliment response strategies in their utterance, such as, appreciation token, return and compliment downgrade. There is no correlation between students’ proficiency level and their CR responds as most EFL students in both groups produced less varied compliment responses and only 4 Indonesian high-proficiency students uttered more varied and were similar to the native speakers. The combination strategies used by EFL students can be explained as the influence of pragmatic transfer from L1 to L2; therefore, EFL teachers should explicitly teach more compliment response strategies to raise students’ awareness on English culture and elaborate their speaking to be more competence as close to native speakers as possible.

Keywords: compliment response, English native speakers, Indonesian EFL students, speech acts

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129 Peace through Environmental Stewardship

Authors: Elizabeth D. Ramos


Peace education supports a holistic appreciation for the value of life and the interdependence of all living systems. Peace education aims to build a culture of peace. One way of building a culture of peace is through environmental stewardship. This study sought to find out the environmental stewardship practices in selected Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the Philippines and how these environmental stewardship practices lead to building a culture of peace. The findings revealed that there is still room for improvement in implementing environmental stewardship in schools through academic service learning. In addition, the following manifestations are implemented very satisfactorily in schools: 1) waste reduction, reuse, and recycling, 2) community service, 3) clean and green surroundings. Administrators of schools in the study lead their staff and students in implementing environmental stewardship. It could be concluded that those involved in environmental stewardship display an acceptable culture of peace, particularly, solidarity, respect for persons, and inner peace.

Keywords: academic service learning, environmental stewardship, leadership support, peace, solidarity

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