Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 225

Search results for: landing gear

225 Design and Analysis of Universal Multifunctional Leaf Spring Main Landing Gear for Light Aircraft

Authors: Meiyuan Zheng, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

A universal multi-function leaf spring main landing gear was designed for light aircraft. The main landing gear combined with the leaf spring, skidding, and wheels enables it to have a good takeoff and landing performance on various grounds such as the hard, snow, grass and sand grounds. Firstly, the characteristics of different landing sites were studied in this paper in order to analyze the load of the main landing gear on different types of grounds. Based on this analysis, the structural design optimization along with the strength and stiffness characteristics of the main landing gear has been done, which enables it to have good takeoff and landing performance on different types of grounds given the relevant regulations and standards. Additionally, the impact of the skidding on the aircraft during the flight was also taken into consideration. Finally, a universal multi-function leaf spring type of the main landing gear suitable for light aircraft has been developed.

Keywords: landing gear, multi-function, leaf spring, skidding

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
224 Analysis of Impact of Airplane Wheels Pre-Rotating on Landing Gears of Large Airplane

Authors: Huang Bingling, Jia Yuhong, Liu Yanhui

Abstract:

As an important part of aircraft, landing gears are responsible for taking-off and landing function. In recent years, big airplane's structural quality increases a lot. As a result, landing gears have stricter technical requirements than ever before such as structure strength and etc. If the structural strength of the landing gear is enhanced through traditional methods like increasing structural quality, the negative impacts on the landing gear's function would be very serious and even counteract the positive effects. Thus, in order to solve this problem, the impact of pre-rotating of landing gears on performance of landing gears is studied from the theoretical and experimental verification in this paper. By increasing the pre-rotating speed of the wheel, it can improve the performance of the landing gear and reduce the structural quality, the force of joint parts and other properties. In addition, the pre-rotating of the wheels also has other advantages, such as reduce the friction between wheels and ground and extend the life of the wheel. In this paper, the impact of the pre-rotating speed on landing gears and the connecting between landing gears performance and pre-rotating speed would be researched in detail. This paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, large airplane landing gear model is built by CATIA and LMS. As most general landing gear type in big plane, four-wheel landing gear is picked as model. The second part is to simulate the process of landing in LMS motion, and study the impact of pre-rotating of wheels on the aircraft`s properties, including the buffer stroke, efficiency, power; friction, displacement and relative speed between piston and sleeve; force and load distribution of tires. The simulation results show that the characteristics of the different pre-rotation speed are understood. The third part is conclusion. Through the data of the previous simulation and the relationship between the pre-rotation speed of the aircraft wheels and the performance of the aircraft, recommended speed interval is proposed. This paper is of great theoretical value to improve the performance of large airplane. It is a very effective method to improve the performance of aircraft by setting wheel pre-rotating speed. Do not need to increase the structural quality too much, eliminating the negative effects of traditional methods.

Keywords: large airplane, landing gear, pre-rotating, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
223 Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of a Nose Landing Gear

Authors: Kamal Haider

Abstract:

Numerical simulations over landing gear of simplified and partially-dressed configurations with closed cavity have been performed to compute aerodynamically and aeroacoustics parameters using commercial engineering software. The objective of numerical computations is two folds. Firstly, to validate experimental data of newly built nose landing gear and secondly perform high-fidelity calculations using CFD/FW-H hybrid approach, as future engineering challenges need more advanced aircraft configurations such as performance noise and efficiency. Both geometries are used for multi-block structured, and unstructured/hybrid meshed to develop some understanding of physics in terms of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach is employed to compute surface pressure. Also far-field noise calculations have been generated by Ffowcs-William and Hawking solver. Both results of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics are compared with experimental data.

