Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: airplane

36 Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements

Authors: T. Mrna, R. Doubrava


This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.

Keywords: airworthiness requirements, composite, damage tolerance, low and high velocity impact

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35 Fractional Order Controller Design for Vibration Attenuation in an Airplane Wing

Authors: Birs Isabela, Muresan Cristina, Folea Silviu, Prodan Ovidiu


The wing is one of the most important parts of an airplane because it ensures stability, sustenance and maneuverability of the airplane. Because of its shape, the airplane wing can be simplified to a smart beam. Active vibration suppression is realized using piezoelectric actuators that are mounted on the surface of the beam. This work presents a tuning procedure of fractional order controllers based on a graphical approach of the frequency domain representation. The efficacy of the method is proven by practically testing the controller on a laboratory scale experimental stand.

Keywords: fractional order control, piezoelectric actuators, smart beam, vibration suppression

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34 Investigation of Bird Impact on Tailplane

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi


The typical airplane stabilizer structures consist of two main similar segments (outer and inner parts), one of them a little larger than the other. In this study, bird impact on four different spots of the stabilizer structure: (a) between two ribs of smaller segment, (b) between two ribs of larger segment, (c) on the rib connecting the two segments, and (d) on a middle rib of the smaller segment, is investigated and their results are compared by means of energy absorption, displacement, and bird’s mass diagrams as well as visible damage induced on the stabilizer structure.

Keywords: airplane, bird strike, LS-DYNA, stabilizer

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33 VTOL-Fw Mode-Transitioning UAV Design and Analysis

Authors: Feri̇t Çakici, M. Kemal Leblebi̇ci̇oğlu


In this study, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with level flight, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and mode-transitioning capability is designed and analyzed. The platform design combines both multirotor and fixed-wing (FW) conventional airplane structures and control surfaces; therefore named as VTOL-FW. The aircraft is modeled using aerodynamical principles and linear models are constructed utilizing small perturbation theory for trim conditions. The proposed method of control includes implementation of multirotor and airplane mode controllers and design of an algorithm to transition between modes in achieving smooth switching maneuvers between VTOL and FW flight. Thus, VTOL-FW UAV’s flight characteristics are expected to be improved by enlarging operational flight envelope through enabling mode-transitioning, agile maneuvers and increasing survivability. Experiments conducted in simulation and real world environments shows that VTOL-FW UAV has both multirotor and airplane characteristics with extra benefits in an enlarged flight envelope.

Keywords: aircraft design, linear analysis, mode transitioning control, UAV

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32 Analysis of Impact of Airplane Wheels Pre-Rotating on Landing Gears of Large Airplane

Authors: Huang Bingling, Jia Yuhong, Liu Yanhui


As an important part of aircraft, landing gears are responsible for taking-off and landing function. In recent years, big airplane's structural quality increases a lot. As a result, landing gears have stricter technical requirements than ever before such as structure strength and etc. If the structural strength of the landing gear is enhanced through traditional methods like increasing structural quality, the negative impacts on the landing gear's function would be very serious and even counteract the positive effects. Thus, in order to solve this problem, the impact of pre-rotating of landing gears on performance of landing gears is studied from the theoretical and experimental verification in this paper. By increasing the pre-rotating speed of the wheel, it can improve the performance of the landing gear and reduce the structural quality, the force of joint parts and other properties. In addition, the pre-rotating of the wheels also has other advantages, such as reduce the friction between wheels and ground and extend the life of the wheel. In this paper, the impact of the pre-rotating speed on landing gears and the connecting between landing gears performance and pre-rotating speed would be researched in detail. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, large airplane landing gear model is built by CATIA and LMS. As most general landing gear type in big plane, four-wheel landing gear is picked as model. The second part is to simulate the process of landing in LMS motion, and study the impact of pre-rotating of wheels on the aircraft`s properties, including the buffer stroke, efficiency, power; friction, displacement and relative speed between piston and sleeve; force and load distribution of tires. The simulation results show that the characteristics of the different pre-rotation speed are understood. The third part is conclusion. Through the data of the previous simulation and the relationship between the pre-rotation speed of the aircraft wheels and the performance of the aircraft, recommended speed interval is proposed. This paper is of great theoretical value to improve the performance of large airplane. It is a very effective method to improve the performance of aircraft by setting wheel pre-rotating speed. Do not need to increase the structural quality too much, eliminating the negative effects of traditional methods.

