Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8108

Search results for: bird impact

8108 Investigation of Bird Impact on Tailplane

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi

Abstract:

The typical airplane stabilizer structures consist of two main similar segments (outer and inner parts), one of them a little larger than the other. In this study, bird impact on four different spots of the stabilizer structure: (a) between two ribs of smaller segment, (b) between two ribs of larger segment, (c) on the rib connecting the two segments, and (d) on a middle rib of the smaller segment, is investigated and their results are compared by means of energy absorption, displacement, and bird’s mass diagrams as well as visible damage induced on the stabilizer structure.

Keywords: airplane, bird strike, LS-DYNA, stabilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
8107 Simulation of Bird Strike on Airplane Wings by Using SPH Methodology

Authors: Tuğçe Kiper Elibol, İbrahim Uslan, Mehmet Ali Guler, Murat Buyuk, Uğur Yolum

Abstract:

According to the FAA report, 142603 bird strikes were reported for a period of 24 years, between 1990 – 2013. Bird strike with aerospace structures not only threaten the flight security but also cause financial loss and puts life in danger. The statistics show that most of the bird strikes are happening with the nose and the leading edge of the wings. Also, a substantial amount of bird strikes is absorbed by the jet engines and causes damage on blades and engine body. Crash proof designs are required to overcome the possibility of catastrophic failure of the airplane. Using computational methods for bird strike analysis during the product development phase has considerable importance in terms of cost saving. Clearly, using simulation techniques to reduce the number of reference tests can dramatically affect the total cost of an aircraft, where for bird strike often full-scale tests are considered. Therefore, development of validated numerical models is required that can replace preliminary tests and accelerate the design cycle. In this study, to verify the simulation parameters for a bird strike analysis, several different numerical options are studied for an impact case against a primitive structure. Then, a representative bird mode is generated with the verified parameters and collided against the leading edge of a training aircraft wing, where each structural member of the wing was explicitly modeled. A nonlinear explicit dynamics finite element code, LS-DYNA was used for the bird impact simulations. SPH methodology was used to model the behavior of the bird. Dynamic behavior of the wing superstructure was observed and will be used for further design optimization purposes.

Keywords: bird impact, bird strike, finite element modeling, smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
8106 Impact of Fire on Bird Diversity in Oil Palm Plantation: Case Study in South Sumatra Province

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Windi Sugiharti

Abstract:

Fires occur annually in oil palm plantations. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of fire on bird diversity in oil palm plantations. Data of bird diversity were collected using the line transect method. Data were collected from February to March 2017. To estimate species richness, we used the Margalef index, to determine the evenness of species richness between site, we used an Evenness index, and to estimate the similarity of bird communities between different habitat, we used the Sørensen index. The result showed that the number of bird species and species richness in the post burned area was higher than those in unburned area. Different results were found for the Evenness Index, where the value was higher in unburned area that was in post burned area. These results indicate that fires did not decrease bird diversity as alleged by many parties whom stated that fires caused species extinction. Fire trigger the emerging of belowground plant and population of insects as a sources of food for the bird community. This result is consistent with several research findings in the United States and Australia that used controlled fires as one of regional management tools.

Keywords: bird, fire, index of similarity, oil palm, species diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
8105 Modeling and Simulation for Infection Processes of Bird Flu within a Poultry Farm

Authors: Tertia Delia Nova, Masaji Watanabge

Abstract:

Infection of bird flu within a poultry farm involves hosts, virus, and medium. Intrusion of bird flu into a poultry farm divides the population into two groups; healthy and susceptible chickens and infected chickens. A healthy and susceptible bird is infected to become an infected bird. Bird flu viruses spread among chickens through medium such as air and droppings, and increase in hosts. A model for an infection process of bird flu within a poultry farm is described, numerical techniques are illustrated, and numerical results are introduced.

Keywords: bird flu, poultry farm, model for an infection process, flu viruses

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
8104 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. l. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya

Abstract:

Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: conservation, diversity, lacustrine, wetlands

Procedia PDF Downloads 596
8103 The Estimation of Bird Diversity Loss and Gain as an Impact of Oil Palm Plantation: Study Case in KJNP Estate Riau Province

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Catharina Yudea

Abstract:

The rapid growth of oil palm industry in Indonesia raised many negative accusations from various parties, who said that oil palm plantation is damaging the environment and biodiversity, including birds. Since research on oil palm plantation impacts on bird diversity is still limited, this study needs to be developed in order to gain further learning and understanding. Data on bird diversity were collected in March 2018 in KJNP Estate, Riau Province using strip transect method on five different land cover types (young, intermediate, and old growth of oil palm plantation, high conservation value area, and crops field or the baseline). The observations were conducted simultaneously, with three repetitions. The result shows that the baseline has 19 species of birds and land cover after the oil palm plantation has 39 species. HCV (high conservation value) area has the highest increase in diversity value. Oil palm plantation has changed the composition of bird species. The highest similarity index is shown by young growth oil palm land cover with total score 0.65, meanwhile the lowest similarity index with total score 0.43 is shown by HCV area. Overall, the existence of oil palm plantation made a positive impact by increasing bird species diversity, with total 23 species gained and 3 species lost.

