Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: biocide

12 Conversion of Carcinogenic Liquid-Wastes of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Industry to ‎an Environmentally Safe Product: Corrosion Inhibitor and Biocide

Authors: Mohamed A. Hegazy


Most of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) petrochemical companies produce huge amount of byproduct which characterized as carcinogenic liquid-wastes, insoluble in water, highly corrosive and highly offensive. This byproduct is partially use, a small part, in the production of hydrochloric acid and the huge part is a waste. Therefore, the aim of this work was to conversion of such PVC wastes, to an environmentally safe product that act as a corrosion Inhibitor for metals in ‎aqueous media and as a biocide for microorganisms. This conversion method was accomplished mainly to protect the environment and to produce high economic value-products. The conversion process was established and the final product was tested for the toxicity, water solubility in comparison to the crude product. Furthermore, the end product was tested as a corrosion inhibitor in 1M HCl and as a broad-spectrum biocide against standard microbial strains and against the environmentally isolated Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) microbial community.

Keywords: PVC, surfactant, corrosion inhibitor, biocide, SRB

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11 Use of Opti-Jet Cs Md1mr Device for Biocide Aerosolisation in 3t Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Robert Pintaric, Joze Matela, Stefan Pintaric, Stanka Vadnjal


Introduction: This work is aimed to represent the use of the OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR prototype for application of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEOW) in magnetic resonance rooms. Material and Methods: We produced and used OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR aerosolisator whereby was performed aerosolization. The presence of microorganisms before and after the aerosolisation was recorded with the help of cyclone air sampling. Colony formed units (CFU) was counted. Results: The number of microorganisms in magnetic resonance 3T room was low as expected. Nevertheless, a possible CFU reduction of 87% was recorded. Conclusions: The research has shown that the use of EOW for the air and hard surface disinfection can considerably reduce the presence of microorganisms and consequently the possibility of hospital infections. It has also demonstrated that the use of OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR is very good. With this research, we started new guidelines for aerosolization in magnetic resonance rooms. Future work: We predict that presented technique works very good but we must focus also on time capacity sensors, and new appropriate toxicological studies.

Keywords: biocide, electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW), disinfection, microorganisms, OPTI-JET CS MD1MR

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10 Addressing the Biocide Residue Issue in Museum Collections Already in the Planning Phase: An Investigation Into the Decontamination of Biocide Polluted Museum Collections Using the Temperature and Humidity Controlled Integrated Contamination Manageme

Authors: Nikolaus Wilke, Boaz Paz


Museum staff, conservators, restorers, curators, registrars, art handlers but potentially also museum visitors are often exposed to the harmful effects of biocides, which have been applied to collections in the past for the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Due to stable light, moisture, and temperature conditions, the biocidal active ingredients were preserved for much longer than originally assumed by chemists, pest controllers, and museum scientists. Given the requirements to minimize the use and handling of toxic substances and the obligations of employers regarding safe working environments for their employees, but also for visitors, the museum sector worldwide needs adequate decontamination solutions. Today there are millions of contaminated objects in museums. This paper introduces the results of a systematic investigation into the reduction rate of biocide contamination in various organic materials that were treated with the humidity and temperature controlled ICM (Integrated Contamination Management) method. In the past, collections were treated with a wide range, at times even with a combination of toxins, either preventively or to eliminate active insect or fungi infestations. It was only later that most of those toxins were recognized as CMR (cancerogenic mutagen reprotoxic) substances. Among them were numerous chemical substances that are banned today because of their toxicity. While the biocidal effect of inorganic salts such as arsenic (arsenic(III) oxide), sublimate (mercury(II) chloride), copper oxychloride (basic copper chloride) and zinc chloride was known very early on, organic tar distillates such as paradichlorobenzene, carbolineum, creosote and naphthalene were increasingly used from the 19th century onwards, especially as wood preservatives. With the rapid development of organic synthesis chemistry in the 20th century and the development of highly effective warfare agents, pesticides and fungicides, these substances were replaced by chlorogenic compounds (e.g. γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hormone-like derivatives such as synthetic pyrethroids (e.g., permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin) and phosphoric acid esters (e.g., dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos). Today we know that textile artifacts (costumes, uniforms, carpets, tapestries), wooden objects, herbaria, libraries, archives and historical wall decorations made of fabric, paper and leather were also widely treated with toxic inorganic and organic substances. The migration (emission) of pollutants from the contaminated objects leads to continuous (secondary) contamination and accumulation in the indoor air and dust. It is important to note that many of mentioned toxic substances are also material-damaging; they cause discoloration and corrosion. Some, such as DDT, form crystals, which in turn can cause micro tectonic, destructive shifting, for example, in paint layers. Museums must integrate sustainable solutions to address the residual biocide problems already in the planning phase. Gas and dust phase measurements and analysis must become standard as well as methods of decontamination.