Keywords: landing gear, computational aeroacoustics, computational aerodynamics, detached eddy simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
222 Aircraft Landing Process Simulation Using Multi-Body Multi-Dynamics Software

Authors: Ahmad Kavousi, Ali Delaviz

Abstract:

In this project, the landing process is simulated by using of multi-body dynamics commercial software. Various factors, including landing situations, aircraft structures and climate are used in this simulation. The purpose of this project is to determine the forces exerted on the aircraft landing gears in landing process in various landing conditions. For this purpose, the ADAMS multi-body dynamics software is used. Different scenarios based on FAR-25, including level landing, tail-down landing, crab landing are simulated. Results of dynamic simulation software with landing load factor obtained from the analytical solution are compared. The effect of fuselage elasticity on the landing load is studied. For this purpose, both of elastic and rigid body assumptions are used in the simulation process, and the results are compared and some conclusions are made.

Keywords: landing gear, landing process, aircraft, multi-body dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
221 Module Based Review over Current Regenerative Braking Landing Gear

Authors: Madikeri Rohit

Abstract:

As energy efficiency is the key concern in many aircraft manufacturing companies regenerative braking is a technique using which energy lost due to friction while braking can be regained. In the operation of an aircraft, significant energy is lost during deceleration or braking which occurs during its landing phase. This problem can be overcome using Regenerative Breaking System (RBS) in landing gear. The major problem faced is regarding the batteries and the overall efficiency gained in competence with the added weight. As the amount of energy required to store is huge we need batteries with high capacity for storage. Another obstacle by using high capacity batteries is the added weight which undermines the efficiency obtained using RBS. An approach to this problem is to either use the obtained energy immediately without storage or to store in other forms such as mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic. Problem faced with mechanical systems is the weight of the flywheel needed to obtain required efficiency. Pneumatic and hydraulic systems are a better option at present. Using hydraulic systems for storing energy is efficient as it integrates into the overall hydraulic system present in the aircraft. Another obstacle is faced with the redundancy of this system. Conventional braking must be used along with RBS in order to provide redundancy. Major benefits obtained using RBS is with the help of the energy obtained during landing which can be used of engine less taxing. This reduces fuel consumption as well as noise and air pollution. Another added benefit of using RBS is to provide electrical supply to lighting systems, cabin pressurization system and can be used for emergency power supply in case of electric failure. This paper discusses about using RBS in landing gear, problems, prospects and new techniques being pursued to improve RBS.

Keywords: regenerative braking, types of energy conversion, landing gear, energy storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
220 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine

Abstract:

This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: aerodynamics, drag, lift, turbulence model, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
219 Mechanism to Optimize Landing Distance in Order to Minimize Tyre Wear during Braking

Authors: H. V. H. De Soysa, N. D. Hiripitiya, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage

Abstract:

This research was based on developing a mechanism in order to optimize the landing distance. Short distance braking and long distance braking may cause several issues for the aircraft including tyre wearing. The worst case occurs with short distance landing. The issues related to short distance landing were identified after conducting interviews with pilots, aeronautical engineers and technicians. A model was constructed in order to optimize the landing distance. The device started to function at the point where the main wheels of the aircraft touchdown the runway. It was found that implementing this device to the aircraft benefits to optimize the landing distance. This could lead to rectifying several issues occurred due to improper braking distances.

Keywords: aircraft, mechanism, optimize landing distance, runway

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
218 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: ANSYS, differential, spider gear, structural steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
217 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
216 Wear Particle Analysis from used Gear Lubricants for Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

Abstract:

This particular work describes an experimental investigation on gear wear in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back to back spur gear test rig and a grease lubricated worm gear rig were used. The tests samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs were assessed with utilization of statistical design of experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics from both cases exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, worm gear, spur gear, wear debris analysis, problem diagnostic

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
215 Vision Aided INS for Soft Landing

Authors: R. Sri Karthi Krishna, A. Saravana Kumar, Kesava Brahmaji, V. S. Vinoj

Abstract:

The lunar surface may contain rough and non-uniform terrain with dips and peaks. Soft-landing is a method of landing the lander on the lunar surface without any damage to the vehicle. This project focuses on finding a safe landing site for the vehicle by developing a method for the lateral velocity determination of the lunar lander. This is done by processing the real time images obtained by means of an on-board vision sensor. The hazard avoidance phase of the soft-landing starts when the vehicle is about 200 m above the lunar surface. Here, the lander has a very low velocity of about 10 cm/s:vertical and 5 m/s:horizontal. On the detection of a hazard the lander is navigated by controlling the vertical and lateral velocity. In order to find an appropriate landing site and to accordingly navigate, the lander image processing is performed continuously. The images are taken continuously until the landing site is determined, and the lander safely lands on the lunar surface. By integrating this vision-based navigation with the INS a better accuracy for the soft-landing of the lunar lander can be obtained.