Keywords: bird diversity, crops field, impact of oil palm plantation, KJNP estate

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8102 Flight Safety Hazard: An Investigation into Bird Strike Prevention in the Vicinity of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand

Authors: Chantarat Manvichien

Abstract:

The purpose of this research paper was aimed to examine the bird strike prevention in the vicinity of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand. A bird strike event occurs when a bird or a flock of birds collide with an operating airplane and results in flight interruption. This is the reason why International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a part of the United Nations, has an assumption that birds, including other wildlife, are a serious hazard to aircraft and attempts should be accomplished to overcome this hazard. ICAO requires all airports worldwide to set up proactive countermeasures in order to reduce the risk from bird strike and wildlife hazard. In Thailand, the Airports of Thailand Public Company Limited which manages Suvarnabhumi Airport, also known as Bangkok International Airport, responds to the requirements and spends a lot of effort to ensure this hazard is manageable. An intensive study on the countermeasures to prevent aircraft accident from bird strike and other wildlife have been continuously executed since the early construction of the Airport until nowadays.

Keywords: bird strike, flight safety, wildlife hazard, Suvarnabhumi airport

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8101 Bird-Adapted Filter for Avian Species and Individual Identification Systems Improvement

Authors: Ladislav Ptacek, Jan Vanek, Jan Eisner, Alexandra Pruchova, Pavel Linhart, Ludek Muller, Dana Jirotkova

Abstract:

One of the essential steps of avian song processing is signal filtering. Currently, the standard methods of filtering are the Mel Bank Filter or linear filter distribution. In this article, a new type of bank filter called the Bird-Adapted Filter is introduced; whereby the signal filtering is modifiable, based upon a new mathematical description of audiograms for particular bird species or order, which was named the Avian Audiogram Unified Equation. According to the method, filters may be deliberately distributed by frequency. The filters are more concentrated in bands of higher sensitivity where there is expected to be more information transmitted and vice versa. Further, it is demonstrated a comparison of various filters for automatic individual recognition of chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). The average Equal Error Rate (EER) value for Linear bank filter was 16.23%, for Mel Bank Filter 18.71%, the Bird-Adapted Filter gave 14.29%, and Bird-Adapted Filter with 1/3 modification was 12.95%. This approach would be useful for practical use in automatic systems for avian species and individual identification. Since the Bird-Adapted Filter filtration is based on the measured audiograms of particular species or orders, selecting the distribution according to the avian vocalization provides the most precise filter distribution to date.

Keywords: avian audiogram, bird individual identification, bird song processing, bird species recognition, filter bank

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
8100 Preliminary Result on the Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Understory Bird Population in Primary Forest of Gaya Island

Authors: Emily A. Gilbert, Jephte Sompud, Andy R. Mojiol, Cynthia B. Sompud, Alim Biun

Abstract:

Gaya Island of Sabah is known for its wildlife and marine biodiversity. It has marks itself as one of the hot destinations of tourists from all around the world. Gaya Island tourism activities have contributed to Sabah’s economy revenue with the high number of tourists visiting the island. However, it has led to the increased anthropogenic noise derived from tourism activities. This may greatly interfere with the animals such as understory birds that rely on acoustic signals as a tool for communication. Many studies in other parts of the regions reveal that anthropogenic noise does decrease species richness of avian community. However, in Malaysia, published research regarding the impact of anthropogenic noise on the understory birds is still very lacking. This study was conducted in order to fill up this gap. This study aims to investigate the anthropogenic noise’s impact towards understory bird population. There were three sites within the Primary forest of Gaya Island that were chosen to sample the level of anthropogenic noise in relation to the understory bird population. Noise mapping method was used to measure the anthropogenic noise level and identify the zone with high anthropogenic noise level (> 60dB) and zone with low anthropogenic noise level (< 60dB) based on the standard threshold of noise level. The methods that were used for this study was solely mist netting and ring banding. This method was chosen as it can determine the diversity of the understory bird population in Gaya Island. The preliminary study was conducted from 15th to 26th April and 5th to 10th May 2015 whereby there were 2 mist nets that were set up at each of the zones within the selected site. The data was analyzed by using the descriptive analysis, presence and absence analysis, diversity indices and diversity t-test. Meanwhile, PAST software was used to analyze the obtain data. The results from this study present a total of 60 individuals that consisted of 12 species from 7 families of understory birds were recorded in three of the sites in Gaya Island. The Shannon-Wiener index shows that diversity of species in high anthropogenic noise zone and low anthropogenic noise zone were 1.573 and 2.009, respectively. However, the statistical analysis shows that there was no significant difference between these zones. Nevertheless, based on the presence and absence analysis, it shows that the species at the low anthropogenic noise zone was higher as compared to the high anthropogenic noise zone. Thus, this result indicates that there is an impact of anthropogenic noise on the population diversity of understory birds. There is still an urgent need to conduct an in-depth study by increasing the sample size in the selected sites in order to fully understand the impact of anthropogenic noise towards the understory birds population so that it can then be in cooperated into the wildlife management for a sustainable environment in Gaya Island.