Keywords: biocides, decontamination, museum collections, toxic substances in museums

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9 Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against Culex pipiens (Insect: Culicidae) Effect of Bti on Two Non-Target Species Eylais hamata (Acari: Hydrachnidia) and Physa marmorata (Gastropoda: Physidae) and Dosage of Their GST Biomarker

Authors: Meriem Mansouri, Fatiha Bendali Saoudi, Noureddine Soltani


Biological control presents a means of control for the protection of the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner 1915 is an inseticide of biological origin because it is a bacterium of the Bacillaceae family. This biocide has a biological importance, because of its specific larvicidal action against Culicidae, blood-sucking insects, responsible for several diseases to humans and animals through the world. As well as, its high specificity for these insects. Also, the freshwater mites, this necessarily parasitic group for aquatic species such as the Physidae, also have an effective biological control against the Culicidae, because of their voracious predation to the larvae of these insects. The present work aims to study the effects of the biocide Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis, against non-target adults of water mites Eylais hamata Koenike, 1897, as well as its associated host species Physa marmorata Fitzinger, 1833. After 12 days of oral treatment of adults with lethal concentration (LC50:0.08µg/ml), determined from essays on 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens (hematophagous insects). No adverse effect has been recorded for adult individuals of Eylais hamata, contrary, snail Physa marmorata were sensitive for this dose of Bti. In parallel, after treatment at the Bti by LC50, the enzyme stress bio marker glutathione S-transferase, was measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The enzymatic activity of GST has increased after 24 and 48 hours following treatment.

Keywords: biological control, Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis, culicidae, hydrachnidia, enzymatic activity

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8 Pesticides Regulations: An Urgent Need for Legal Reform in India

Authors: D. Pranav


Pesticides are a class of Biocide, whose use in agriculture has led to a momentous increase in the yield of crops, fruits and vegetables all over the word and its effective use has also been the pillars of success for the Green Revolution. However, the incessant use of pesticides has now reached alarming levels. In 2007 alone, the world used an estimated 2.4 million tons of pesticides. Despite its tremendous benefits for agriculture, pesticide has been one of the major reasons for degradation of the natural environment and undesirable effects on human beings. It has not only caused damage to human health, but has also threatened the survival of few birds and animal species. In India, the sale and usage of banned pesticide, increased usage of pesticides and its inadequate labeling has caused Bio magnification, which is causing deleterious effects on child development, resulting in stunted mental and physical growth. This paper aims to bring to shed light on major loopholes in the current pesticide regulations such as the Insecticide Act of 1968. It further discusses loopholes in the yet to be tabled Pesticides Management Bill of 2008. It discusses and arrives at potential amendments to the laws and regulations concerning pesticides; that cannot only be applied to the Indian subcontinent but other developing countries as well.