Keywords: large airplane, landing gear, pre-rotating, simulation

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31 Security Analysis of Mod. S Transponder Technology and Attack Examples

Authors: M. Rutkowski, J. Cwiklak, M. Grzegorzewski, M. Adamski


All class A Airplanes have to be equipped with Mod. S transponder for ATC surveillance purposes. This technology was designed to provide a robust and dependable solution to localize, identify and exchange data with the airplane. The purpose of this paper is to analyze potential hazards that are a result of lack of any security or encryption on a design level. Secondary Surveillance Radars rely on an active response from an airplane. SSR radar installation is broadcasting a directional interrogation signal to the planes in range on 1030MHz frequency with DPSK modulation. If the interrogation is correctly received by the transponder located on the plane, a proper answer is sent on 1090MHz with PPM modulation containing plane’s SQUAWK, barometric altitude, GPS coordinates and 24bit unique address code. This technology does not use any kind of encryption. All of the specifications from the previous chapter can be found easily on the internet. Since there is no encryption or security measure to ensure the credibility of the sender and message, it is highly hazardous to use such technology to ensure the safety of the air traffic. The only thing that identifies the airplane is the 24-bit unique address. Most of the planes have been sniffed by aviation enthusiasts and cataloged in web databases. In the moment of writing this article, The PoFung Technologies has announced that they are planning to release all band SDR transceiver – this device would be more than enough to build your own Mod. S Transponder. With fake transponder, a potential terrorist can identify as a different airplane. By replacing the transponder in a poorly controlled airspace, hijackers can enter another airspace identifying themselves as another plane and land in the desired area.

Keywords: flight safety, hijack, mod S transponder, security analysis

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30 What 4th-Year Primary-School Students are Thinking: A Paper Airplane Problem

Authors: Neslihan Şahin Çelik, Ali Eraslan


In recent years, mathematics educators have frequently stressed the necessity of instructing students about models and modeling approaches that encompass cognitive and metacognitive thought processes, starting from the first years of school and continuing on through the years of higher education. The purpose of this study is to examine the thought processes of 4th-grade primary school students in their modeling activities and to explore the difficulties encountered in these processes, if any. The study, of qualitative design, was conducted in the 2015-2016 academic year at a public state-school located in a central city in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. A preliminary study was first implemented with designated 4th grade students, after which the criterion sampling method was used to select three students that would be recruited into the focus group. The focus group that was thus formed was asked to work on the model eliciting activity of the Paper Airplane Problem and the entire process was recorded on video. The Paper Airplane Problem required the students to determine the winner with respect to: (a) the plane that stays in the air for the longest time; (b) the plane that travels the greatest distance in a straight-line path; and (c) the overall winner for the contest. A written transcript was made of the video recording, after which the recording and the students' worksheets were analyzed using the Blum and Ferri modeling cycle. The results of the study revealed that the students tested the hypotheses related to daily life that they had set up, generated ideas of their own, verified their models by making connections with real life, and tried to make their models generalizable. On the other hand, the students had some difficulties in terms of their interpretation of the table of data and their ways of operating on the data during the modeling processes.

Keywords: primary school students, model eliciting activity, mathematical modeling, modeling process, paper airplane problem

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29 Wavelet Based Signal Processing for Fault Location in Airplane Cable

Authors: Reza Rezaeipour Honarmandzad


Wavelet analysis is an exciting method for solving difficult problems in mathematics, physics, and engineering, with modern applications as diverse as wave propagation, data compression, signal processing, image processing, pattern recognition, etc. Wavelets allow complex information such as signals, images and patterns to be decomposed into elementary forms at different positions and scales and subsequently reconstructed with high precision. In this paper a wavelet-based signal processing algorithm for airplane cable fault location is proposed. An orthogonal discrete wavelet decomposition and reconstruction algorithm is used to eliminate the noise in the aircraft cable fault signal. The experiment result has shown that the character of emission pulse and reflect pulse used to test the aircraft cable fault point are reserved and the high-frequency noise are eliminated by means of the proposed algorithm in this paper.

