Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: Suvarnabhumi airport

112 Flight Safety Hazard: An Investigation into Bird Strike Prevention in the Vicinity of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand

Authors: Chantarat Manvichien

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The purpose of this research paper was aimed to examine the bird strike prevention in the vicinity of Suvarnabhumi Airport, Thailand. A bird strike event occurs when a bird or a flock of birds collide with an operating airplane and results in flight interruption. This is the reason why International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a part of the United Nations, has an assumption that birds, including other wildlife, are a serious hazard to aircraft and attempts should be accomplished to overcome this hazard. ICAO requires all airports worldwide to set up proactive countermeasures in order to reduce the risk from bird strike and wildlife hazard. In Thailand, the Airports of Thailand Public Company Limited which manages Suvarnabhumi Airport, also known as Bangkok International Airport, responds to the requirements and spends a lot of effort to ensure this hazard is manageable. An intensive study on the countermeasures to prevent aircraft accident from bird strike and other wildlife have been continuously executed since the early construction of the Airport until nowadays.

Keywords: bird strike, flight safety, wildlife hazard, Suvarnabhumi airport

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111 The Spatial Pattern of Economic Rents of an Airport Development Area: Lessons Learned from the Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Thailand

Authors: C. Bejrananda, Y. Lee, T. Khamkaew

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With the rise of the importance of air transportation in the 21st century, the role of economics in airport planning and decision-making has become more important to the urban structure and land value around it. Therefore, this research aims to examine the relationship between an airport and its impacts on the distribution of urban land uses and land values by applying the Alonso’s bid rent model. The New Bangkok International Airport (Suvarnabhumi International Airport) was taken as a case study. The analysis was made over three different time periods of airport development (after the airport site was proposed, during airport construction, and after the opening of the airport). The statistical results confirm that Alonso’s model can be used to explain the impacts of the new airport only for the northeast quadrant of the airport, while proximity to the airport showed the inverse relationship with the land value of all six types of land use activities through three periods of time. It indicates that the land value for commercial land use is the most sensitive to the location of the airport or has the strongest requirement for accessibility to the airport compared to the residential and manufacturing land use. Also, the bid-rent gradients of the six types of land use activities have declined dramatically through the three time periods because of the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997. Therefore, the lesson learned from this research concerns about the reliability of the data used. The major concern involves the use of different areal units for assessing land value for different time periods between zone block (1995) and grid block (2002, 2009). As a result, this affect the investigation of the overall trends of land value assessment, which are not readily apparent. In addition, the next concern is the availability of the historical data. With the lack of collecting historical data for land value assessment by the government, some of data of land values and aerial photos are not available to cover the entire study area. Finally, the different formats of using aerial photos between hard-copy (1995) and digital photo (2002, 2009) made difficult for measuring distances. Therefore, these problems also affect the accuracy of the results of the statistical analyses.

Keywords: airport development area, economic rents, spatial pattern, suvarnabhumi international airport

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110 Smart Airport: Application of IoT for Confronting Airport Challenges

Authors: Ali Safaeianpour, Nima Shamandi

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As air traffic expands, many airports have evolved into transit centers for people, information, and commerce, and technology implementation is an absolute part of airport development. Several challenges are in the way of implementing technology in an airport. Airport 4.0 proposes the "Smart Airport" concept, which focuses on using modern technologies such as Big Data, the Internet of Things (IoT), advanced biometric systems, blockchain, and cloud computing to alter and enhance passengers' journeys. Several common IoT concrete topics as partial keys to smart airports are discussed and introduced, ranging from automated check-in systems to exterior tracking processes, with the goal of enlightening more and more insightful ideas and proposals about smart airport solutions. IoT will dramatically alter people's lives by infusing intelligence, boosting the quality of life, and assembling it smarter. This paper reviews the approaches to transforming an airport into a smart airport and describes several enabling components of IoT and challenges that can hinder the implementation of a smart airport's function, which require to be addressed.

Keywords: airport 4.0, digital airport, smart airport, IoT

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109 Competitiveness and Pricing Policy Assessment for Resilience Surface Access System at Airports

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou

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Considering a worldwide tendency, air transports are growing very fast and many changes have taken place in planning, management and decision making process. Given the complexity of airport operation, the best use of existing capacity is the key driver of efficiency and productivity. This paper deals with the evaluation framework for the ground access at airports, by using a set of mode choice indicators providing key messages towards airport’s ground access performance. The application presents results for a sample of 12 European airports, illustrating recommendations to define policy and improve service for the air transport access chain.

