Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Tsugunosuke Sakai

20 BECOME: Body Experience-Based Co-Operation between Juveniles through Mutually Excited Team Gameplay

Authors: Tsugunosuke Sakai, Haruya Tamaki, Ryuichi Yoshida, Ryohei Egusa, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki, Fusako Kusunoki, Miki Namatame, Masanori Sugimoto, Hiroshi Mizoguchi


We aim to develop a full-body interaction game that could let children cooperate and interact with other children in small groups. As the first step for our aim, the objective of the full-body interaction game developed in this study is to make interaction between children. The game requires two children to jump together with the same timing. We let children experience the game and answer the questionnaires. The children using several strategies to coordinate the timing of their jumps were observed. These included shouting time, watching each other, and jumping in a constant rhythm as if they were skipping rope. In this manner, we observed the children playing the game while cooperating with each other. The results of a questionnaire to evaluate the proposed interactive game indicate that the jumping game was a very enjoyable experience in which the participants could immerse themselves. Therefore, the game enabled children to experience cooperation with others by using body movements.

Keywords: children, cooperation, full-body interaction game, kinect sensor

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19 The Concentration of Formaldehyde in Rainwater and Typhoon Rainwater at Sakai City, Japan

Authors: Chinh Nguyen Nhu Bao, Hien To Thi, Norimichi Takenaka


Formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in rainwater including in tropical storms in Sakai City, Osaka, Japan have been measured continuously during rain event by developed chemiluminescence method. The level of formaldehyde was ranged from 15 µg/L to 500 µg/L. The high concentration of HCHO in rainwater is related to the wind direction from the south and west sides of Sakai City where manufactures related to chemicals, oil-refinery, and steel. The in-situ irradiated experiment on rainwater sample was conducted to prove the aqueous phase photo-production of HCHO and the degradation of HCHO. In the daytime, the aqueous phase photolysis is the source of HCHO in rainwater (4.52 ± 5.74 µg/L/h for UV light source in-situ condition, 2.84-8.96 µg/L/h under sunlight). However, in the night time, the degradation is the function of microorganism.

Keywords: chemiluminescence, formaldehyde, rainwater, typhoon

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18 UKIYO-E: User Knowledge Improvement Based on Youth Oriented Entertainment, Art Appreciation Support by Interacting with Picture

Authors: Haruya Tamaki, Tsugunosuke Sakai, Ryuichi Yoshida, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Fusako Kusunoki, Miki Namatame, Masanori Sugimoto, Hiroshi Mizoguchi


Art appreciation is important as part of children education. Art appreciation can enrich sensibility and creativity. To enrich sensibility and creativity, the children have to learning knowledge of picture such as social and historical backgrounds and author intention. High learning effect can acquire by actively learning. In short, it is important that encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively. It is necessary that children feel like interest to encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively. In a general art museum, comments on pictures are done through writing. Thus, we expect that this method cannot arouse the interest of the children in pictures, because children feel like boring. In brief, learning about the picture information is difficult. Therefore, we are developing an art-appreciation support system that will encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively by children feel like interest. This system uses that Interacting with Pictures to learning of the knowledge about pictures. To Interacting with Pictures, children have to utterance by themselves. We expect that will encourage learning of the knowledge about pictures actively by Interacting with Pictures. To more actively learning, children can choose who talking with by information that location and movement of the children. This system must be able to acquire real-time knowledge of the location, movement, and voice of the children. We utilize the Microsoft’s Kinect v2 sensor and its library, namely, Kinect for Windows SDK and Speech Platform SDK v11 for this purpose. By using these sensor and library, we can determine the location, movement, and voice of the children. As the first step of this system, we developed ukiyo-e game that use ukiyo-e to appreciation object. Ukiyo-e is a traditional Japanese graphic art that has influenced the western society. Therefore, we believe that the ukiyo-e game will be appreciated. In this study, we applied talking to pictures to learn information about the pictures because we believe that learning information about the pictures by talking to the pictures is more interesting than commenting on the pictures using only texts. However, we cannot confirm if talking to the pictures is more interesting than commenting using texts only. Thus, we evaluated through EDA measurement whether the user develops an interest in the pictures while talking to them using voice recognition or by commenting on the pictures using texts only. Hence, we evaluated that children have interest to picture while talking to them using voice recognition through EDA measurement. In addition, we quantitatively evaluate that enjoyed this game or not and learning information about the pictures for primary schoolchildren. In this paper, we summarize these two evaluation results.