Keywords: pesticides, India, human health, environment, regulations, reform

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7 Alternative Biocides to Reduce Algal Fouling in Seawater Industrial Cooling Towers

Authors: Mohammed Al-Bloushi, Sanghyun Jeong, Torove Leiknes


Biofouling in the open recirculating cooling water systems may cause biological corrosion, which can reduce the performance, increase the energy consummation and lower heat exchange efficiencies of the cooling tower. Seawater cooling towers are prone to biofouling due to the presences of organic and inorganic compounds in the seawater. The availability of organic and inorganic nutrients, along with sunlight and continuous aeration of the cooling tower contributes to an environment that is ideal for microbial growth. Various microorganisms (algae, fungi, and bacteria) can grow in a cooling tower system under certain environmental conditions. The most commonly being used method to control the biofouling in the cooling tower is the addition of biocides such as chlorination. In this study, algae containing diatom and green algae were added to the cooling tower basin, and its viability was monitored in the recirculating cooling seawater loop as well as in the cooling tower basin. Continuous addition of biocides was employed in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers, and it was operated continuously for 2 months. Three different types of oxidizing biocides, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone, were tested. The results showed that all biocides were effective in keeping the biological growth to the minimum regardless of algal addition. Amongst the biocides, ozone could reduce 99% of total live cells of bacteria and algae, followed by chlorine dioxide at 97%, while the conventional chlorine showed only 89% reduction in the bioactivities.

Keywords: algae, biocide, biofouling, seawater cooling tower

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6 Development of a New Characterization Method to Analyse Cypermethrin Penetration in Wood Material by Immunolabelling

Authors: Sandra Tapin-Lingua, Katia Ruel, Jean-Paul Joseleau, Daouia Messaoudi, Olivier Fahy, Michel Petit-Conil


The preservative efficacy of organic biocides is strongly related to their capacity of penetration and retention within wood tissues. The specific detection of the pyrethroid insecticide is currently obtained after extraction followed by chemical analysis by chromatography techniques. However visualizing the insecticide molecule within the wood structure requires specific probes together with microscopy techniques. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to apply a new methodology based on antibody-antigen recognition and electronic microscopy to visualize directly pyrethroids in the wood material. A polyclonal antibody directed against cypermethrin was developed and implement it on Pinus sylvestris wood samples coated with technical cypermethrin. The antibody was tested on impregnated wood and the specific recognition of the insecticide was visualized in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immunogold-TEM assay evidenced the capacity of the synthetic biocide to penetrate in the wood. The depth of penetration was measured on sections taken at increasing distances from the coated surface of the wood. Such results correlated with chemical analyzes carried out by GC-ECD after extraction. In addition, the immuno-TEM investigation allowed visualizing, for the first time at the ultrastructure scale of resolution, that cypermethrin was able to diffuse within the secondary wood cell walls.

Keywords: cypermethrin, insecticide, wood penetration, wood retention, immuno-transmission electron microscopy, polyclonal antibody

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5 Biosynthesis, Characterization and Interplay of Bacteriocin-nanoparticles to Combat Infectious Drug Resistant Pathogens

Authors: Asma Ansari, Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader


In the past few years, numerous concerns have been raised against increased bacterial resistance towards effective drugs and become a debated issue all over the world. With the emergence of drug resistant pathogens, the interaction of natural antimicrobial compounds and antibacterial nanoparticles has emerged as a potential candidate for combating infectious diseases. Microbial diversity in the biome provides an opportunity to screen new species which are capable of producing large number of antimicrobial compounds. Among these antimicrobial compounds, bacteriocins are highly specific and efficient antagonists. A combination of bacteriocin along with nanoparticles could prove to be more potent due to broadened antibacterial spectrum with possibly lower doses. In the current study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized through biological reduction using various isolated bacterial, fungal and yeast strains. Spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed for the confirmation of nanoparticles. Bacteriocin was characterized and purified to homogeneity through gel permeation chromatography. The estimated molecular weight of bacteriocin was 10 kDa. Amino acid analysis and N-terminal sequencing revealed the novelty of the protein. Then antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles and broad inhibitory spectrum bacteriocin was determined through agar well diffusion assay. These synthesized bacteriocin-Nanoparticles exhibit a good potential for clinical applications as compared to bacteriocin alone. This combination of bacteriocin with nanoparticles will be used as a new sort of biocide in the field of nano-proteomics. The advancement of nanoparticles-mediated drug delivery system will open a new age for rapid eradication of pathogens from biological systems.