Keywords: airport ground access, air transport chain, airport access performance, airport policy

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108 Evaluating the Rationality of Airport Design from the Perspective of Passenger Experience: An Example of Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital International Airport

Authors: Yan Li, Yujiang Gao

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Passengers are the main users of the airport. Whether the travel experience of passengers in the airport is comfortable or not is an important indicator for evaluating the reasonableness of airport design. Taking the Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital International Airport as an example, this paper analyzes the airport’s solution to the problem of passengers’ inconvenience caused by lost directions, excessive congestion, and excessively long streamlines during passenger use. First of all, by using the method of analyzing the design of architectural function streamlines, the design of interior spaces of buildings, and the interrelationship between interior design and passenger experience, it was first concluded that the airport is capable of performing the two major problems of easy disorientation and excessive congestion. Later, by using the method of analyzing architectural function streamlines and collecting passenger experience evaluations, it was concluded that the airport could not solve the inconvenience caused by excessively long streamlines to passengers. Finally came to the conclusion that the airport design meets the demand in terms of the overall design of the passenger experience, but the boarding line is still relatively long and some fly in the ointment.

Keywords: passengers’ experience, terminal 3 of Beijing capital international airport, lost directions, excessive congestion, excessively long streamlines

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107 Measuring Quality of Service in King Khalid International Airport

Authors: T. M. Al Muhareb

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Any organization should take into consideration the customers’ satisfaction while providing any service to their customers. The quality of services is always considered as the main aspect that attracts the customers’ attention and helps the airports to develop their services and operations. King Khalid International Airport is considered as the gateway of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to identify the quality service in the departure area at in King Khalid Airport. The SERVQUAL questionnaire was distributed among the passengers in King Khalid International Airport and the respondents have reached to 500 passengers. The results that are obtained from the SERVQUAL questionnaire showed that the quality of airport’s services is low.

Keywords: service quality, SERVQUAL methodology, King Khalid International Airport (KKIA), customers’ satisfaction

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106 “Friction Surfaces” of Airport Emergency Plan

Authors: Jakub Kraus, Vladimír Plos, Peter Vittek

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This article focuses on the issue of airport emergency plans, which are documents describing reactions to events with impact on aviation safety or aviation security. The article specifically focuses on the use and creation of emergency plans, where could be found a number of disagreements between different stakeholders, for which the airport emergency plan applies. Those are the friction surfaces of interfaces, which is necessary to identify and ensure them smooth process to avoid dangerous situations or delay.

Keywords: airport emergency plan, aviation safety, aviation security, comprehensive management system, friction surfaces of airport emergency plan, interfaces of processes

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105 Model for Assessment of Quality Airport Services

Authors: Cristina da Silva Torres, José Luis Duarte Ribeiro, Maria Auxiliadora Cannarozzo Tinoco

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As a result of the rapid growth of the Brazilian Air Transport, many airports are at the limit of their capacities and have a reduction in the quality of services provided. Thus, there is a need of models for assessing the quality of airport services. Because of this, the main objective of this work is to propose a model for the evaluation of quality attributes in airport services. To this end, we used the method composed by literature review and interview. Structured a working method composed by 5 steps, which resulted in a model to evaluate the quality of airport services, consisting of 8 dimensions and 45 attributes. Was used as base for model definition the process mapping of boarding and landing processes of passengers and luggage. As a contribution of this work is the integration of management process with structuring models to assess the quality of services in airport environments.

Keywords: quality airport services, model for identification of attributes quality, air transport, passenger

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104 Airport Check-In Optimization by IP and Simulation in Combination

Authors: Ahmed Al-Sultan

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The check-in area of airport terminal is one of the busiest sections at airports at certain periods. The passengers are subjected to queues and delays during the check-in process. These delays and queues are due to constraints in the capacity of service facilities. In this project, the airport terminal is decomposed into several check-in areas. The airport check-in scheduling problem requires both a deterministic (integer programming) and stochastic (simulation) approach. Integer programming formulations are provided to minimize the total number of counters in each check-in area under the realistic constraint that counters for one and the same flight should be adjacent and the desired number of counters remaining in each area should be fixed during check-in operations. By using simulation, the airport system can be modeled to study the effects of various parameters such as number of passengers on a flight and check-in counter opening and closing time.