Keywords: vision aided INS, image processing, lateral velocity estimation, materials engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
214 Wear Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Helical Gear

Authors: Surjit Angra, Gajanan Rane, Vinod Kumar, Sushma Rani

Abstract:

This paper presents metallurgical investigation of failed helical gear of diesel engine gear box used in a car. The failure had occurred near the bottomland of the tooth spacing. The failed surface was studied under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also visually investigated. The images produced through SEM at various magnifications were studied. Detailed metallurgical study indicates that failure was due to foreign material inclusion which is a casting defect. Further study also revealed pitting, spalling and inter-granular fracture as the causes of gear failure.

Keywords: helical gear, scanning electron microscope, casting defect, pitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
213 Geographical Information System-Based Approach for Vertical Takeoff and Landing Takeoff and Landing Site Selection

Authors: Chamnan Kumsap, Somsarit Sinnung, Suriyawate Boonthalarath, Teeranai Srithamarong

Abstract:

This research paper addresses the GIS analysis approach to the investigation of suitable sites for a vertical takeoff and landing drone. The study manipulated GIS and terrain layers into a proper input before the spatial analysis that included slope, reclassify, classify, and buffer was applied to the individual layers. The output layers were weighted, and multi-criteria analyzed before those patches failing to comply with filtering out criteria were discarded. Field survey for each suitable candidate site was conducted to cross-check the proposed approach with the real world. Conclusion was extracted for the VTOL takeoff and landing sites, and discussion was provided with further study being suggested on the mission simulation of selected takeoff and landing sites.

Keywords: GIS approach, site selection, VTOL, takeoff and landing

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
212 Autonomous Landing of UAV on Moving Platform: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mortez Alijani, Anas Osman

Abstract:

Recently, the popularity of Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has skyrocketed amidst the unprecedented events and the global pandemic, as they play a key role in both the security and health sectors, through surveillance, taking test samples, transportation of crucial goods and spreading awareness among civilians. However, the process of designing and producing such aerial robots is suppressed by the internal and external constraints that pose serious challenges. Landing is one of the key operations during flight, especially, the autonomous landing of UAVs on a moving platform is a scientifically complex engineering problem. Typically having a successful automatic landing of UAV on a moving platform requires accurate localization of landing, fast trajectory planning, and robust control planning. To achieve these goals, the information about the autonomous landing process such as the intersection point, the position of platform/UAV and inclination angle are more necessary. In this study, the mathematical approach to this problem in the X-Y axis based on the inclination angle and position of UAV in the landing process have been presented. The experimental results depict the accurate position of the UAV, intersection between UAV and moving platform and inclination angle in the landing process, allowing prediction of the intersection point.

Keywords: autonomous landing, inclination angle, unmanned aerial vehicles, moving platform, X-Y axis, intersection point

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
211 Development of Forging Technology of Cam Ring Gear for Truck Using Small Bar

Authors: D. H. Park, Y. H. Tak, H. H. Kwon, G. J. Kwon, H. G. Kim

Abstract:

This study focused on developing forging technology of a large-diameter cam ring gear from the small bar. The analyses of temperature variation and deformation behavior of the material are important to obtain the optimal forging products. The hot compression test was carried out to know formability at high temperature. In order to define the optimum forging conditions including material temperature, strain and forging load, the finite element method was used to simulate the forging process of cam ring gear parts. Test results were in good agreement with the simulations. An existing cam ring gear is presented the chips generated by cutting the rod material and the durability issues, but this would be to develop a large-diameter cam ring gear forging parts for truck in order to solve the durability problem and the material waste.