Keywords: anthropogenic noise, biodiversity, Gaya Island, understory bird

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8099 Designing Bird-Friendly Kolkata city

Authors: Madhumita Roy

Abstract:

Kolkata, the city of joy, is an organic city with 45 lakhs of people till date. The increasing population stress is creating a constant pressure on the ground surface which in turn reducing the possible area for plantation. Humans, plants, and birds have a mutualistic relationship, and all are dependent on each other for their survival. Vegetation structure is very important for a bird life because it can be used as a residence, foraging, life cycle, and shelter from predators. On the other hand, in urban areas, buildings and structures also plays a major role for birds habitat w.r.t, nesting, resting, etc. City birds are constantly upgrading their adaptative mechanism with changing urban pattern with modern architectural designs. Urbanisation and unplanned development lead to environmental degradation and bird habitat fragmentation, which have impacts on the degradation of the quality and quantity of bird habitat. Declining green cover and habitat loss affects the diversity and population structure of birds. Their reducing number is an increasing threat not only to the bird community but also to the city as birds are considered as one of the most important environmental indicator. This study aims to check the present avian status like species richness, relative abundance, and diversity of bird species in the context of changing urban pattern in Kolkata city. Nesting strategy in the urban habitat of the avian community is another avenue of interest.

Keywords: urbanisation, avian species, kolkata metropolis, planning

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8098 Threats and Preventive Methods to Avoid Bird Strikes at the Deblin Military Airfield, Poland

Authors: J. Cwiklak, M. Grzegorzewski, M. Adamski

Abstract:

The paper presents results of the project conducted in Poland devoted to study on bird strikes at military airfields. The main aim of this project was to develop methods of aircraft protection against threats from birds. The studies were carried out using two methods. One by transect and the other one by selected sector scanning. During the research, it was recorded, that 104 species of birds in the number about of 36000 were observed. The most frequent ones were starling Sturnus vulgaris (31.0%), jackdaw Corvus monedula (18.3%), rook Corvus frugilegus (15.9 %), lapwing Vanellus vanellus (6.2%). Moreover, it was found, that starlings constituted the most serious threat. It resulted from their relatively high attendance at the runway (about 300 individuals). Possible repellent techniques concerning of the Deblin military airfield were discussed. The analysis of the birds’ concentration depending on the altitude, part of the day, year, part of the airfield constituted a base to work out critical flight phase and appropriate procedures to prevent bird strikes.

Keywords: airport, bird strikes, flight safety, preventive methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
8097 Design Improvement of Aircraft Turbofan Engine Following Bird Ingestion Testing

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy

Abstract:

Aircraft gas turbine engines are subject to damage by airborne foreign objects such as birds and garbage dumps. In order to assess their effect on engine performance, a complete foreign object damage (FOD) test was carried out and a component failure analysis was used to verify airworthiness standards (AWS) requirements for engine certification as set by international regulations. Ingestion damage due to 1.8 Kg (4 lb.) bird strike on an engine is presented in some detail. Based on the observed damage, improvements to the engine design were suggested in two different locations: the front bearing housing and the low compressor shaft. When these improvements were implemented, the engine showed an acceptable containment capability that meets AWS requirements.

Keywords: aircraft engine, airworthiness standards, bird ingestion, foreign object damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
8096 Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Migratory Waterbirds in Abijata Lake, Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

Authors: Teklebrhan Kidane

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the species diversity and relative abundance of migratory waterbirds in Abijata Lake, an Important Bird Area and potential Ramsar site located in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The study was carried out, using line transect method along the shoreline and open area of the Lake. The data was analyzed with different diversity indices; t-Test and descriptive statistics. Thirty-two migratory waterbird species grouped into twelve families consisting of globally threatened birds were identified and recorded. Family Scolopacidae (12 species) had the highest number of species. The lowest number of species was observed under the families Ciconidae, Accipitridae, Laridae and Falconidae with one species each. The recorded bird species comprised 19 Palearctic, 5 Intra-African, 2 local migrants as well as 6 resident Palearctic migratory waterbird species. The dry season had higher species diversity (H'=1.01) compared to the wet season (H'=0.76). The highest and lowest diversity of migratory waterbirds were recorded during January (H'= 1.28) and June (H'= 0.52), respectively. However, the highest evenness (E) of bird species was recorded during wet season (E=0.21) and lower during the dry season (E=0.09). The computed seasonal effect reveals that there is significant effect of seasons on species diversity (t=2.80, P < 0.05), but the effect of seasons on individuals of migratory bird species was not significant (t=1.42, P > 0.05). Even though Lake Abijata is the sanctuary of several migratory waterbirds, anthropogenic activities are rigorously threatening their survival. Therefore, it needs an urgent conservation concern.

Keywords: migration, important bird area, species diversity, wetland birds

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8095 Bird Diversity along Boat Touring Routes in Tha Ka Sub-District, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: N. Charoenpokaraj, P. Chitman

Abstract:

This research aims to study species, abundance, status of birds, the similarities and activity characteristics of birds which reap benefits from the research area in boat touring routes in Tha Ka sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand. from October 2012 – September 2013. The data was analyzed to find the abundance, and similarity index of the birds. The results from the survey of birds on all three routes found that there are 33 families and 63 species. Route 3 (traditional coconut sugar making kiln – resort) had the most species; 56 species. There were 18 species of commonly found birds with an abundance level of 5, which calculates to 28.57% of all bird species. In August, 46 species are found, being the greatest number of bird species benefiting from this route. As for the status of the birds, there are 51 resident birds, 7 resident and migratory birds, and 5 migratory birds. On Route 2 and Route 3, the similarity index value is equal to 0.881. The birds are classified by their activity characteristics i.e. insectivore, piscivore, granivore, nectrivore and aquatic invertebrate feeder birds. Some birds also use the area for nesting.