Keywords: actively learning, art appreciation, EDA, Kinect V2

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17 In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials

Authors: Yuko Matayoshi, Takashi Sakai, Yin-Gjum Jin, Jun-ichi Koyama


To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and micro structures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.

Keywords: pure aluminum, pure copper, single crystal, bending, SEM-EBSD analysis, texture, microstructure

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16 Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Yuri Shimomura


The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.

Keywords: bending, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, microstructure, IPF map, orientation distribution function

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15 Emergency Condition Discrimination for Single People Using a CO2 Sensor and Body Detectors

Authors: Taiyo Matsumura, Kota Funabashi, Nobumichi Sakai, Takashi Ono


The purpose of this research is to construct a watching system that monitors human activity in a room and detects abnormalities at an early stage to prevent unattended deaths of people living alone. In this article, we propose a method whereby highly urgent abnormal conditions of a person are determined by changes in the concentration of CO2 generated from activity and respiration in a room. We also discussed the effects the amount of activity has on the determination. The results showed that this discrimination method is not dependent on the amount of activity and is effective in judging highly urgent abnormal conditions.

Keywords: abnormal conditions, multiple sensors, people living alone, respiratory arrest, unattended death, watching system

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14 SEM-EBSD Observation for Microtubes by Using Dieless Drawing Process

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Itaru Kumisawa


Because die drawing requires insertion of a die, a plug, or a mandrel, higher precision and efficiency are demanded for drawing equipment for a tube having smaller diameter. Manufacturing of such tubes is also accompanied by problems such as cracking and fracture. We specifically examine dieless drawing, which is less affected by these drawing-related difficulties. This deformation process is governed by a similar principle to that of reduction in diameter when pulling a heated glass tube. We conducted dieless drawing of SUS304 stainless steel microtubes under various conditions with three factor parameters of heating temperature, area reduction, and drawing speed. We used SEM-EBSD to observe the processing condition effects on microstructural elements. As the result of this study, crystallographic orientation of microtube is clear by using SEM-EBSD analysis.

Keywords: microtube, dieless drawing, IPF (inverse pole figure), GOS (grain orientation spread), crystallographic analysis

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13 LaPEA: Language for Preprocessing of Edge Applications in Smart Factory

Authors: Masaki Sakai, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Kazuya Takahashi


In order to improve the productivity of a factory, it is often the case to create an inference model by collecting and analyzing operational data off-line and then to develop an edge application (EAP) that evaluates the quality of the products or diagnoses machine faults in real-time. To accelerate this development cycle, an edge application framework for the smart factory is proposed, which enables to create and modify EAPs based on prepared inference models. In the framework, the preprocessing component is the key part to make it work. This paper proposes a language for preprocessing of edge applications, called LaPEA, which can flexibly process several sensor data from machines into explanatory variables for an inference model, and proves that it meets the requirements for the preprocessing.