Keywords: airport terminal, integer programming, scheduling, simulation

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103 The New Approach to Airport Emergency Plans

Authors: Jakub Kraus, Vladimír Plos, Peter Vittek

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This article deals with a new approach to the airport emergency plans, which are the basic documents and manuals for dealing with events with impact on safety or security. The article describes the identified parts in which the current airport emergency plans do not fulfill their role and which should therefore be considered in the creation of corrective measures. All these issues have been identified at airports in the Czech Republic and confirmed at airports in neighboring countries.

Keywords: airport emergency plan, aviation safety, aviation security, comprehensive management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
102 Design for Safety: Safety Consideration in Planning and Design of Airport Airsides

Authors: Maithem Al-Saadi, Min An

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During airport planning and design stages, the major issues of capacity and safety in construction and operation of an airport need to be taken into consideration. The airside of an airport is a major and critical infrastructure that usually consists of runway(s), taxiway system, and apron(s) etc., which have to be designed according to the international standards and recommendations, and local limitations to accommodate the forecasted demands. However, in many cases, airport airsides are suffering from unexpected risks that occurred during airport operations. Therefore, safety risk assessment should be applied in the planning and design of airsides to cope with the probability of risks and their consequences, and to make decisions to reduce the risks to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) based on safety risk assessment. This paper presents a combination approach of Failure Modes, Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to develop a risk analysis model for safety risk assessment. An illustrated example is used to the demonstrate risk assessment process on how the design of an airside in an airport can be analysed by using the proposed safety design risk assessment model.

Keywords: airport airside planning and design, design for safety, fuzzy reasoning approach, fuzzy AHP, risk assessment

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101 An Optimization Modelling to Evaluate Flights Scheduling at Tourist Airports

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou

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Airport’s serving a tourist destination are an essential counterpart of the tourist demand supply chain, and their productivity is related to the region’s attractiveness and is enhanced by the air transport business. In this paper, the evaluation framework of the scheduled flights between two tourist airports is taken into consideration. By adopting a systemic approach, the arrivals from an airport that its connectivity heavily depended on the departures of another major airport are reviewed. The methodology framework, based on inventory control theory and the numerical example, promotes the use of the modelling formulation. The results would be essential for comparison and exercising to other similar cases.

Keywords: airport connectivity, inventory control, optimization, optimum allocation

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100 The Significance of Seasonality on the Airport Efficiency in Touristic Regions

Authors: Ioanna Pagoni, Annitsa Koumoutsidi

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The aim of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of airports that are located in touristic regions. It focuses on the regional airports of Greece, which are located at the mainland and the islands that constitute touristic destinations. Most of these airports share the following characteristics. They operate at levels below capacity with a high level of seasonality to their traffic. In addition, in such airports, the operation of charter and low-cost airlines is significant. The efficiency of the study airports is calculated by using the non-parametric data envelopment analysis during the period of 2010-2016. The selected inputs include several airport infrastructure measures such as passenger terminal size, aircraft parking area, runway length, and the number of check-in counters, while the number of employees in each airport is also used. The number of passengers and aircraft movements are selected as outputs. The effect of seasonality, as well as the operation of charter airlines and low-cost carriers on airport efficiency, is estimated by running proper regression models. Preliminary findings indicate that low-cost and charter airlines contribute to increasing airport efficiency for most of the study airports. The results of this research could be useful for airlines, airport operators, hotel businesses, and other tourism-related operators.