Keywords: bird diversity, boat touring routes, Samut Songkram, similarity index

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
8094 The Comparison of Bird’s Population between Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest with Adjacent Secondary Indigenous Forest in Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Authors: Jephte Sompud, Emily A. Gilbert, Andy Russel Mojiol, Cynthia B. Sompud, Alim Biun

Abstract:

Naturally regenerated acacia forest and secondary indigenous forest forms some of the urban forests in Sabah. Naturally regenerated acacia trees are usually seen along the road that exists as forest islands. Acacia tree is not an indigenous tree species in Sabah that was introduced in the 1960’s as fire breakers that eventually became one of the preferred trees for forest plantation for paper and pulp production. Due to its adaptability to survive even in impoverished soils and poor-irrigated land, this species has rapidly spread throughout Sabah through natural regeneration. Currently, there is a lack of study to investigate the bird population in the naturally regenerated acacia forest. This study is important because it shed some light on the role of naturally regenerated acacia forest on bird’s population, as bird is known to be a good bioindicator forest health. The aim of this study was to document the bird’s population in naturally regenerated acacia forest with that adjacent secondary indigenous forest. The study site for this study was at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) Campus. Two forest types in the campus were chosen as a study site, of which were naturally regenerated Acacia Forest and adjacent secondary indigenous forest, located at the UMS Hill. A total of 21 sampling days were conducted in each of the forest types. The method used during this study was solely mist nets with three pockets. Whenever a bird is caught, it is extracted from the net to be identified and measurements were recorded in a standard data sheet. Mist netting was conducted from 6 morning until 5 evening. This study was conducted between February to August 2014. Birds that were caught were ring banded to initiate a long-term study on the understory bird’s population in the Campus The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis, diversity indices, and t-test. The bird population diversity at naturally regenerated Acacia forest with those at the secondary indigenous forest was calculated using two common indices, of which were Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity index. There were 18 families with 33 species that were recorded from both sites. The number of species recorded at the naturally regenerated acacia forest was 26 species while at the secondary indigenous forest were 19 species. The Shannon diversity index for Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest and secondary indigenous forests were 2.87 and 2.46. The results show that there was very significantly higher species diversity at the Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest as opposed to the secondary indigenous forest (p<0.001). This suggests that Naturally Regenerated Acacia forest plays an important role in urban bird conservation. It is recommended that Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forests should be considered as an established urban forest conservation area as they do play a role in biodiversity conservation. More future studies in Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest should be encouraged to determine the status and value of biodiversity conservation of this ecosystem.

Keywords: naturally regenerated acacia forest, bird population diversity, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, biodiversity conservation

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8093 Effects of Artificial Nectar Feeders on Bird Distribution and Erica Visitation Rate in the Cape Fynbos

Authors: Monique Du Plessis, Anina Coetzee, Colleen L. Seymour, Claire N. Spottiswoode

Abstract:

Artificial nectar feeders are used to attract nectarivorous birds to gardens and are increasing in popularity. The costs and benefits of these feeders remain controversial, however. Nectar feeders may have positive effects by attracting nectarivorous birds towards suburbia, facilitating their urban adaptation, and supplementing bird diets when floral resources are scarce. However, this may come at the cost of luring them away from the plants they pollinate in neighboring indigenous vegetation. This study investigated the effect of nectar feeders on an African pollinator-plant mutualism. Given that birds are important pollinators to many fynbos plant species, this study was conducted in gardens and natural vegetation along the urban edge of the Cape Peninsula. Feeding experiments were carried out to compare relative bird abundance and local distribution patterns for nectarivorous birds (i.e., sunbirds and sugarbirds) between feeder and control treatments. Resultant changes in their visitation rates to Erica flowers in the natural vegetation were tested by inspection of their anther ring status. Nectar feeders attracted higher densities of nectarivores to gardens relative to natural vegetation and decreased their densities in the neighboring fynbos, even when floral abundance in the neighboring vegetation was high. The consequent changes to their distribution patterns and foraging behavior decreased their visitation to at least Erica plukenetii flowers (but not to Erica abietina). This study provides evidence that nectar feeders may have positive effects for birds themselves by reducing their urban sensitivity but also highlights the unintended negative effects feeders may have on the surrounding fynbos ecosystem. Given that nectar feeders appear to compete with the flowers of Erica plukenetii, and perhaps those of other Erica species, artificial feeding may inadvertently threaten bird-plant pollination networks.

Keywords: avian nectarivores, bird feeders, bird pollination, indirect effects in human-wildlife interactions, sugar water feeders, supplementary feeding

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8092 Stability Analysis of Endemic State of Modelling the Effect of Vaccination and Novel Quarantine-Adjusted Incidence on the Spread of Newcastle Disease Virus

Authors: Nurudeen Oluwasola Lasisi, Abdulkareem Afolabi Ibrahim

Abstract:

Newcastle disease is an infection of domestic poultry and other bird species with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this paper, we study the dynamics of modeling the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using a novel quarantine-adjusted incidence. We do a comparison of Vaccination, linear incident rate, and novel quarantine adjusted incident rate in the models. The dynamics of the models yield disease free and endemic equilibrium states. The effective reproduction numbers of the models are computed in order to measure the relative impact for the individual bird or combined intervention for effective disease control. We showed the local and global stability of endemic equilibrium states of the models, and we found that stability of endemic equilibrium states of models are globally asymptotically stable if the effective reproduction numbers of the models equations are greater than a unit.