Keywords: wavelet analysis, signal processing, orthogonal discrete wavelet, noise, aircraft cable fault signal

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28 Cessna Citation X Performances Improvement by an Adaptive Winglet during the Cruise Flight

Authors: Marine Segui, Simon Bezin, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez


As part of a ‘Morphing-Wing’ idea, this study consists of measuring how a winglet, which is able to change its shape during the flight, is efficient. Conventionally, winglets are fixed-vertical platforms at the wingtips, optimized for a cruise condition that the airplane should use most of the time. However, during a cruise, an airplane flies through a lot of cruise conditions corresponding to altitudes variations from 30,000 to 45,000 ft. The fixed winglets are not optimized for these variations, and consequently, they are supposed to generate some drag, and thus to deteriorate aircraft fuel consumption. This research assumes that it exists a winglet position that reduces the fuel consumption for each cruise condition. In this way, the methodology aims to find these optimal winglet positions, and to further simulate, and thus estimate the fuel consumption of an aircraft wearing this type of adaptive winglet during several cruise conditions. The adaptive winglet is assumed to have degrees of freedom given by the various changes of following surfaces: the tip chord, the sweep and the dihedral angles. Finally, results obtained during cruise simulations are presented in this paper. These results show that an adaptive winglet can reduce, thus improve up to 2.12% the fuel consumption of an aircraft during a cruise.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, Citation X, optimization, winglet

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27 Simulation of Bird Strike on Airplane Wings by Using SPH Methodology

Authors: Tuğçe Kiper Elibol, İbrahim Uslan, Mehmet Ali Guler, Murat Buyuk, Uğur Yolum


According to the FAA report, 142603 bird strikes were reported for a period of 24 years, between 1990 – 2013. Bird strike with aerospace structures not only threaten the flight security but also cause financial loss and puts life in danger. The statistics show that most of the bird strikes are happening with the nose and the leading edge of the wings. Also, a substantial amount of bird strikes is absorbed by the jet engines and causes damage on blades and engine body. Crash proof designs are required to overcome the possibility of catastrophic failure of the airplane. Using computational methods for bird strike analysis during the product development phase has considerable importance in terms of cost saving. Clearly, using simulation techniques to reduce the number of reference tests can dramatically affect the total cost of an aircraft, where for bird strike often full-scale tests are considered. Therefore, development of validated numerical models is required that can replace preliminary tests and accelerate the design cycle. In this study, to verify the simulation parameters for a bird strike analysis, several different numerical options are studied for an impact case against a primitive structure. Then, a representative bird mode is generated with the verified parameters and collided against the leading edge of a training aircraft wing, where each structural member of the wing was explicitly modeled. A nonlinear explicit dynamics finite element code, LS-DYNA was used for the bird impact simulations. SPH methodology was used to model the behavior of the bird. Dynamic behavior of the wing superstructure was observed and will be used for further design optimization purposes.

Keywords: bird impact, bird strike, finite element modeling, smoothed particle hydrodynamics

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26 Aerodynamic Design and Optimization of Vertical Take-Off and Landing Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Enes Gunaltili, Burak Dam


The airplane history started with the Wright brothers' aircraft and improved day by day. With the help of this advancements, big aircrafts replace with small and unmanned air vehicles, so in this study we design this type of air vehicles. First of all, aircrafts mainly divided into two main parts in our day as a rotary and fixed wing aircrafts. The fixed wing aircraft generally use for transport, cargo, military and etc. The rotary wing aircrafts use for same area but there are some superiorities from each other. The rotary wing aircraft can take off vertically from the ground, and it can use restricted area. On the other hand, rotary wing aircrafts generally can fly lower range than fixed wing aircraft. There are one kind of aircraft consist of this two types specifications. It is named as VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) type aircraft. VTOLs are able to takeoff and land vertically and fly horizontally. The VTOL aircrafts generally can fly higher range from the rotary wings but can fly lower range from the fixed wing aircraft but it gives beneficial range between them. There are many other advantages of VTOL aircraft from the rotary and fixed wing aircraft. Because of that, VTOLs began to use for generally military, cargo, search, rescue and mapping areas. Within this framework, this study answers the question that how can we design VTOL as a small unmanned aircraft systems for search and rescue application for benefiting the advantages of fixed wing and rotary wing aircrafts by eliminating the disadvantages of them. To answer that question and design VTOL aircraft, multidisciplinary design optimizations (MDO), some theoretical terminologies, formulations, simulations and modelling systems based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is used in same time as design methodology to determine design parameters and steps. As a conclusion, based on tests and simulations depend on design steps, suggestions on how the VTOL aircraft designed and advantages, disadvantages, and observations for design parameters are listed, then VTOL is designed and presented with the design parameters, advantages, and usage areas.