Keywords: airport efficiency, data envelopment analysis, low-cost carriers, charter airlines, seasonality

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99 An Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization for Airport Gate Assignment Problem

Authors: Seyedmirsajad Mokhtarimousavi, Danial Talebi, Hamidreza Asgari

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Gate Assignment Problem (GAP) is one of the most substantial issues in airport operation. In principle, GAP intends to maintain the maximum capacity of the airport through the best possible allocation of the resources (gates) in order to reach the optimum outcome. The problem involves a wide range of dependent and independent resources and their limitations, which add to the complexity of GAP from both theoretical and practical perspective. In this study, GAP was mathematically formulated as a three-objective problem. The preliminary goal of multi-objective formulation was to address a higher number of objectives that can be simultaneously optimized and therefore increase the practical efficiency of the final solution. The problem is solved by applying the second version of Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). Results showed that the proposed mathematical model could address most of major criteria in the decision-making process in airport management in terms of minimizing both airport/airline cost and passenger walking distance time. Moreover, the proposed approach could properly find acceptable possible answers.

Keywords: airport management, gate assignment problem, mathematical modeling, genetic algorithm, NSGA-II

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98 An Assessment of Airport Collaborative Decision-Making System Using Predictive Maintenance

Authors: Faruk Aras, Melih Inal, Tansel Cinar

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The coordination of airport staff especially in the operations and maintenance departments is important for the airport operation. As a result, this coordination will increase the efficiency in all operation. Therefore, a Collaborative Decision-Making (CDM) system targets on improving the overall productivity of all operations by optimizing the use of resources and improving the predictability of actions. Enlarged productivity can be of major benefit for all airport operations. It also increases cost-efficiency. This study explains how predictive maintenance using IoT (Internet of Things), predictive operations and the statistical data such as Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) improves airport terminal operations and utilize airport terminal equipment in collaboration with collaborative decision making system/Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC). Data generated by the predictive maintenance methods is retrieved and analyzed by maintenance managers to predict when a problem is about to occur. With that information, maintenance can be scheduled when needed. As an example, AOCC operator would have chance to assign a new gate that towards to this gate all the equipment such as travellator, elevator, escalator etc. are operational if the maintenance team is in collaboration with AOCC since maintenance team is aware of the health of the equipment because of predictive maintenance methods. Applying predictive maintenance methods based on analyzing the health of airport terminal equipment dramatically reduces the risk of downtime by on time repairs. We can classify the categories as high priority calls for urgent repair action, as medium priority requires repair at the earliest opportunity, and low priority allows maintenance to be scheduled when convenient. In all cases, identifying potential problems early resulted in better allocation airport terminal resources by AOCC.

Keywords: airport, predictive maintenance, collaborative decision-making system, Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC)

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97 Spatial Economic Attributes of O. R. Tambo Airport, South Africa

Authors: Masilonyane Mokhele

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Across the world, different planning models of the so-called airport-led developments are becoming bandwagons hailed as key to the future of cities. However, in the existing knowledge, there is paucity of empirically informed description and explanation of the economic fundamentals driving the forces of attraction of airports. This void is arguably a result of the absence of an appropriate theoretical framework to guide the analyses. Given this paucity, the aim of the paper is to contribute towards a theoretical framework that could be used to describe and explain forces that drive the location and mix of airport-centric developments. Towards achieving this aim, the objectives of the paper are: one, to establish the type of economic activities that are located on and around O.R. Tambo International Airport (ORTIA), and analyse the reasons for locating there; two, to establish changes that have occurred over time in the form of the airport-centric development of ORTIA; three, to identify the propulsive economic qualities of ORTIA; four, to analyse the spatial, economic and structural linkages within the airport-centric development of ORTIA, between the airport-centric development and the airport, as well as the airport-centric development’s linkages with their metropolitan area and other regional, national and international airport-centric developments and locations. To address the objectives above, the study adopted a case study approach, centred on ORTIA in South Africa: Africa’s busiest airport in terms of passengers and airfreight handled. Using a lens of location theory, a survey was adopted as a main research method, wherein telephonic interviews were conducted with a representative number of firms on and around ORTIA. Other data collection methods encompassed in-depth qualitative interviews (to augment the information obtained through the survey) and analysis of secondary information, particularly as regards establishing changes that have occurred in the form of ORTIA and surrounds. From the empirical findings, ORTIA was discovered to have propulsive economic qualities that act as significant forces of attraction in the clustering of firms. Together with its airport-centric development, ORTIA was discovered to have growth pole properties because of the linkages that occur within the study area, and the linkages that exist between the airport-centric firms and the airport. It was noted that the transport-oriented firms (typified by couriers and freight carriers) act as anchors in some fellow airport-centric firms making use of elements of urbanisation economies, particularly as regards the use of the airport for airfreight services. The empirical findings presented in the paper (in conjunction with results from other airport-centric development case studies) could be used as contribution towards extending theory that describes and explains forces that drive the location and mix of airport-centric developments.