Keywords: BAC-IB17, multidrug resistance, purification, silver nanoparticles

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4 The Effect of Colloidal Metals Nanoparticles on Quarantine Bacterium - Clavibacter michiganensis Ssp. sepedonicus

Authors: Włodzimierz Przewodowski, Agnieszka Przewodowska


Colloidal metal nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in the field of phytopathology because of their unique properties and possibilities of applications. Their antibacterial activity, no induction of the development of pathogen resistance and the ability to penetrate most of biological barriers make them potentially useful in the fighting against dangerous pathogens. These properties are very important in the case of protection of strategic crops in the world, like potato - fourth crop in the world - which is host to numerous pathogenic microorganisms causing serious diseases, significantly affecting yield and causing the economic losses. One of the most important and difficult to reduce pathogen of potato plant is quarantine bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms) responsible for ring rot disease. Control and detection of these pathogens is very complicated. Application of healthy, certified seed material as well as hygiene in potato production and storage are the most efficient ways of preventing of ring rot disease. Currently used disinfectants and pesticides, have many disadvantages, such as toxicity, low efficiency, selectivity, corrosiveness, and the inability to eliminate the pathogens in potato tissue. In this situation, it becomes important to search for new formulations based on components harmful to health, yet efficient, stable during prolonged period of time and a with wide range of biocide activity. Such capabilities are offered by the latest generation of biocidal nanoparticles such as colloidal metals. Therefore the aim of the presented research was to develop newly antibacterial preparation based on colloidal metal nanoparticles and checking their influence on the Cms bacteria. Our preliminary results confirmed high efficacy of the nano-colloids in controlling the this selected pathogen.

Keywords: clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, colloidal metal nanoparticles, phytopathology, bacteria

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3 Physiological Insight into an Age Old Biocontrol Practice in Banana Cultivation

Authors: Susmita Goswami, Joyeeta Mitra, Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Shilpi Shilpi, Prabir K. Paul


'Malbhog’, an indigenous banana variety, much prized for its flavour and delicacy suffers production losses due to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The pathogen enters young plants through feeder roots causing wilting of plants ultimately leading to death of plants. The pathogen spreads rapidly to other plants in the field. In eastern part of India, this variety escapes the onslaught of the pathogen when either co-cultivated or rotated with Amorphophallus campanulatus (yam). The present study provides an insight into the physiological aspect of the biocontrol by yam. In vitro application of sterile aqueous extract of yam tuber (100gm/100ml distilled water and its 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions) were mixed with PDA media which was substantially inoculated with spores of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The extract could significantly reduce germination of pathogen spores. Banana variety susceptible to Fusarium sp was raised in soil rite under aseptic conditions. Spores of the pathogen (106 spores/ml) were inoculated into the soil rite. The plants were spread with aqueous extract of yam. The control plants were treated with sterilized distilled water. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were estimated in leaves and roots at interval of 24 hours for 5 days after treatment. The incidence of wilt disease was recorded after two weeks. The results demonstrated that yam extract could induce significant activity of PAL, PPO and POX along with accumulation of phenols in both roots and leaves of banana plants. However, significantly high activity of enzymes and phenol accumulation was observed in roots. The disease incidence was significantly low in yam treated plants. The results clearly demonstrated the control of the pathogen due to induction of defense mechanism in the host by the extract. The observed control of the pathogen in the field could possibly be due to induction of such defense responses in host by exudates leached into the soil from yam tubers. Yam extract could be a potential source of environment-friendly biocide against Panama wilt of banana.

Keywords: Amorphophallus campanulatus, banana, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX)

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2 Response of Planktonic and Aggregated Bacterial Cells to Water Disinfection with Photodynamic Inactivation