Keywords: effective reproduction number, endemic state, mathematical model, Newcastle disease virus, novel quarantine-adjusted incidence, stability analysis

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8091 Effect of Varying Stocking Densities and Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Supplementation on Growth Performance of Japanese Quails

Authors: T. S. Olugbemi, T. S. Friday, O. O. Olusola

Abstract:

This experiment was carried out to assess the effect of different stocking densities and vitamin C supplementation on the performance of Japanese quails. Five hundred and twenty (520) unsexed quail birds of two (2) weeks of age were allotted randomly into nine (9) groups with 3 replicates each in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (3 stocking density levels and 3 graded vitamin C levels) with densities of 150, 120, 90 cm2/bird(11, 16, 21 birds). During the five weeks growing trial (2- 6 weeks), results showed that stocking density had significant effects on final weight (131.59g compared to 111.10g for the lowest), total and daily weight gain. No significance difference was observed for feed conversion ratio, age at first lay and first egg weight. Observations on haematological parameters (packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), haemoglobin, red blood cell (RBC), lymphocyte, heterophil) on stocking density showed no significant differences. Vitamin C supplementation at 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg did not have any significant effect on the growth performance parameters of growing quails. Stocking density at 150cm2/bird had a better performance with or without vitamin C supplementation hence it is recommended that stocking rates of quails between the ages of 2 – 6 weeks should not be below 150cm2/bird.

Keywords: anti-oxidants, performance, stress, stocking density

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8090 Impact Characteristics of Fragile Cover Based on Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification

Authors: Dejin Chen, Bin Lin, Xiaohui LI, Haobin Tian

Abstract:

In order to acquire stable impact performance of cover, the factors influencing the impact force of the cover were analyzed and researched. The influence of impact factors such as impact velocity, impact weight and fillet radius of warhead was studied by Orthogonal experiment. Through the range analysis and numerical simulation, the results show that the impact velocity has significant influences on impact force of cover. The impact force decreases with the increase of impact velocity and impact weight. The test results are similar to the numerical simulation. The cover broke up into four parts along the groove.

Keywords: fragile cover, numerical simulation, impact force, epoxy foam

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8089 Aerodynamic Investigation of Baseline-IV Bird-Inspired BWB Aircraft Design: Improvements over Baseline-III BWB

Authors: C. M. Nur Syazwani, M. K. Ahmad Imran, Rizal E. M. Nasir

Abstract:

The study on BWB UV begins in UiTM since 2005 and three designs have been studied and published. The latest designs are Baseline-III and inspired by birds that have features and aerodynamics behaviour of cruising birds without flapping capability. The aircraft featuring planform and configuration are similar to the bird. Baseline-III has major flaws particularly in its low lift-to-drag ratio, stability and issues regarding limited controllability. New design known as Baseline-IV replaces straight, swept wing to delta wing and have a broader tail compares to the Baseline-III’s. The objective of the study is to investigate aerodynamics of Baseline-IV bird-inspired BWB aircraft. This will be achieved by theoretical calculation and wind tunnel experiments. The result shows that both theoretical and wind tunnel experiments of Baseline-IV graph of CL and CD versus alpha are quite similar to each other in term of pattern of graph slopes and values. Baseline-IV has higher lift coefficient values at wide range of angle of attack compares to Baseline-III. Baseline-IV also has higher maximum lift coefficient, higher maximum lift-to-drag and lower parasite drag. It has stable pitch moment versus lift slope but negative moment at zero lift for zero angle-of-attack tail setting. At high angle of attack, Baseline-IV does not have stability reversal as shown in Baseline-III. Baseline-IV is proven to have improvements over Baseline-III in terms of lift, lift-to-drag ratio and pitch moment stability at high angle-of-attack.

Keywords: blended wing-body, bird-inspired blended wing-body, aerodynamic, stability

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8088 Study of Efficiency of Flying Animal Using Computational Simulation

Authors: Ratih Julistina, M. Agoes Moelyadi

Abstract:

Innovation in aviation technology evolved rapidly by time to time for acquiring the most favorable value of utilization and is usually denoted by efficiency parameter. Nature always become part of inspiration, and for this sector, many researchers focused on studying the behavior of flying animal to comprehend the fundamental, one of them is birds. Experimental testing has already conducted by several researches to seek and calculate the efficiency by putting the object in wind tunnel. Hence, computational simulation is needed to conform the result and give more visualization which is based on Reynold Averaged Navier-Stokes equation solution for unsteady case in time-dependent viscous flow. By creating model from simplification of the real bird as a rigid body, those are Hawk which has low aspect ratio and Swift with high aspect ratio, subsequently generating the multi grid structured mesh to capture and calculate the aerodynamic behavior and characteristics. Mimicking the motion of downstroke and upstroke of bird flight which produced both lift and thrust, the sinusoidal function is used. Simulation is carried out for varied of flapping frequencies within upper and lower range of actual each bird’s frequency which are 1 Hz, 2.87 Hz, 5 Hz for Hawk and 5 Hz, 8.9 Hz, 13 Hz for Swift to investigate the dependency of frequency effecting the efficiency of aerodynamic characteristics production. Also, by comparing the result in different condition flights with the morphology of each bird. Simulation has shown that higher flapping frequency is used then greater aerodynamic coefficient is obtained, on other hand, efficiency on thrust production is not the same. The result is analyzed from velocity and pressure contours, mesh movement as to see the behavior.