Keywords: airports, airport-centric development, O. R. Tambo international airport, South Africa

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96 Imposing Speed Constraints on Arrival Flights: Case Study for Changi Airport

Authors: S. Aneeka, S.M. Phyoe, R. Guo, Z.W. Zhong

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Arrival flights tend to spend long waiting times at holding stacks if the arrival airport is congested. However, the waiting time spent in the air in the vicinity of the arrival airport may be reduced if the delays are distributed to the cruising phase of the arrival flights by means of speed control. Here, a case study was conducted for the flights arriving at Changi Airport. The flights that were assigned holdings were simulated to fly at a reduced speed during the cruising phase. As the study involves a single airport and is limited to imposing speed constraints to arrivals within 200 NM from its location, the simulation setup in this study could be considered as an application of the Extended Arrival Management (E-AMAN) technique, which is proven to result in considerable fuel savings and more efficient management of delays. The objective of this experiment was to quantify the benefits of imposing cruise speed constraints to arrivals at Changi Airport and to assess the effects on controllers’ workload. The simulation results indicated considerable fuel savings, reduced aircraft emissions and reduced controller workload.

Keywords: aircraft emissions, air traffic flow management, controller workload, fuel consumption

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95 Airport Investment Risk Assessment under Uncertainty

Authors: Elena M. Capitanul, Carlos A. Nunes Cosenza, Walid El Moudani, Felix Mora Camino

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The construction of a new airport or the extension of an existing one requires massive investments and many times public private partnerships were considered in order to make feasible such projects. One characteristic of these projects is uncertainty with respect to financial and environmental impacts on the medium to long term. Another one is the multistage nature of these types of projects. While many airport development projects have been a success, some others have turned into a nightmare for their promoters. This communication puts forward a new approach for airport investment risk assessment. The approach takes explicitly into account the degree of uncertainty in activity levels prediction and proposes milestones for the different stages of the project for minimizing risk. Uncertainty is represented through fuzzy dual theory and risk management is performed using dynamic programming. An illustration of the proposed approach is provided.

Keywords: airports, fuzzy logic, risk, uncertainty

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94 Lean Airport Infrastructure Development: A Sustainable Solution for Integration of Remote Regions

Authors: Joeri N. Aulman

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In the remote Indian region of Gulbarga a case study of lean airport infrastructure development is getting ‘cast in stone’; In April the first turbo-props will land, and the optimized terminal building will process its first passengers, using minimal square meters in a facility that is based on a complete dress-down of the core operational processes. Yet the solution that resulted from this case study has such elegance in its simplicity that it has emboldened the local administration to invest in its construction and thus secure this remote region’s connectivity to India’s growth story. This paper aims to provide further background to the Gulbarga case study and its relevance to remote region connectivity, covering the demand that was identified, its practical application and its regulatory context and relevance for today’s airport manager and local administrators. This embodies the scope of the paper. In summary, the paper will give airport managers and regional authorities an overview and background to innovative case studies of lean airport infrastructure developments which combine both optimized CAPEX and running costs/OPEX without losing sight of the aspirational nature of up and coming remote regions; a truly sustainable model.

Keywords: airport, CAPEX, lean, sustainable, air connectivity, remote regions

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93 Ownership and Shareholder Schemes Effects on Airport Corporate Strategy in Europe