Authors: Thayse Marques Passos, Brid Quilty, Mary Pryce


The interest in developing alternative techniques to obtain safe water, free from pathogens and hazardous substances, is growing in recent times. The photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms (PDI) is a promising ecologically-friendly and multi-target approach for water disinfection. It uses visible light as an energy source combined with a photosensitiser (PS) to transfer energy/electrons to a substrate or molecular oxygen generating reactive oxygen species, which cause cidal effects towards cells. PDI has mainly been used in clinical studies and investigations on its application to disinfect water is relatively recent. The majority of studies use planktonic cells. However, in their natural environments, bacteria quite often do not occur as freely suspended cells (planktonic) but in cell aggregates that are either freely floating or attached to surfaces as biofilms. Microbes can form aggregates and biofilms as a strategy to protect them from environmental stress. As aggregates, bacteria have a better metabolic function, they communicate more efficiently, and they are more resistant to biocide compounds than their planktonic forms. Among the bacteria that are able to form aggregates are members of the genus Pseudomonas, they are a very diverse group widely distributed in the environment. Pseudomonas species can form aggregates/biofilms in water and can cause particular problems in water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic inactivation in killing a range of planktonic cells including Escherichia coli DSM 1103, Staphylococcus aureus DSM 799, Shigella sonnei DSM 5570, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas putida DSM 6125, and aggregating cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The experiments were performed in glass Petri dishes, containing the bacterial suspension and the photosensitiser, irradiated with a multi-LED (wavelengths 430nm and 660nm) for different time intervals. The responses of the cells were monitored using the pour plate technique and confocal microscopy. The study showed that bacteria belonging to Pseudomonads group tend to be more tolerant to PDI. While E. coli, S. aureus, S. sonnei and S. enterica required a dosage ranging from 39.47 J/cm2 to 59.21 J/cm2 for a 5 log reduction, Pseudomonads needed a dosage ranging from 78.94 to 118.42 J/cm2, a higher dose being required when the cells aggregated.

Keywords: bacterial aggregation, photoinactivation, Pseudomonads, water disinfection

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1 Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Vegetal Extracts of Six Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of Algerian Flora and Their Uses in Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

Authors: Ziani Borhane Eddine Cherif, Hazzi Mohamed, Mouhouche Fazia


The vegetal extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants start to have much of interest like potential sources of natural bioactive molecules. Many features are conferred by the nature of the chemical function of their major constituents (phenol, alcohol, aldehyde, cetone). This biopotential lets us to focalize on the study of three main biological activities, the antioxidant, antibiotic and insecticidal activities of six Algerian aromatic plants in the aim of making in evidence by the chromatographic analysis (CPG and CG/SM) the phytochemical compounds implicating in this effects. The contents of Oxygenated monoterpenes represented the most prominent group of constituents in the majority of plants. However, the α-Terpineol (28,3%), Carvacrol (47,3%), pulégone (39,5%), Chrysanthenone (27,4%), Thymol 23,9%, γ-Terpinene 23,9% and 2-Undecanone(94%) were the main components. The antioxyding activity of the Essential oils and no-volatils extracts was evaluated in vitro using four tests: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical-scavenging activity (ABTS•+), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays and the reducing power. The measures of the IC50 of these natural compounds revealed potent activity (between 254.64-462.76mg.l-1), almost similar to that of BHT, BHA, Tocopherol and Ascorbic acid (126,4-369,1 mg.l-1) and so far than the Trolox one (IC50= 2,82mg.l-1). Furthermore, three ethanol extracts were found to be remarkably effective toward DPPH and ABTS inhibition, compared to chemical antioxidant BHA and BHT (IC = 9.8±0.1 and 28±0.7 mg.l-1, respectively); for reducing power test it has also exhibited high activity. The study on the insecticidal activity effect by contact, inhalation, fecundity and fertility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Tribolium confusum showed a strong potential biocide reaching 95-100% mortality only after 24 hours. The antibiotic activity of our essential oils were evaluated by a qualitative study (aromatogramme) and quantitative (MIC, MBC and CML) on four bacteria (Gram+ and Gram-) and one strain of pathogenic yeast, the results of these tests showed very interesting action than that induced by the same reference antibiotics (Gentamycin, and Nystatin Ceftatidine) such that the inhibition diameters and MIC values for tested microorganisms were in the range of 23–58 mm and 0.015–0.25%(v/v) respectively.

Keywords: aromatic plants, essential oils, no-volatils extracts, bioactive molecules, antioxidant activity, insecticidal activity, antibiotic activity

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