Keywords: airplane, rotary, fixed, VTOL, CFD

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25 Computer Simulation Studies of Aircraft Wing Architectures on Vibration Responses

Authors: Shengyong Zhang, Mike Mikulich


Vibration is a crucial limiting consideration in the analysis and design of airplane wing structures to avoid disastrous failures due to the propagation of existing cracks in the material. In this paper, we build CAD models of aircraft wings to capture the design intent with configurations. Subsequent FEA vibration analysis is performed to study the natural vibration properties and impulsive responses of the resulting user-defined wing models. This study reveals the variations of the wing’s vibration characteristics with respect to changes in its structural configurations. Integrating CAD modelling and FEA vibration analysis enables designers to improve wing architectures for implementing design requirements in the preliminary design stage.

Keywords: aircraft wing, CAD modelling, FEA, vibration analysis

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24 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an RC Airplane Wing Using a NACA 2412 Profile at Different Angle of Attacks

Authors: Huseyin Gokberk, Shian Gao


CFD analysis of the relationship between the coefficients of lift and drag with respect to the angle of attack on a NACA 2412 wing section of an RC plane is conducted. Both the 2D and 3D models are investigated with the turbulence model. The 2D analysis has a free stream velocity of 10m/s at different AoA of 0°, 2°, 5°, 10°, 12°, and 15°. The induced drag and drag coefficient increased throughout the changes in angles even after the critical angle had been exceeded, whereas the lift force and coefficient of lift increased but had a limit at the critical stall angle, which results in values to reduce sharply. Turbulence flow characteristics are analysed around the aerofoil with the additions caused due to a finite 3D model. 3D results highlight how wing tip vortexes develop and alter the flow around the wing with the effects of the tapered configuration.

Keywords: CFD, turbulence modelling, aerofoil, angle of attack

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23 An Investigation of Thai Passengers’ Level of Understanding and Awareness: Cabin Crew Safety Briefing

Authors: Chantarat Manvichien, Kevin Wongleedee


The purpose of this research was to study Thai passengers’ level of understanding and awareness of the cabin crew safety briefing in the airplane during the preparation to take off and landing. It is important to know if Thai passengers pay attention to cabin crew safety briefing and to suggest a better way to draw their attention. The independent variables included gender, age, income, levels of education, travelling purpose, and travelling frequency while the dependent variables was level of awareness. A simple random sampling method was utilized to get 400 respondents. The findings revealed the ranking the first three levels of importance by highest mean to lowest mean as follows: (1) It is important to listen to cabin crew safety briefing; (2) Cabin crew briefing is interesting; (3) Information from cabin crew safety briefing is easy to understand. In addition, the overall means was 3.27 with 0.800 SD.

Keywords: cabin crew, safety briefing, Thai passengers, awareness

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22 Active Flutter Suppression of Sports Aircraft Tailplane by Supplementary Control Surface

Authors: Aleš Kratochvíl, Svatomír Slavík


The paper presents an aircraft flutter suppression by active damping of supplementary control surface at trailing edge. The mathematical model of thin oscillation airfoil with control surface driven by pilot is developed. The supplementary control surface driven by control law is added. Active damping of flutter by several control law is present. The structural model of tailplane with an aerodynamic strip theory based on the airfoil model is developed by a finite element method. The optimization process of stiffens parameters is carried out to match the structural model with results from a ground vibration test of a small sport airplane. The implementation of supplementary control surface driven by control law is present. The active damping of tailplane model is shown.

Keywords: active damping, finite element method, flutter, tailplane model

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21 3D Numerical Studies on External Aerodynamics of a Flying Car

Authors: Sasitharan Ambicapathy, J. Vignesh, P. Sivaraj, Godfrey Derek Sams, K. Sabarinath, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The external flow simulation of a flying car at take off phase is a daunting task owing to the fact that the prediction of the transient unsteady flow features during its deployment phase is very complex. In this paper 3D numerical simulations of external flow of Ferrari F430 proposed flying car with different NACA 9618 rectangular wings have been carried. Additionally, the aerodynamics characteristics have been generated for optimizing its geometry for achieving the minimum take off velocity with better overall performance in both road and air. The three-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 flying car facilitated with high wings having three different deployment histories during the take off phase is the best choice for accomplishing its better performance for the commercial applications.