Keywords: forging technology, cam ring, gear, truck, small bar

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
210 Equipment Design for Lunar Lander Landing-Impact Test

Authors: Xiaohuan Li, Wangmin Yi, Xinghui Wu

Abstract:

In order to verify the performance of lunar lander structure, landing-impact test is urgently needed. Moreover, the test equipment is necessary for the test. The functions and the key points of the equipment is presented to satisfy the requirements of the test,and the design scheme is proposed. The composition, the major function and the critical parts’ design of the equipment are introduced. By the load test of releasing device and single-beam hoist, and the compatibility test of landing-impact testing system, the rationality and reliability of the equipment is proved.

Keywords: landing-impact test, lunar lander, releasing device, test equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
209 Worm Gearing Design Improvement by Considering Varying Mesh Stiffness

Authors: A. H. Elkholy, A. H. Falah

Abstract:

A new approach has been developed to estimate the load share and stress distribution of worm gear sets. The approach is based upon considering the instantaneous tooth meshing stiffness where the worm gear drive was modelled as a series of spur gear slices, and each slice was analyzed separately using the well established formulae of spur gears. By combining the results obtained for all slices, the entire envolute worm gear set loading and stressing was obtained. The geometric modelling method presented, allows tooth elastic deformation and tooth root stresses of worm gear drives under different load conditions to be investigated. On the basis of the method introduced in this study, the instantaneous meshing stiffness and load share were obtained. In comparison with existing methods, this approach has both good analysis accuracy and less computing time.

Keywords: gear, load/stress distribution, worm, wheel, tooth stiffness, contact line

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
208 A Study on the Influence of Pin-Hole Position Error of Carrier on Mesh Load and Planet Load Sharing of Planetary Gear

Authors: Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Gang Shen

Abstract:

For planetary gear system, Planet pin-hole position accuracy is one of most influential factor to efficiency and reliability of planetary gear system. This study considers planet pin-hole position error as a main input error for model and build multi body dynamic simulation model of planetary gear including planet pin-hole position error using MSC. ADAMS. From this model, the mesh load results between meshing gears in each pin-hole position error cases are obtained and based on these results, planet load sharing factor which reflect equilibrium state of mesh load sharing between whole meshing gear pair is calculated. Analysis result indicates that the pin-hole position error of tangential direction cause profound influence to mesh load and load sharing factor between meshing gear pair.

Keywords: planetary gear, load sharing factor, multibody dynamics, pin-hole position error

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
207 Optimization of Tooth Root Profile and Drive Side Pressure Angle to Minimize Bending Stress at Root of Asymmetric Spur Gear Tooth

Authors: Priyakant Vaghela, Jagdish Prajapati

Abstract:

Bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is the very important criteria in gear design and it should be kept the minimum. Minimization of bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is a recent demand from industry. This paper presents an innovative approach to obtain minimum bending stress at the root of a tooth by optimizing tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle. Circular-filleted at the root of the tooth is widely used in the design. Circular fillet creates discontinuity at the root of the tooth. So, at root stress concentration occurs. In order to minimize stress concentration, an important criterion is a G2 continuity at the blending of the gear tooth. A Bezier curve is used with G2 continuity at the root of asymmetric spur gear tooth. The comparison has been done between normal and modified tooth using ANSYS simulation. Tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle are optimized to minimize bending stress at the root of the tooth of the asymmetric involute spur gear. Von Mises stress of optimized profile is analyzed and compared with normal profile symmetric gear. Von Mises stress is reducing by 31.27% by optimization of drive side pressure angle and root profile. Stress concentration of modified gear was significantly reduced.