Keywords: edge application framework, edgecross, preprocessing language, smart factory

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12 Identity-Based Encryption: A Comparison of Leading Classical and Post-Quantum Implementations in an Enterprise Setting

Authors: Emily Stamm, Neil Smyth, Elizabeth O'Sullivan


In Identity-Based Encryption (IBE), an identity, such as a username, email address, or domain name, acts as the public key. IBE consolidates the PKI by eliminating the repetitive process of requesting public keys for each message encryption. Two of the most popular schemes are Sakai-Kasahara (SAKKE), which is based on elliptic curve pairings, and the Ducas, Lyubashevsky, and Prest lattice scheme (DLP- Lattice), which is based on quantum-secure lattice cryptography. In or- der to embed the schemes in a standard enterprise setting, both schemes are implemented as shared system libraries and integrated into a REST service that functions at the enterprise level. The performance of both schemes as libraries and services is compared, and the practicalities of implementation and application are discussed. Our performance results indicate that although SAKKE has the smaller key and ciphertext sizes, DLP-Lattice is significantly faster overall and we recommend it for most enterprise use cases.

Keywords: identity-based encryption, post-quantum cryptography, lattice-based cryptography, IBE

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11 The Intervention Effect of Gratitude Skills Training on the Reduction of Loneliness

Authors: T. Sakai, A. Aikawa


This study defined 'gratitude skills training' as a social skills training which would become a new intervention method about gratitude intervention. The purpose of this study was to confirm the intervention effect of gratitude skills training on the reduction of loneliness. The participants in this study were university students (n = 36). A waiting list control design was used, in which the participants were assigned either to a training group (n = 18) or a waiting list control group (n = 18); the latter group took the same training after the first group had been trained. The two-week gratitude skills training comprised of three sessions (50 minutes per each of sessions). In the three sessions, the guidebook and the homework developed in this study were used. Results showed that gratitude skills training improved the participants’ gratitude skills. The results also indicated the intervention effect of gratitude skills training on the reduction of loneliness during the follow-up after three weeks. This study suggests that gratitude skills training can reduce loneliness. The gratitude skills training has a possibility of becoming a new treatment to reduce loneliness.

Keywords: gratitude skills, loneliness, social skills training, well-being

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10 Learning Management System Technologies for Teaching Computer Science at a Distance Education Institution

Authors: Leila Goosen, Dalize van Heerden


The performance outcomes of first year Computer Science and Information Technology students across the world are of great concern, whether they are being taught in a face-to-face environment or via distance education. In the face-to-face environment, it is, however, somewhat easier to teach and support students than it is in a distance education environment. The face-to-face academic can more easily gauge the level of understanding and participation of students and implement interventions to address issues, which may arise. With the inroads that Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 technologies are making, the world of online teaching and learning are rapidly expanding, bringing about technologies, which allows for similar interactions between online academics and their students as available to their face-to-face counter parts. At the University of South Africa (UNISA), the Learning Management System (LMS) is called myUNISA and it is deployed on a SAKAI platform. In this paper, we will take a look at some of the myUNISA technologies implemented in the teaching of a first year programming course, how they are implemented and, in some cases, we will indicate how this affects the performance outcomes of students.

Keywords: computer science, Distance Education Technologies, Learning Management System, face-to-face environment

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9 Formulating Rough Approximations in Information Tables with Possibilistic Information

Authors: Michinori Nakata, Hiroshi Sakai


A rough set, which consists of lower and upper approximations, is formulated in information tables containing possibilistic information. First, lower and upper approximations on the basis of possible world semantics in the same way as Lipski did in the field of incomplete databases are shown in order to clarify fundamentals of rough sets under possibilistic information. Possibility and necessity measures are used, as is done in possibilistic databases. As a result, each object has certain and possible membership degrees to lower and upper approximations, which degrees are the lower and upper bounds. Therefore, the degree that the object belongs to lower and upper approximations is expressed by an interval value. And the complementary property linked with the lower and upper approximations holds, as is valid under complete information. Second, the approach based on indiscernibility relations, which is proposed by Dubois and Prade, are extended in three cases. The first case is that objects used to approximate a set of objects are characterized by possibilistic information. The second case is that objects used to approximate a set of objects with possibilistic information are characterized by complete information. The third case is that objects that are characterized by possibilistic information approximate a set of objects with possibilistic information. The extended approach create the same results as the approach based on possible world semantics. This justifies our extension.