Keywords: aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, negative lift, roadable airplane

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20 A New Family of Flying Wing Low Reynolds Number Airfoils

Authors: Ciro Sobrinho Campolina Martins, Halison da Silva Pereira, Vitor Mainenti Leal Lopes


Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been used in a wide range of applications, from precise agriculture monitoring for irrigation and fertilization to military attack missions. Long range performance is required for many of these applications. Tailless aircrafts are commonly used as long-range configurations and, due to its small amount of stability, the airfoil shape design of its wings plays a central role on the performance of the airplane. In this work, a new family of flying wing airfoils is designed for low Reynolds number flows, typical of small-middle UAVs. Camber, thickness and their maximum positions in the chord are variables used for the airfoil geometry optimization. Aerodynamic non-dimensional coefficients were obtained by the well-established Panel Method. High efficient airfoils with small pitch moment coefficient are obtained from the analysis described and its aerodynamic polars are plotted.

Keywords: airfoil design, flying wing, low Reynolds number, tailless aircraft, UAV

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19 Flight Safety Hazard: An Investigation into Bird Strike Prevention in the Vicinity of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand

Authors: Chantarat Manvichien


The purpose of this research paper was aimed to examine the bird strike prevention in the vicinity of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand. A bird strike event occurs when a bird or a flock of birds collide with an operating airplane and results in flight interruption. This is the reason why International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a part of the United Nations, has an assumption that birds, including other wildlife, are a serious hazard to aircraft and attempts should be accomplished to overcome this hazard. ICAO requires all airports worldwide to set up proactive countermeasures in order to reduce the risk from bird strike and wildlife hazard. In Thailand, the Airports of Thailand Public Company Limited which manages Suvarnabhumi Airport, also known as Bangkok International Airport, responds to the requirements and spends a lot of effort to ensure this hazard is manageable. An intensive study on the countermeasures to prevent aircraft accident from bird strike and other wildlife have been continuously executed since the early construction of the Airport until nowadays.

Keywords: bird strike, flight safety, wildlife hazard, Suvarnabhumi airport

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18 Early Design Prediction of Submersible Maneuvers

Authors: Hernani Brinati, Mardel de Conti, Moyses Szajnbok, Valentina Domiciano


This study brings a mathematical model and examples for the numerical prediction of submersible maneuvers in the horizontal and in the vertical planes. The geometry of the submarine is here taken as a body of revolution plus a sail, two horizontal and two vertical rudders. The model includes the representation of the hull resistance and of the propeller thrust and torque, what enables to consider the variation of the longitudinal component of the velocity of the ship when maneuvering. The hydrodynamic forces are represented through power series expansions of the acceleration and velocity components. The hydrodynamic derivatives for the body of revolution are mostly estimated based on fundamental principles applicable to the flow around airplane fuselages in the subsonic regime. The hydrodynamic forces for the sail and rudders are estimated based on a finite aspect ratio wing theory. The objective of this study is to build an expedite model for submarine maneuvers prediction, based on fundamental principles, which may be convenient in the early stages of the ship design. This model is tested against available numerical and experimental data.

Keywords: submarine maneuvers, submarine, maneuvering, dynamics

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17 Solar and Galactic Cosmic Ray Impacts on Ambient Dose Equivalent Considering a Flight Path Statistic Representative to World-Traffic

Authors: G. Hubert, S. Aubry


The earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays that can be of either galactic or solar origin. Thus, humans are exposed to high levels of galactic radiation due to altitude aircraft. The typical total ambient dose equivalent for a transatlantic flight is about 50 μSv during quiet solar activity. On the contrary, estimations differ by one order of magnitude for the contribution induced by certain solar particle events. Indeed, during Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) event, the Sun can emit particles of sufficient energy and intensity to raise radiation levels on Earth's surface. Analyses of GLE characteristics occurring since 1942 showed that for the worst of them, the dose level is of the order of 1 mSv and more. The largest of these events was observed on February 1956 for which the ambient dose equivalent rate is in the orders of 10 mSv/hr. The extra dose at aircraft altitudes for a flight during this event might have been about 20 mSv, i.e. comparable with the annual limit for aircrew. The most recent GLE, occurred on September 2017 resulting from an X-class solar flare, and it was measured on the surface of both the Earth and Mars using the Radiation Assessment Detector on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover. Recently, Hubert et al. proposed a GLE model included in a particle transport platform (named ATMORAD) describing the extensive air shower characteristics and allowing to assess the ambient dose equivalent. In this approach, the GCR is based on the Force-Field approximation model. The physical description of the Solar Cosmic Ray (i.e. SCR) considers the primary differential rigidity spectrum and the distribution of primary particles at the top of the atmosphere. ATMORAD allows to determine the spectral fluence rate of secondary particles induced by extensive showers, considering altitude range from ground to 45 km. Ambient dose equivalent can be determined using fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. The objective of this paper is to analyze the GCR and SCR impacts on ambient dose equivalent considering a high number statistic of world-flight paths. Flight trajectories are based on the Eurocontrol Demand Data Repository (DDR) and consider realistic flight plan with and without regulations or updated with Radar Data from CFMU (Central Flow Management Unit). The final paper will present exhaustive analyses implying solar impacts on ambient dose equivalent level and will propose detailed analyses considering route and airplane characteristics (departure, arrival, continent, airplane type etc.), and the phasing of the solar event. Preliminary results show an important impact of the flight path, particularly the latitude which drives the cutoff rigidity variations. Moreover, dose values vary drastically during GLE events, on the one hand with the route path (latitude, longitude altitude), on the other hand with the phasing of the solar event. Considering the GLE occurred on 23 February 1956, the average ambient dose equivalent evaluated for a flight Paris - New York is around 1.6 mSv, which is relevant to previous works This point highlights the importance of monitoring these solar events and of developing semi-empirical and particle transport method to obtain a reliable calculation of dose levels.