Authors: Dimitrios Dimitriou, Maria Sartzetaki

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In the early days of the of civil aviation, airports are totally state-owned companies under the control of national authorities or regional governmental bodies. From that time the picture has totally changed and airports privatisation and airport business commercialisation are key success factors to stimulate air transport demand, generate revenues and attract investors, linked to reliable and resilience of air transport system. Nowadays, airport's corporate strategy deals with policies and actions, affecting essential the business plans, the financial targets and the economic footprint in a regional economy they serving. Therefore, exploring airport corporate strategy is essential to support the decision in business planning, management efficiency, sustainable development and investment attractiveness on one hand; and define policies towards traffic development, revenues generation, capacity expansion, cost efficiency and corporate social responsibility. This paper explores key outputs in airport corporate strategy for different ownership schemes. The airport corporations are grouped in three major schemes: (a) Public, in which the public airport operator acts as part of the government administration or as a corporised public operator; (b) Mixed scheme, in which the majority of the shares and the corporate strategy is driven by the private or the public sector; and (c) Private, in which the airport strategy is driven by the key aspects of globalisation and liberalisation of the aviation sector. By a systemic approach, the key drivers in corporate strategy for modern airport business structures are defined. Key objectives are to define the key strategic opportunities and challenges and assess the corporate goals and risks towards sustainable business development for each scheme. The analysis based on an extensive cross-sectional dataset for a sample of busy European airports providing results on corporate strategy key priorities, risks and business models. The conventional wisdom is to highlight key messages to authorities, institutes and professionals on airport corporate strategy trends and directions.

Keywords: airport corporate strategy, airport ownership, airports business models, corporate risks

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92 Ways to Spend Time at an Airport before Boarding a Flight

Authors: Amol Parikh

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The goal of this study is to understand the most preferred ways to spend time at an airport while waiting for a flight to board. Survey was done on 1639 people of the United States of America. In the overall data, it was found that majority people always preferred spending time doing something in their mobile phone. Second most preferred option was reading something, followed by wanting a companion to talk to or to eat/drink. Least preferred option was to eat/drink alone. Overall data was then filtered based on age, gender, income and urban density groups. Percentage of people wanting to use a mobile phone was highest in the age group of 18-24. People aged 45 and above chose reading as the most preferred option. In any of the ranges of income, gender or urban density using mobile phone was the most preferred option. Conclusion of this study is that introducing a mobile app to search for a companion at an airport to do like minded activity would get noticed by majority travelers and would be a business idea worth trying as wanting a companion to talk or eat/drink with is not the least preferred option.

Keywords: waiting for a flight, airport, mobile phone, companion

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91 Development of an Information System Based Airport Evaluation Method

Authors: Eniko Nagy, Csaba Csiszar

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Satisfaction of air transportation passengers is significantly affected by the perceived quality of airport information services. The development potential of ICT is considerable. The traditional and new functions of ‘smart’ airports are realized by complex services aiding seamless, comfortable and less time-consuming travel. Based on the elements of the transportation chain the information management functions, their relationships and the technical solutions have been identified. The functions have been categorized by their development level and evaluation scores have been assigned to each category. Correction factors influencing the usefulness of the technology or the service have been introduced. A method for the calculation of ‘smart’ index in order to compare the airports in objective way has been developed; thus facilitating further developments. The method has been applied for the case study of Budapest.

Keywords: air transportation informatics, evaluation, information service, smart airport

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90 Management Directions towards Social Responsibility in Special Population Groups by Airport Enterprises: The Case of Autism

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki, Simoni K. Lintzerakou

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Air transport links markets and individuals, promoting social and economic development. The review of management direction towards social responsibility and especially for the enhancement of passengers with autism is the key objective of this paper. According to a top-down approach, the key dimensions that affect the basic principles and directions of airport enterprises management towards social responsibility for the case of passengers with autism are presented. Conventional wisdom is to present actions undertaken in improving accessibility for special population groups and highlight the social dimension in the management of transport hubs. The target is to focus on transport hubs serving special groups of passengers such as passengers with autism and highlight good practices and motivate transport infrastructure management authorities and decision makers to promote the social footprint of transport. The highlights and key findings are essential for managers and decision makers to support actions and plans towards management of airport enterprises towards social responsibility, focusing on the case of passengers traveling with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Keywords: social responsibility, special groups, airport enterprises, AUTISM

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89 Factor Affecting Decision Making for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists

Authors: Sakul Jariyachansit

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The purposes of this research were to investigate and to compare the factors affecting the decision for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists and among ASEAN community tourists. Samples in this research were 400 ASEAN Community Tourists who travel in Thailand at Suvarnabhumi Airport during November 2016 - February 2016. The researchers determined the sample size by using the formula Taro Yamane at 95% confidence level tolerances 0.05. The English questionnaire, research instrument, was distributed by convenience sampling, for gathering data. Descriptive statistics was applied to analyze percentages, mean and standard deviation and used for hypothesis testing. The statistical analysis by multiple regression analysis (Multiple Regression) was employed to prove the relationship hypotheses at the significant level of 0.01. The results showed that majority of the respondents indicated the factors affecting the decision for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists, in general there were a moderate effects and the mean of each side is moderate. Transportation was the most influential factor for tourism in Thailand. Therefore, the mode of transport, information, infrastructure and personnel are very important to factor affecting decision making for tourism in Thailand by ASEAN tourists. From the hypothesis testing, it can be predicted that the decision for choosing Tourism in Thailand is at R2 = 0.449. The predictive equation is decision for choosing Tourism in Thailand = 1.195 (constant value) + 0.425 (tourist attraction) +0.217 (information received) and transportation factors, tourist attraction, information, human resource and infrastructure at the significant level of 0.01.

Keywords: factor, decision making, ASEAN tourists, tourism in Thailand

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88 Spatial Distribution of Ambient BTEX Concentrations at an International Airport in South Africa

Authors: Raeesa Moolla, Ryan S. Johnson

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Air travel, and the use of airports, has experienced proliferative growth in the past few decades, resulting in the concomitant release of air pollutants. Air pollution needs to be monitored because of the known relationship between exposure to air pollutants and increased adverse effects on human health. This study monitored a group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); specifically BTEX (viz. benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes), as many are detrimental to human health. Through the use of passive sampling methods, the spatial variability of BTEX within an international airport was investigated, in order to determine ‘hotspots’ where occupational exposure to BTEX may be intensified. The passive sampling campaign revealed BTEXtotal concentrations ranged between 12.95–124.04 µg m-3. Furthermore, BTEX concentrations were dispersed heterogeneously within the airport. Due to the slow wind speeds recorded (1.13 m.s-1); the hotspots were located close to their main BTEX sources. The main hotspot was located over the main apron of the airport. Employees working in this area may be chronically exposed to these emissions, which could be potentially detrimental to their health.

Keywords: air pollution, air quality, hotspot monitoring, volatile organic compounds

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87 The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Ambient Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene Concentrations at an International Airport in South Africa

Authors: Ryan S. Johnson, Raeesa Moolla

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Airports are known air pollution hotspots due to the variety of fuel driven activities that take place within the confines of them. As such, people working within airports are particularly vulnerable to exposure of hazardous air pollutants, including hundreds of aromatic hydrocarbons, and more specifically a group of compounds known as BTEX (viz. benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes). These compounds have been identified as being harmful to human and environmental health. Through the use of passive and active sampling methods, the spatial and temporal variability of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene concentrations within the international airport was investigated. Two sampling campaigns were conducted. In order to quantify the temporal variability of concentrations within the airport, an active sampling strategy using the Synspec Spectras Gas Chromatography 955 instrument was used. Furthermore, a passive sampling campaign, using Radiello Passive Samplers was used to quantify the spatial variability of these compounds. In addition, meteorological factors are known to affect the dispersal and dilution of pollution. Thus a Davis Pro-Weather 2 station was utilised in order to measure in situ weather parameters (viz. wind speed, wind direction and temperature). Results indicated that toluene varied on a daily, temporal scale considerably more than other concentrations. Toluene further exhibited a strong correlation with regards to the meteorological parameters, inferring that toluene was affected by these parameters to a greater degree than the other pollutants. The passive sampling campaign revealed BTEXtotal concentrations ranged between 12.95 – 124.04 µg m-3. From the results obtained it is clear that benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene concentrations are heterogeneously spatially dispersed within the airport. Due to the slow wind speeds recorded over the passive sampling campaign (1.13 m s-1.), the hotspots were located close to the main concentration sources. The most significant hotspot was located over the main apron of the airport. It is recommended that further, extensive investigations into the seasonality of hazardous air pollutants at the airport is necessary in order for sound conclusions to be made about the temporal and spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene concentrations within the airport.