Keywords: rough sets, possibilistic information, possible world semantics, indiscernibility relations, lower approximations, upper approximations

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8 Control of a Plane Jet Spread by Tabs at the Nozzle Exit

Authors: Makito Sakai, Takahiro Kiwata, Takumi Awa, Hiroshi Teramoto, Takaaki Kono, Kuniaki Toyoda


Using experimental and numerical results, this paper describes the effects of tabs on the flow characteristics of a plane jet at comparatively low Reynolds numbers while focusing on the velocity field and the vortical structure. The flow visualization and velocity measurements were respectively carried out using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). In addition, three-dimensional (3D) plane jet numerical simulations were performed using ANSYS Fluent, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software application. We found that the spreads of jets perturbed by large delta tabs and round tabs were larger than those produced by the other tabs tested. Additionally, it was determined that a plane jet with square tabs had the smallest jet spread downstream, and the jet’s centerline velocity was larger than those of jets perturbed by the other tabs tested. It was also observed that the spanwise vortical structure of a plane jet with tabs disappeared completely. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical simulation velocity profiles in the area near the nozzle exit when the laminar flow model was used. However, we also found that large eddy simulation (LES) is better at predicting the developing flow field of a plane jet than the laminar and the standard k-ε turbulent models.

Keywords: plane jet, flow control, tab, flow measurement, numerical simulation

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7 Morphology of the Acetabular Cartilage Surface in Elderly Cadavers Analyzing the Contact between the Acetabulum and Femoral Head

Authors: Keisuke Akiyama, Takashi Sakai, Junichiro Koyanagi, Hideki Yoshikawa, Kazuomi Sugamoto


The geometry of acetabular cartilage surface plays an important role in hip joint biomechanics. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology of acetabular articular cartilage surface in elderly subjects using a 3D-digitizer. Twenty hemipelves from 12 subjects (mean ages 85 years) were scanned with 3D-digitizer. Each acetabular surface model was divided into four regions: anterosuperior (AS), anteroinferior (AI), posterosuperior (PS), and posteroinferior (PI). In the global acetabulum and each region, the acetabular sphere radius and the standard deviation (SD) of the distance from the acetabular sphere center to the acetabular cartilage surface were calculated. In the global acetabulum, the distance between the acetabular surface model and the maximum sphere which did not penetrate over the acetabular surface model was calculated as the inferred femoral head, and then the distribution was mapped at intervals of 0.5 mm. The SD in AS was significantly larger than that in AI (p = 0.006) and PI (p = 0.001). The SD in PS was significantly larger than that in PI (p = 0.005). The closest region (0-0.5 mm) tended to be distributed at anterior or posterosuperior acetabular edge. The contact between the femoral head and acetabulum might start at the periphery of the lunate surface, especially in the anterior or posterosuperior region. From viewpoint of acetabular morphology, the acetabular articular cartilage in the anterior or posterosuperior edge could be more vulnerable due to direct contact mechanism.

Keywords: acetabulum, cartilage, morphology, 3D-digitizer

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6 Acid Soil Amelioration Using Coal Bio-Briquette Ash and Waste Concrete in China