Keywords: cosmic ray, human dose, solar flare, aviation

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16 Construction of Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes


The study of the aerodynamics is related to the improvement in the acting of airplanes and automobiles with the objective of being reduced the effect of the attrition of the air on structures, providing larger speeds and smaller consumption of fuel. The application of the knowledge of the aerodynamics not more limits to the aeronautical and automobile industries. In that way, being tried the new demands with relationship to the aerodynamic study in the most several areas of the engineering, this work presents the stages of the project and construction of a wind tunnel for application in aerodynamic rehearsals. Among the several configurations of existent wind tunnels, opted to build open circuit, due to smaller construction complexity and installation; operational simplicity and cost reduced. Belonging to the type blower, to take advantage of a larger efficiency of the motor; and with diffusion so that flowed him of air it wins speed before reaching the section of rehearsals. The guidelines for project were: didactic practices: study of the layer it limits and analyze of the drainages on proof bodies with different geometries. For the pressure variation in the test section a connected manometer used a pitot tube. Quantitative and qualitative results showed to be satisfactory.

Keywords: wind tunnel, aerodynamics, air, airplane

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15 Small Fixed-Wing UAV Physical Based Modeling, Simulation, and Validation

Authors: Ebrahim H. Kapeel, Ehab Safwat, Hossam Hendy, Ahmed M. Kamel, Yehia Z. Elhalwagy


Motivated by the problem of the availability of high-fidelity flight simulation models for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This paper focuses on the geometric-mass inertia modeling and the actuation system modeling for the small fixed-wing UAVs. The UAV geometric parameters for the body, wing, horizontal and vertical tail are physically measured. Pendulum experiment with high-grade sensors and data analysis using MATLAB is used to estimate the airplane moment of inertia (MOI) model. Finally, UAV’s actuation system is modeled by estimating each servo transfer function by using the system identification, which uses experimental measurement for input and output angles through using field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Experimental results for the designed models are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. It also gives a very promising result to finalize the open-loop flight simulation model through modeling the propulsion system and the aerodynamic system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, geometric-mass inertia model, system identification, Simulink

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14 Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Ferrari F430 Flying Car with Enhanced Takeoff Performance

Authors: E. Manikandan, C. Chilambarasan, M. Sulthan Ariff Rahman, S. Kanagaraj, Abhimanyu Pugazhandhi, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The designer of any flying car has the major concern on the creation of upward force with low takeoff velocity, with minimum drag, coupled with better stability and control warranting its overall high performance both in road and air. In this paper, 3D numerical simulations of external flow of a Ferrari F430 fitted with different NACA series rectangular wings have been carried out for finding the best aerodynamic design option in road and air. The principle that allows a car to rise off the ground by creating lift using deployable wings with desirable lifting characteristics is the main theme of our paper. Additionally, the car body is streamlined in accordance with the speed range. Further, the rounded and tapered shape of the top of the car is designed to slice through the air and minimize the wind resistance. The 3D SST k-ω turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies, we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 can be converted into a lucrative flying car with best fit NACA wing through a proper aerodynamic design optimization.