Keywords: airport, air pollution hotspot, BTEX concentrations, meteorology

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86 A Multi-Objective Gate Assignment Model Based on Airport Terminal Configuration

Authors: Seyedmirsajad Mokhtarimousavi, Danial Talebi, Hamidreza Asgari

Abstract:

Assigning aircrafts’ activities to appropriate gates is one the most challenging issues in airport authorities’ multiple criteria decision making. The potential financial loss due to imbalances of demand and supply in congested airports, higher occupation rates of gates, and the existing restrictions to expand facilities provide further evidence for the need for an optimal supply allocation. Passengers walking distance, towing movements, extra fuel consumption (as a result of awaiting longer to taxi when taxi conflicts happen at the apron area), etc. are the major traditional components involved in GAP models. In particular, the total cost associated with gate assignment problem highly depends on the airport terminal layout. The study herein presents a well-elaborated literature review on the topic focusing on major concerns, applicable variables and objectives, as well as proposing a three-objective mathematical model for the gate assignment problem. The model has been tested under different concourse layouts in order to check its performance in different scenarios. Results revealed that terminal layout pattern is a significant parameter in airport and that the proposed model is capable of dealing with key constraints and objectives, which supports its practical usability for future decision making tools. Potential solution techniques were also suggested in this study for future works.

Keywords: airport management, terminal layout, gate assignment problem, mathematical modeling

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85 A Two-Stage Airport Ground Movement Speed Profile Design Methodology Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Zhang Tianci, Ding Meng, Zuo Hongfu, Zeng Lina, Sun Zejun

Abstract:

Automation of airport operations can greatly improve ground movement efficiency. In this paper, we study the speed profile design problem for advanced airport ground movement control and guidance. The problem is constrained by the surface four-dimensional trajectory generated in taxi planning. A decomposed approach of two stages is presented to solve this problem efficiently. In the first stage, speeds are allocated at control points which ensure smooth speed profiles can be found later. In the second stage, detailed speed profiles of each taxi interval are generated according to the allocated control point speeds with the objective of minimizing the overall fuel consumption. We present a swarm intelligence based algorithm for the first-stage problem and a discrete variable driven enumeration method for the second-stage problem since it only has a small set of discrete variables. Experimental results demonstrate the presented methodology performs well on real world speed profile design problems.

Keywords: airport ground movement, fuel consumption, particle swarm optimization, smoothness, speed profile design

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84 Optimizing the Passenger Throughput at an Airport Security Checkpoint

Authors: Kun Li, Yuzheng Liu, Xiuqi Fan

Abstract:

High-security standard and high efficiency of screening seem to be contradictory to each other in the airport security check process. Improving the efficiency as far as possible while maintaining the same security standard is significantly meaningful. This paper utilizes the knowledge of Operation Research and Stochastic Process to establish mathematical models to explore this problem. We analyze the current process of airport security check and use the M/G/1 and M/G/k models in queuing theory to describe the process. Then we find the least efficient part is the pre-check lane, the bottleneck of the queuing system. To improve passenger throughput and reduce the variance of passengers’ waiting time, we adjust our models and use Monte Carlo method, then put forward three modifications: adjust the ratio of Pre-Check lane to regular lane flexibly, determine the optimal number of security check screening lines based on cost analysis and adjust the distribution of arrival and service time based on Monte Carlo simulation results. We also analyze the impact of cultural differences as the sensitivity analysis. Finally, we give the recommendations for the current process of airport security check process.

Keywords: queue theory, security check, stochatic process, Monte Carlo simulation

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83 The Effect of Different Configurations of Square Panels on the Acoustic of Airport

Authors: Maryam Nikpour, Soude Valipour, Omid Rahaei

Abstract:

Noise disturbance at airports negatively affects people's health. In this study, Ahwaz International Airport in Iran was selected as the case study due to the very long resonance measured in the middle frequencies of 5-10 seconds on this site. To overcome this acoustics problem, we examined eight different square sound-absorbing panels installed on the walls and the ceiling of the airport lounge and were simulated using EASE 4.4 software. In our research, four variables, including acoustic time index (RT, or main index), auditory error coefficient (〖AL〗_CONSE), speech transmission index (STI), and total sound pressure level (SPL) were evaluated according to the international standards of ISO3382 and ISO 3382-1. After the simulation, it was concluded that our Model A compared to other sound-absorbing panels, showed the lowest sound pressure at different frequencies using the above indices.

Keywords: acoustics, flight lounge, noise, sound absorbing panels

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