Authors: Y. Sakai, C. Wang


The decrease in agricultural production due to soil deterioration has been an urgent task. Soil acidification is a potentially serious land degradation issue and it will have a major impact on agricultural productivity and sustainable farming systems. In China, acid soil is mainly distributed in the southern part, the decrease in agricultural production and heavy metal contamination are serious problems. In addition, not only environmental and health problems due to the exhaust gas such as mainly sulfur dioxide (SO₂) but also the generation of a huge amount of construction and demolition wastes with the accelerating urbanization has emerged as a social problem in China. Therefore, the need for the recycling and reuse of both desulfurization waste and waste concrete is very urgent and necessary. So we have investigated the effectiveness as acid soil amendments of both coal bio-briquette ash and waste concrete. In this paper, acid soil (AS1) in Nanjing (pH=6.0, EC=1.6dSm-1) and acid soil (AS2) in Guangzhou (pH=4.1, EC=0.2dSm-1) were investigated in soil amelioration test. Soil amendments were three coal bio-briquette ashes (BBA1, BBA2 and BBA3), the waste cement fine powders (CFP) ( < 200µm (particle diameter)), waste concrete particles (WCP) ( < 4.75mm ( < 0.6mm, 0.6-1.0mm, 1.0-2.0mm, 2.0-4.75mm)), and six mixtures with two coal bio-briquette ashes (BBA2 and BBA3), CFP, WCP( < 0.6mm) and WCP(2.0-4.75mm). In acid soil amelioration test, the three BBAs, CFP and various WCPs based on exchangeable calcium concentration were added to two acid soils. The application rates were from 0 wt% to 3.5 wt% in AS1 test and from 0 wt% to 6.0 wt% in AS2 test, respectively. Soil chemical properties (pH, EC, exchangeable and soluble ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K)) before and after mixing with soil amendments were measured. In addition, Al toxicity and the balance of salts (CaO, K₂O, MgO) in soil after amelioration was evaluated. The order of pH and exchangeable Ca concentration that is effective for acid soil amelioration was WCP(0.6mm) > CFP > WCP(2.0-4.25mm) > BB1 > BB2 > BB3. In all AS 1 and AS 2 amelioration tests using three BBAs, the pH and EC increased slightly with the increase of application rate and reached to the appropriate value range of both pH and EC in BBA1 only. Because BBA1 was higher value in pH and exchangeable Ca. After that, soil pH and EC with the increase in the application rate of BBA2, BBA3 and by using CFP, WC( < 0.6mm), WC(2.0-4.75mm) as soil amendment reached to each appropriate value range, respectively. In addition, the mixture amendments with BBA2, BBA3 CFP, WC( < 0.6mm), and WC(2.0-4.75mm) could ameliorate at a smaller amount of application rate in case of BBA only. And the exchangeable Al concentration decreased drastically with the increase in pH due to soil amelioration and was under the standard value. Lastly, the heavy metal (Cd, As, Se, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mo, B, Cu, Zn) contents in new soil amendments were under control standard values for agricultural use in China. Thus we could propose a new acid soil amelioration method using coal bio-briquette ash and waste concrete in China.

Keywords: acid soil, coal bio-briquette ash, soil amelioration, waste concrete

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5 Tardiness and Self-Regulation: Degree and Reason for Tardiness in Undergraduate Students in Japan

Authors: Keiko Sakai


In Japan, all stages of public education aim to foster a zest for life. ‘Zest’ implies solving problems by oneself, using acquired knowledge and skills. It is related to the self-regulation of metacognition. To enhance this, establishing good learning habits is important. Tardiness in undergraduate students should be examined based on self-regulation. Accordingly, we focussed on self-monitoring and self-planning strategies among self-regulated learning factors to examine the causes of tardiness. This study examines the impact of self-monitoring and self-planning learning skills on the degree and reason for tardiness in undergraduate students. A questionnaire survey was conducted, targeted to undergraduate students in University X in the autumn semester of 2018. Participants were 247 (average age 19.7, SD 1.9; 144 males, 101 females, 2 no answers). The survey contained the following items and measures: school year, the number of classes in the semester, degree of tardiness in the semester (subjective degree and objective times), active participation in and action toward schoolwork, self-planning and self-monitoring learning skills, and reason for tardiness (open-ended question). First, the relation between strategies and tardiness was examined by multiple regressions. A statistically significant relationship between a self-monitoring learning strategy and the degree of subjective and objective tardiness was revealed, after statistically controlling the school year and the number of classes. There was no significant relationship between a self-planning learning strategy and the degree of tardiness. These results suggest that self-monitoring skills reduce tardiness. Secondly, the relation between a self-monitoring learning strategy and the reason of tardiness was analysed, after classifying the reason for tardiness into one of seven categories: ‘overslept’, ‘illness’, ‘poor time management’, ‘traffic delays’, ‘carelessness’, ‘low motivation’, and ‘stuff to do’. Chi-square tests and Fisher’s exact tests showed a statistically significant relationship between a self-monitoring learning strategy and the frequency of ‘traffic delays’. This result implies that self-monitoring skills prevent tardiness because of traffic delays. Furthermore, there was a weak relationship between a self-monitoring learning strategy score and the reason-for-tardiness categories. When self-monitoring skill is higher, a decrease in ‘overslept’ and ‘illness’, and an increase in ‘poor time management’, ‘carelessness’, and ‘low motivation’ are indicated. It is suggested that a self-monitoring learning strategy is related to an internal causal attribution of failure and self-management for how to prevent tardiness. From these findings, the effectiveness of a self-monitoring learning skill strategy for reducing tardiness in undergraduate students is indicated.