Keywords: characteristics of aerodynamic, efficiency, flapping frequency, flapping wing, unsteady simulation

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8087 The Effect of Probiotics Lactococcus plantarum and Prebiotic Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas sp.) on Performance and Cholesterol Meat of Local Ducks

Authors: Husmaini, Rijal Zein, Zulkarnain, Marlito Latifa, Syahrul E. Rambee

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotics–fermented purple sweet potato (PPSP) on performance and cholesterol meat of local ducks. One hundred two weeks old male local ducks placed in 4 treatment doses for ten weeks. The treatments were the dosage of PPSP, i.e., 0, 1, 2 and 3 grams of PPSP/bird/week. One gram PPSP contains 1.3 x 108 colony form unit. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS and DMRT. The results showed that PPSP administration in local ducks did not affect intestinal villi height and fed consumption (P > 0.05), but highly significant (P < 0.01) increasing duodenum thickness, body weight, carcass yield and reducing both feed conversion and cholesterol meat content. The difference in PPSP dosage (1.2 and 3 grams) had the same effect on body weight gain. However, it has a different impact on feed conversion and meat cholesterol levels. The higher the PPSP dose given, the lower the feed conversion and meat cholesterol level. This study has shown that administration of PPSP can improve performance and reduce cholesterol levels of local duck meat. Giving PPSP as much as 3 grams per bird every week has provided the best results.

Keywords: cholesterol, local duck, performance, probiotics, purple sweet potato

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8086 Probabilistic Study of Impact Threat to Civil Aircraft and Realistic Impact Energy

Authors: Ye Zhang, Chuanjun Liu

Abstract:

In-service aircraft is exposed to different types of threaten, e.g. bird strike, ground vehicle impact, and run-way debris, or even lightning strike, etc. To satisfy the aircraft damage tolerance design requirements, the designer has to understand the threatening level for different types of the aircraft structures, either metallic or composite. Exposing to low-velocity impacts may produce very serious internal damages such as delaminations and matrix cracks without leaving visible mark onto the impacted surfaces for composite structures. This internal damage can cause significant reduction in the load carrying capacity of structures. The semi-probabilistic method provides a practical and proper approximation to establish the impact-threat based energy cut-off level for the damage tolerance evaluation of the aircraft components. Thus, the probabilistic distribution of impact threat and the realistic impact energy level cut-offs are the essential establishments required for the certification of aircraft composite structures. A new survey of impact threat to civil aircraft in-service has recently been carried out based on field records concerning around 500 civil aircrafts (mainly single aisles) and more than 4.8 million flight hours. In total 1,006 damages caused by low-velocity impact events had been screened out from more than 8,000 records including impact dents, scratches, corrosions, delaminations, cracks etc. The impact threat dependency on the location of the aircraft structures and structural configuration was analyzed. Although the survey was mainly focusing on the metallic structures, the resulting low-energy impact data are believed likely representative to general civil aircraft, since the service environments and the maintenance operations are independent of the materials of the structures. The probability of impact damage occurrence (Po) and impact energy exceedance (Pe) are the two key parameters for describing the statistic distribution of impact threat. With the impact damage events from the survey, Po can be estimated as 2.1x10-4 per flight hour. Concerning the calculation of Pe, a numerical model was developed using the commercial FEA software ABAQUS to backward estimate the impact energy based on the visible damage characteristics. The relationship between the visible dent depth and impact energy was established and validated by drop-weight impact experiments. Based on survey results, Pe was calculated and assumed having a log-linear relationship versus the impact energy. As the product of two aforementioned probabilities, Po and Pe, it is reasonable and conservative to assume Pa=PoxPe=10-5, which indicates that the low-velocity impact events are similarly likely as the Limit Load events. Combing Pa with two probabilities Po and Pe obtained based on the field survey, the cutoff level of realistic impact energy was estimated and valued as 34 J. In summary, a new survey was recently done on field records of civil aircraft to investigate the probabilistic distribution of impact threat. Based on the data, two probabilities, Po and Pe, were obtained. Considering a conservative assumption of Pa, the cutoff energy level for the realistic impact energy has been determined, which provides potential applicability in damage tolerance certification of future civil aircraft.

Keywords: composite structure, damage tolerance, impact threat, probabilistic

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
8085 Balancing Biodiversity and Agriculture: A Broad-Scale Analysis of the Land Sparing/Land Sharing Trade-Off for South African Birds

Authors: Chevonne Reynolds, Res Altwegg, Andrew Balmford, Claire N. Spottiswoode

Abstract:

Modern agriculture has revolutionised the planet’s capacity to support humans, yet has simultaneously had a greater negative impact on biodiversity than any other human activity. Balancing the demand for food with the conservation of biodiversity is one of the most pressing issues of our time. Biodiversity-friendly farming (‘land sharing’), or alternatively, separation of conservation and production activities (‘land sparing’), are proposed as two strategies for mediating the trade-off between agriculture and biodiversity. However, there is much debate regarding the efficacy of each strategy, as this trade-off has typically been addressed by short term studies at fine spatial scales. These studies ignore processes that are relevant to biodiversity at larger scales, such as meta-population dynamics and landscape connectivity. Therefore, to better understand species response to agricultural land-use and provide evidence to underpin the planning of better production landscapes, we need to determine the merits of each strategy at larger scales. In South Africa, a remarkable citizen science project - the South African Bird Atlas Project 2 (SABAP2) – collates an extensive dataset describing the occurrence of birds at a 5-min by 5-min grid cell resolution. We use these data, along with fine-resolution data on agricultural land-use, to determine which strategy optimises the agriculture-biodiversity trade-off in a southern African context, and at a spatial scale never considered before. To empirically test this trade-off, we model bird species population density, derived for each 5-min grid cell by Royle-Nicols single-species occupancy modelling, against both the amount and configuration of different types of agricultural production in the same 5-min grid cell. In using both production amount and configuration, we can show not only how species population densities react to changes in yield, but also describe the production landscape patterns most conducive to conservation. Furthermore, the extent of both the SABAP2 and land-cover datasets allows us to test this trade-off across multiple regions to determine if bird populations respond in a consistent way and whether results can be extrapolated to other landscapes. We tested the land sparing/sharing trade-off for 281 bird species across three different biomes in South Africa. Overall, a higher proportion of species are classified as losers, and would benefit from land sparing. However, this proportion of loser-sparers is not consistent and varies across biomes and the different types of agricultural production. This is most likely because of differences in the intensity of agricultural land-use and the interactions between the differing types of natural vegetation and agriculture. Interestingly, we observe a higher number of species that benefit from agriculture than anticipated, suggesting that agriculture is a legitimate resource for certain bird species. Our results support those seen at smaller scales and across vastly different agricultural systems, that land sparing benefits the most species. However, our analysis suggests that land sparing needs to be implemented at spatial scales much larger than previously considered. Species persistence in agricultural landscapes will require the conservation of large tracts of land, and is an important consideration in developing countries, which are undergoing rapid agricultural development.

Keywords: agriculture, birds, land sharing, land sparing

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
8084 The Roles of Health Consciousness, Health Motivation, and Trust in the Purchase Intention of Meat with Traceability

Authors: Kawpong Polyorat, Nathamon Buaprommee

Abstract:

Food safety crises including mad cow disease and bird flu have raised consumers’ concern in meat safety. In response, the meat industry has adopted traceability systems to standardize quality and safety of their meat production. Traceability, however, is still rarely positioned as a marketing tool to persuade consumers who are meat endusers. Therefore, the present study attempts to understand consumer behaviors in the context of meat with traceability system by conducting a study in Thailand where research in this area is scant. The study results, based on structural equation modeling with AMOS, reveal that, while health motivation has a significant, positive impact on traceability trust, health consciousness does not directly affect traceability. Health consciousness, nevertheless, have a positive influence on health motivation. Finally, traceability trust has a positive impact on purchase intention of meat with traceability. Research implications and future study directions conclude the study report.

Keywords: consumer behavior, health consciousness, health motivation, traceability, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
8083 The Effect of Rosella Flower Flour (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Utilization in Ration on Performance of Broiler Chicken

Authors: Nurlisa Uke Dessy, Dwi Septian Erwinsyah, Zuprizal

Abstract:

This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of rosella flower flour in diet on broiler chicken Performace. The materials used in this experiment were 72 broiler chickens and were divided into six treatments, those were R0 = without rosella flower flour addition, R1 = 0.5% rosella flower flour addition, R2 = 1.0% rosella flower flour addition, R3 = 1.5% rosella flower flour addition, R4 = 2.0% rosella flower flour addition, and R5 = 2.5% rosella flower flour addition. Each treatment consisted of three replications and each replication consisted of four broiler chickens. This research took 35 days to collect the data. Parameters measured were feed intake, rosella flower flour consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and mortality. The collected data were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the differences of mean were tested by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed the average of feed consumption were 2154; 2154; 2034; 2154; 2034 and 2154 g/bird on broiler chicken that were feed respectively by 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5% rosella flower flour level. The average consumptions of rosella flower flour respectively were 0; 10.77; 20.34; 32.31; 40.68; and 53.85 g/bird. The body weight gains were 1263.33±70.40; 1422.42±36.33; 1443.75±30.00; 1387.42± 35.30; 1411.17±29.58 and 1457.08±40.75 g/bird. Feed conversion results were 1.71±0.94; 1.51±0.37; 1.47±0.62; 1.55±0.40; 1.53±0.30 and 1.48±0.40. The conclusion of the experiment was known that using rosella flower flour until 2.5% level in diet was able to increase broiler chicken performance, and also to decrease broiler chicken feed conversion.