Keywords: aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, Ferrari F430, roadable airplane

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13 Field Oriented Control of Electrical Motor for Efficiency Improvement of Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Francois Defay


Uses of Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are increasing for many applicative cases. Long endurance UAVs are required for inspection or transportation in some deserted places. The global optimization of the efficiency is the aim of the works in ISAE-SUPAERO. From the propulsive part until the motor control, the global optimization can increase significantly the global efficiency. This paper deals with the global improvement of the efficiency of the electrical propulsion for the aerial vehicle. The application case of study is a small airplane of 2kg. A global modelization is presented in order to validate the electrical engine in a complete simulation from aerodynamics to battery. The classical control of the synchronous permanent drive is compared to the field-oriented control which is not yet applied for UAVs. The experimental results presented show an increase of more than 10 percent of the efficiency. A complete modelization and simulation based on Matlab/ Simulink are presented in this paper and compared to the experimental study. Finally this paper presents solutions to increase the endurance of the electrical aerial vehicle and provide models to optimize the global consumption for a specific mission. The next step is to use this model and the control to work with distributed propulsion which is the future for small distance plane.

Keywords: electrical propulsion, endurance, field-oriented control, UAV

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12 CFD Analysis of an Aft Sweep Wing in Subsonic Flow and Making Analogy with Roskam Methods

Authors: Ehsan Sakhaei, Ali Taherabadi


In this study, an aft sweep wing with specific characteristic feature was analysis with CFD method in Fluent software. In this analysis wings aerodynamic coefficient was calculated in different rake angle and wing lift curve slope to rake angle was achieved. Wing section was selected among NACA airfoils version 6. The sweep angle of wing is 15 degree, aspect ratio 8 and taper ratios 0.4. Designing and modeling this wing was done in CATIA software. This model was meshed in Gambit software and its three dimensional analysis was done in Fluent software. CFD methods used here were based on pressure base algorithm. SIMPLE technique was used for solving Navier-Stokes equation and Spalart-Allmaras model was utilized to simulate three dimensional wing in air. Roskam method is one of the common and most used methods for determining aerodynamics parameters in the field of airplane designing. In this study besides CFD analysis, an advanced aircraft analysis was used for calculating aerodynamic coefficient using Roskam method. The results of CFD were compared with measured data acquired from Roskam method and authenticity of relation was evaluated. The results and comparison showed that in linear region of lift curve there is a minor difference between aerodynamics parameter acquired from CFD to relation present by Roskam.

Keywords: aft sweep wing, CFD method, fluent, Roskam, Spalart-Allmaras model

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11 Study of Pressure and Air Mass Flow Effect on Output Power of PEM Fuel Cell Powertrains in Vehicles and Airplanes- A Simulation-based Approach

Authors: Mahdiye Khorasani, Arjun Vijay, Ali Mashayekh, Christian Trapp


The performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is highly dependent on the pressure and mass flow of media (Hydrogen and air) throughout the cells and the stack. Higher pressure, on the one hand, results in higher output power of the stack but, on the other hand, increases the electrical power demand of the compressor. In this work, a simulation model of a PEMFC system for vehicle and airplane applications is developed. With this new model, the effect of different pressures and air mass flow rates are investigated to discover the optimum operating point in a PEMFC system, and innovative operation strategies are implemented to optimize reactants flow while minimizing electrical power demand of the compressor for optimum performance. Additionally, a fuel cell system test bench is set up, which contains not only all the auxiliary components for conditioning the gases, reactants, and flows but also a dynamic titling table for testing different orientations of the stack to simulate the flight conditions during take-off and landing and off-road-vehicle scenarios. The results of simulation will be tested and validated on the test bench for future works.

Keywords: air mass flow effect, optimization of operation, pressure effect, PEMFC system, PEMFC system simulation

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10 The Time-Frequency Domain Reflection Method for Aircraft Cable Defects Localization

Authors: Reza Rezaeipour Honarmandzad


This paper introduces an aircraft cable fault detection and location method in light of TFDR keeping in mind the end goal to recognize the intermittent faults adequately and to adapt to the serial and after-connector issues being hard to be distinguished in time domain reflection. In this strategy, the correlation function of reflected and reference signal is used to recognize and find the airplane fault as per the qualities of reflected and reference signal in time-frequency domain, so the hit rate of distinguishing and finding intermittent faults can be enhanced adequately. In the work process, the reflected signal is interfered by the noise and false caution happens frequently, so the threshold de-noising technique in light of wavelet decomposition is used to diminish the noise interference and lessen the shortcoming alert rate. At that point the time-frequency cross connection capacity of the reference signal and the reflected signal based on Wigner-Ville appropriation is figured so as to find the issue position. Finally, LabVIEW is connected to execute operation and control interface, the primary capacity of which is to connect and control MATLAB and LABSQL. Using the solid computing capacity and the bottomless capacity library of MATLAB, the signal processing turn to be effortlessly acknowledged, in addition LabVIEW help the framework to be more dependable and upgraded effectively.