Keywords: higher-education, self-monitoring, self-regulation, tardiness

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4 Correlation between Body Mass Index and Blood Sugar/Serum Lipid Levels in Fourth-Grade Boys in Japan

Authors: Kotomi Yamashita, Hiromi Kawasaki, Satoko Yamasaki, Susumu Fukita, Risako Sakai


Lifestyle-related diseases develop from the long-term accumulation of health consequences from a poor lifestyle. Thus, schoolchildren, who have not accumulated long-term lifestyle habits, are believed to be at a lower risk for lifestyle-related diseases. However, schoolchildren rarely receive blood tests unless they are under treatment for a serious disease; without such data on their blood, the impacts of their young lifestyle could not be known. Blood data from physical measurements can help in the implementation of more effective health education. Therefore, we examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and blood sugar/serum lipid (BS/SL) levels. From 2014 to 2016, we measured the blood data of fourth-grade students living in a city in Japan. The present study reported on the results of 281 fourth-grade boys only (80.3% of total). We analyzed their BS/SL levels by comparing the blood data against the criteria of the National Center for Child Health and Development in Japan. Next, we examined the correlation between BMI and BS/SL levels. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25 was used for analysis. A total of 69 boys (24.6%) were within the normal range for BMI (18.5–24), whereas 193 (71.5%) and 8 boys (2.8%) had lower and higher BMI, respectively. Regarding BS levels, 280 boys were within the normal range (70–90 mg/dl); 1 boy reported a higher value. All the boys were within the normal range for glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) (4.6–6.2%). Regarding SL levels, 271 boys were within the normal range (125–230 mg/dl) for total cholesterol (TC), whereas 5 boys (1.8%) had lower and 5 boys (1.8%) had higher levels. A total of 243 boys (92.7%) were within the normal range (36-138mg/dL) for triglycerides (TG), whereas 19 boys (7.3%) had lower and 19 boys (7.3%) had higher levels. Regarding high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 276 boys (98.2%) were within the normal range (40-mg/dl), whereas 5 boys (1.8%) reported lower values. All but one boy (280, 99.6%) were within the normal range (-170 mg/dl) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); the exception (0.4%) had a higher level. BMI and BS didn’t show a correlation. BMI and HbA1c were moderately positively correlated (r = 0.139, p=0.019). We also observed moderate positive correlations between BMI and TG (r = 0.328, p < 0.01), TC (r=0.239, p< 0.01), LDL-C (r = 0.324, p < 0.01), respectively. BMI and HDL-C were low correlated (r = -0.185, p = 0.002). Most of the boys were within the normal range for BS/SL levels. However, some boys exceeded the normal TG range. Fourth graders with a high TG may develop a lifestyle-related disease in the future. Given its relation to TG, food habits should be improved in this group. Our findings suggested a positive correlation between BMI and BS/SL levels. Fourth-grade schoolboys with a high BMI may be at high risk for developing lifestyle-related diseases. Lifestyle improvement may be recommended to lower the BS/SL levels in this group.