Keywords: feed intake, consumptions rosella flower flour, broiler chickens, body weight gain, feed conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 536
8082 A Caged Bird Set Free: The Women Saviors in Fae Myenne Ng's Steer Toward Rock

Authors: Hei Yuen Pak

Abstract:

Steer Toward Rock, Fae Myenne Ng’s second novel after the National Bestseller Bone, is superficially concluded as a story of pessimism, which underestimates the sophistication of Ng’s portrayal. It is often summarized as a “heartbreaking novel of unrequited love” or “a story of timeless and tragic”; yet, Ng’s novel conveys more than a mere sense of tragedy and heartbreak, but rather an overflowing warmth and optimism. Ng is complimented of “illuminating a part of U.S. history few are aware of”—the false identity established on the paper relationships. Nevertheless, toward the end of the novel, this falsity enlightens the male protagonist, Jack Moon Szeto, of the ultimate realization of the “truthfulness” to himself, with the escort of the female characters. This paper intends to investigate how Ng’s depiction subverts the traditional sex/gender system and also the patriarchal savior stereotype. This paper mainly examines the characterization of and the relations among the four major characters: Jack Moon Szeto, Joice Qwan, Veda Qwan, and Ilin Cheung. By deploying Kate Millett’s, Marilyn French’s, Mary Daly’s feminist theories, the first half of the essay elucidates the power relations between Jack and the three females Joice, Veda, and Ilin in terms of gender and sexuality. After analyzing the relations, Jack, this male caged bird, is set free by the epiphany derived from the three female characters, which is the pivot of the second half. In reference to Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir’s existentialist perspectives, I argue how Jack is transformed from, in Satre’s term, being-for-others to being-for-itself. Hence, the caged bird is free by the women saviors.

Keywords: Fae Myenne Ng, gender and sexuality, feminism, power relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
8081 Predicting Ecological Impacts of Sea-Level Change on Coastal Conservation Areas in India

Authors: Mohammad Zafar-ul Islam, Shaily Menon, Xingong Li, A. Townsend Peterson

Abstract:

In addition to the mounting empirical data on direct implications of climate change for natural and human systems, evidence is increasing for other, indirect climate change phenomena such as sea-level rise. Rising sea levels and associated marine intrusion into terrestrial environments are predicted to be among the most serious eventual consequences of climate change. The many complex and interacting factors affecting sea levels create considerable uncertainty in sea-level rise projections: conservative estimates are on the order of 0.5-1.0 m globally, while other estimates are much higher, approaching 6 m. Marine intrusion associated with 1– 6 m sea-level rise will impact species and habitats in coastal ecosystems severely. Examining areas most vulnerable to such impacts may allow design of appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. We present an overview of potential effects of 1 and 6 m sea level rise for coastal conservation areas in the Indian Subcontinent. In particular, we examine the projected magnitude of areal losses in relevant biogeographic zones, ecoregions, protected areas (PAs), and Important Bird Areas (IBAs). In addition, we provide a more detailed and quantitative analysis of likely effects of marine intrusion on 22 coastal PAs and IBAs that provide critical habitat for birds in the form of breeding areas, migratory stopover sites, and overwintering habitats. Several coastal PAs and IBAs are predicted to experience higher than 50% losses to marine intrusion. We explore consequences of such inundation levels on species and habitat in these areas.

Keywords: sea-level change, coastal inundation, marine intrusion, biogeographic zones, ecoregions, protected areas, important bird areas, adaptation, mitigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
8080 Immediate Life Support to a Wild Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Authors: Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu, Mehmet Celik, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Ladine Celik, Yusuf Uzun

Abstract:

A male mature barn owl (Tyto alba) was brought to Cukurova University Ceyhan Veterinary Medicine Faculty at the beginning of January 2017. The bird was found at a local state elementary school’s garden where had been terribly damaged by metal wires. On the clinical examination, the animal was in shock and atonic position at arrival and seems to have feather problems and severe injuries. The ears, eyes, claws and wounded areas were checked and no signs of viral, microbial or ecto-parasitic infection were observed. The bird has been declared by U.S. wild life Office as endangered species. At first, the owl was kept in silent, warm and darkened cabinet against shock and warmed fluid replacement was started by % 5 dextrose solution per orally. On the second day, we started per oral forced feeding with chicken flesh meat dipped into the dextrose solution. On the third day, the bird was continued to be fed with fresh meat. At the fourth day, the owl was started to be fed with chicks during the next 3 days died by natural means which has been supplied by a local breeder. At the first 3 days 1 chick per day and the following days 2 chicks per day has been given per orally. The tenth day we started flying exercises in a small and non-windowed room safely. The saved owl was kept in this room for 10 more days. Finally, the owl was released at the habitation where it had been found injured. This study has one more time proved that, if you save one, you can save more. Wild life is in danger all over the world. Every living creature has right and deserves a chance to live.

Keywords: wild life, barn owl, Tyto alba, rescue, life support, feeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
8079 Intellectual Women: The Continuing Struggle between Marriage and Personal Dreams in Margaret Drabble's a Summer Bird-Cage and The Millstone

Authors: Ashwag Abdul-Hakeem Al-Thubaiti

Abstract:

This study aims at analysing women's hesitant attitudes towards marriage in Margaret Drabble's novels, A Summer-Bird-Cage (1964) and The Millstone (1965), to prove that these ambivalent feelings are due to their search for autonomy. The heroines' radical outlook on independence is only meant to hide their conflict regarding sex-experience and fear of intimacy, a fear that has been enhanced by their rejection of the expression of faith that considers marriage a sacred bond and instead focus on their own identity and dissolve any bond that may affect their independence. To achieve their autonomy, they have to depend on themselves financially and focus on their aspirational goals. This sharp division between the two worlds, the family life and the personal success attributes negatively to their lives and leads to a self-identity crisis. Drabble tends to solve this struggle by awakening their maternal instinct. Once they respect their physical needs and appreciate their role as it is assigned to them by nature and society, they reach a balanced identity.

Keywords: autonomy, marriage, maternity, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 501