Keywords: aircraft cable, fault location, TFDR, LabVIEW

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9 Characteristics and Flight Test Analysis of a Fixed-Wing UAV with Hover Capability

Authors: Ferit Çakıcı, M. Kemal Leblebicioğlu


In this study, characteristics and flight test analysis of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with hover capability is analyzed. The base platform is chosen as a conventional airplane with throttle, ailerons, elevator and rudder control surfaces, that inherently allows level flight. Then this aircraft is mechanically modified by the integration of vertical propellers as in multi rotors in order to provide hover capability. The aircraft is modeled using basic aerodynamical principles and linear models are constructed utilizing small perturbation theory for trim conditions. Flight characteristics are analyzed by benefiting from linear control theory’s state space approach. Distinctive features of the aircraft are discussed based on analysis results with comparison to conventional aircraft platform types. A hybrid control system is proposed in order to reveal unique flight characteristics. The main approach includes design of different controllers for different modes of operation and a hand-over logic that makes flight in an enlarged flight envelope viable. Simulation tests are performed on mathematical models that verify asserted algorithms. Flight tests conducted in real world revealed the applicability of the proposed methods in exploiting fixed-wing and rotary wing characteristics of the aircraft, which provide agility, survivability and functionality.

Keywords: flight test, flight characteristics, hybrid aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle

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8 Object Recognition System Operating from Different Type Vehicles Using Raspberry and OpenCV

Authors: Maria Pavlova


In our days, it is possible to put the camera on different vehicles like quadcopter, train, airplane and etc. The camera also can be the input sensor in many different systems. That means the object recognition like non separate part of monitoring control can be key part of the most intelligent systems. The aim of this paper is to focus of the object recognition process during vehicles movement. During the vehicle’s movement the camera takes pictures from the environment without storage in Data Base. In case the camera detects a special object (for example human or animal), the system saves the picture and sends it to the work station in real time. This functionality will be very useful in emergency or security situations where is necessary to find a specific object. In another application, the camera can be mounted on crossroad where do not have many people and if one or more persons come on the road, the traffic lights became the green and they can cross the road. In this papers is presented the system has solved the aforementioned problems. It is presented architecture of the object recognition system includes the camera, Raspberry platform, GPS system, neural network, software and Data Base. The camera in the system takes the pictures. The object recognition is done in real time using the OpenCV library and Raspberry microcontroller. An additional feature of this library is the ability to display the GPS coordinates of the captured objects position. The results from this processes will be sent to remote station. So, in this case, we can know the location of the specific object. By neural network, we can learn the module to solve the problems using incoming data and to be part in bigger intelligent system. The present paper focuses on the design and integration of the image recognition like a part of smart systems.

Keywords: camera, object recognition, OpenCV, Raspberry

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7 Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Analyzes of Epoxy Resins Reinforced with Satin Tissue

Authors: Băilă Diana Irinel, Păcurar Răzvan, Păcurar Ancuța


Although the volumes of fibre reinforced polymer composites (FRPs) used for aircraft applications is a relatively small percentage of total use, the materials often find their most sophisticated applications in this industry. In aerospace, the performance criteria placed upon materials can be far greater than in other areas – key aspects are light-weight, high-strength, high-stiffness, and good fatigue resistance. Composites were first used by the military before the technology was applied to commercial planes. Nowadays, composites are widely used, and this has been the result of a gradual direct substitution of metal components followed by the development of integrated composite designs as confidence in FRPs has increased. The airplane uses a range of components made from composites, including the fin and tailplane. In the last years, composite materials are increasingly used in automotive applications due to the improvement of material properties. In the aerospace and automotive sector, the fuel consumption is proportional to the weight of the body of the vehicle. A minimum of 20% of the cost can be saved if it used polymer composites in place of the metal structures and the operating and maintenance costs are alco very low. Glass fiber-epoxy composites are widely used in the making of aircraft and automobile body parts and are not only limited to these fields but also used in ship building, structural applications in civil engineering, pipes for the transport of liquids, electrical insulators in reactors. This article was establish the high-performance of composite material, a type glass-epoxy used in automotive and aeronautic domains, concerning the tensile and flexural tests and SEM analyzes.

Keywords: glass-epoxy composite, traction and flexion tests, SEM analysis, acoustic emission (AE) signals

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