Keywords: blood sugar level, lifestyle-related diseases, school students, serum lipid level

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3 Application of Fatty Acid Salts for Antimicrobial Agents in Koji-Muro

Authors: Aya Tanaka, Mariko Era, Shiho Sakai, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita


Objectives: Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji) was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. So this study examined antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus and Bacillus spp. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro as antimicrobial agents. Materials & Methods: A. niger NBRC 31628, A. oryzae NBRC 5238, A. oryzae (Akita Konno store) and Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 were chosen as tested. Nine fatty acid salts including potassium butyrate (C4K), caproate (C6K), caprylate (C8K), caprate (C10K), laurate (C12K), myristate (C14K), oleate (C18:1K), linoleate (C18:2K) and linolenate (C18:3K) at 350 mM and pH 10.5 were used as antimicrobial activity. FASs and spore suspension were prepared in plastic tubes. The spore suspension of each fungus (3.0×104 spores/mL) or the bacterial suspension (3.0×105 CFU/mL) was mixed with each of the fatty acid salts (final concentration of 175 mM). The mixtures were incubated at 25 ℃. Samples were counted at 0, 10, 60, and 180 min by plating (100 µL) on potato dextrose agar. Fungal and bacterial colonies were counted after incubation for 1 or 2 days at 30 ℃. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) is defined as the lowest concentration of drug sufficient for inhibiting visible growth of spore after 10 min of incubation. MICs against fungi and bacteria were determined using the two-fold dilution method. Each fatty acid salt was separately inoculated with 400 µL of Aspergillus spp. or B. subtilis NBRC 3335 at 3.0 × 104 spores/mL or 3.0 × 105 CFU/mL. Results: No obvious change was observed in tested fatty acid salts against A. niger and A. oryzae. However, C12K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against B. subtilis. Thus, C12K suppressed 99.999 % of bacterial growth. Besides, C10K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 180 min against B. subtilis. C18:1K, C18:2K and C18:3K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against B. subtilis. However, compared to saturated fatty acid salts to unsaturated fatty acid salts, saturated fatty acid salts are lower cost. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro. It is necessary to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against other fungi and bacteria, in the future.

Keywords: Aspergillus, antimicrobial, fatty acid salts, koji-muro

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2 A High-Throughput Enzyme Screening Method Using Broadband Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Ruolan Zhang, Ryo Imai, Naoko Senda, Tomoyuki Sakai


Enzymes have attracted increasing attentions in industrial manufacturing for their applicability in catalyzing complex chemical reactions under mild conditions. Directed evolution has become a powerful approach to optimize enzymes and exploit their full potentials under the circumstance of insufficient structure-function knowledge. With the incorporation of cell-free synthetic biotechnology, rapid enzyme synthesis can be realized because no cloning procedure such as transfection is needed. Its open environment also enables direct enzyme measurement. These properties of cell-free biotechnology lead to excellent throughput of enzymes generation. However, the capabilities of current screening methods have limitations. Fluorescence-based assay needs applicable fluorescent label, and the reliability of acquired enzymatic activity is influenced by fluorescent label’s binding affinity and photostability. To acquire the natural activity of an enzyme, another method is to combine pre-screening step and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement. But its throughput is limited by necessary time investment. Hundreds of variants are selected from libraries, and their enzymatic activities are then identified one by one by HPLC. The turn-around-time is 30 minutes for one sample by HPLC, which limits the acquirable enzyme improvement within reasonable time. To achieve the real high-throughput enzyme screening, i.e., obtain reliable enzyme improvement within reasonable time, a widely applicable high-throughput measurement of enzymatic reactions is highly demanded. Here, a high-throughput screening method using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was proposed. CARS is one of coherent Raman spectroscopy, which can identify label-free chemical components specifically from their inherent molecular vibration. These characteristic vibrational signals are generated from different vibrational modes of chemical bonds. With the broadband CARS, chemicals in one sample can be identified from their signals in one broadband CARS spectrum. Moreover, it can magnify the signal levels to several orders of magnitude greater than spontaneous Raman systems, and therefore has the potential to evaluate chemical's concentration rapidly. As a demonstration of screening with CARS, alcohol dehydrogenase, which converts ethanol and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidized form (NAD+) to acetaldehyde and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH), was used. The signal of NADH at 1660 cm⁻¹, which is generated from nicotinamide in NADH, was utilized to measure the concentration of it. The evaluation time for CARS signal of NADH was determined to be as short as 0.33 seconds while having a system sensitivity of 2.5 mM. The time course of alcohol dehydrogenase reaction was successfully measured from increasing signal intensity of NADH. This measurement result of CARS was consistent with the result of a conventional method, UV-Vis. CARS is expected to have application in high-throughput enzyme screening and realize more reliable enzyme improvement within reasonable time.

Keywords: Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy, CARS, directed evolution, enzyme screening, Raman spectroscopy

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1 Assessing How Liberal Arts Colleges Can Teach Undergraduate Students about Key Issues in Migration, Immigration, and Human Rights

Authors: Hao Huang


INTRODUCTION: The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU) recommends the development of ‘high-impact practices,’ in an effort to increase rates of student retention and student engagement at undergraduate institutions. To achieve these goals, the Scripps College Humanities Institute and HI Fellows Seminar not only featured distinguished academics presenting their scholarship about current immigration policy and its consequences in the USA and around the world but integrated socially significant community leaders and creative activists/artivists in public talks, student workshops and collaborative art events. Students participated in experiential learning that involved guest personal presentations and discussions, oral history interviews that applied standard oral history methodologies, detailed cultural documentation, collaborative artistic interventions, and weekly posts in Internet Digital Learning Environment Sakai collaborative course forums and regular responses to other students’ comments. Our teaching pedagogies addressed the four learning styles outlined in Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory. PROJECT DESCRIPTION: Over the academic year 2017-18, the Scripps College Humanities Institute and HI Fellows Seminar presented a Fall 2017 topic, ‘The World at Our Doorsteps: Immigration and Deportation in Los Angeles’. Our purpose was to address how current federal government anti-immigration measures have affected many students of color, some of whom are immigrants, many of whom are related to and are friends with people who are impacted by the attitudes as well as the practices of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. In Spring 2018, we followed with the topic, ‘Exclusive Nationalisms: Global Migration and Immigration’. This addresses the rise of white supremacists who have ascended to position of power worldwide, in America, Europe, Russia, and xenophobic nationalisms in China, Myanmar and the Philippines. Recent scholarship has suggested the existence of categories of refugees beyond the political or social, who fit into the more inclusive category of migrants. ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES: Assessment methodologies not only included qualitative student interviews and quantitative student evaluations in standard rubric format, but also Outcome Assessments, Formative Evaluations, and Outside Guest Teacher feedback. These indicated that the most effective educational practices involved collaborative inquiry in undergraduate research, community-based learning, and capstone projects. Assessments of E-portfolios, written and oral coursework, and final creative projects with associated 10-12 page analytic paper revealed that students developed their understanding of how government and social organizations work; they developed communication skills that enhanced working with others from different backgrounds; they developed their ability to thoughtfully evaluate their course performance by adopting reflective practices; they gained analytic and interpretive skills that encouraged self-confidence and self- initiative not only academically, but also with regards to independent projects. CONCLUSION: Most importantly, the Scripps Humanities Institute experiential learning project spurred on real-world actions by our students, such as a public symposium on how to cope with bigots, a student tutoring program for immigrant staff children, student negotiations with the administration to establish meaningful, sustainable diversity and inclusion programs on-campus. Activism is not only to be taught to and for our students– it has to be enacted by our students.

Keywords: immigration, migration, human rights, learning assessment

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