Keywords: asymmetric spur gear tooth, G2 continuity, pressure angle, stress concentration at the root of tooth, tooth root stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
206 Investigation of Dynamic Characteristic of Planetary Gear Set Based On Three-Axes Torque Measurement

Authors: Masao Nakagawa, Toshiki Hirogaki, Eiichi Aoyama, Mohamed Ali Ben Abbes

Abstract:

A planetary gear set is widely used in hybrid vehicles as the power distribution system or in electric vehicles as the high reduction system, but due to its complexity with planet gears, its dynamic characteristic is not fully understood. There are many reports on two-axes driving or displacement of the planet gears under these conditions, but only few reports deal with three-axes driving. A three-axes driving condition is tested using three-axes torque measurement and focuses on the dynamic characteristic around the planet gears in this report. From experimental result, it was confirmed that the transition forces around the planet gears were balanced and the torques were also balanced around the instantaneous rotation center. The meshing frequency under these conditions was revealed to be the harmonics of two meshing frequencies; meshing frequency of the ring gear and that of the planet gears. The input power of the ring gear is distributed to the carrier and the sun gear in the dynamic sequential change of three fixed conditions; planet, star and solar modes.

Keywords: dynamic characteristic, gear, planetary gear set, torque measuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
205 Motor Gear Fault Diagnosis by Measurement of Current, Noise and Vibration on AC Machine

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Ki-Seok Kim, Yong-Ho Jo

Abstract:

Lots of motors have been being used in industry. Therefore many researchers have studied about the failure diagnosis of motors. In this paper, the effect of measuring environment for diagnosis of gear fault connected to a motor shaft is studied. The fault diagnosis is executed through the comparison of normal gear and abnormal gear. The measured FFT data are compared with the normal data and analyzed for q-axis current, noise and vibration. For bad and good environment, the diagnosis results are compared. From these, it is shown that the bad measuring environment may not be able to detect exactly the motor gear fault. Therefore it is emphasized that the measuring environment should be carefully prepared.

Keywords: motor fault, diagnosis, FFT, vibration, noise, q-axis current, measuring environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
204 Design and Tooth Contact Analysis of Face Gear Drive with Modified Tooth Surface in Helicopter Transmission

Authors: Kazumasa Kawasaki, Isamu Tsuji, Hiroshi Gunbara

Abstract:

A face gear drive is actually composed of a spur or helical pinion that is in mesh with a face gear and transfers power and motion between intersecting or skew axes. Due to the peculiarity of the face gear drive in shunt and confluence drive, it shows potential advantages in the application in the helicopter transmission. The advantages of such applications are the possibility of the split of the torque that appears to be significant where a pinion drives two face gears to provide an accurate division of power and motion. This mechanism greatly reduces the weight and cost compared to conventional design. Therefore, this has been led to revived interest and the face gear drive has been utilized in substitution for bevel and hypoid gears in limited cases. The face gear drive with a spur or a helical pinion is newly designed in order to determine an effective meshing area under the design parameters and specific design dimensions. The face gear has two unique dimensions which control the face width of the tooth, and the outside and inside diameters of the face gear. On the other hand, it is necessary to modify the tooth surfaces of face gear drive in order to avoid the influences of alignment errors on the tooth contact patterns in practical use. In this case, the pinion tooth surfaces are usually modified in the conventional method. However, it is hard to control the tooth contact pattern intentionally and adjust the position of the pinion axis in meshing of the gear pair. Therefore, a method of the modification of the tooth surfaces of the face gear is proposed. Moreover, based on tooth contact analysis, the tooth contact pattern and transmission errors of the designed face gear drive are analyzed, and the influences of alignment errors on the tooth contact patterns and transmission errors are investigated. These results showed that the tooth contact patterns and transmission errors were controllable and the face gear drive which is insensitive to alignment errors can be obtained.

Keywords: alignment error, face gear, gear design, helicopter transmission, tooth contact analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
203 Mathematical Model of a Compound Gear Pump

Authors: Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

The generation and design of compound involute spur gearings can be used in gear pump. A compound rack cutter with asymmetric involute teeth is presented for determining the mathematical model of compound gear pumps. This paper covers the following topics: (a) generation and geometry of compound rack cutter is presented and used to generate a compound gear and a compound pinion. (b) Based on the developed compound gears, stress analysis was performed for the symmetric gears and the asymmetric gears. Comparing the results of the stress analysis for the asymmetric involute teeth is superior to the symmetric involute teeth. A numerical example that illustrates the developed compound rack cutter is represented.

Keywords: compound, involute teeth, gear pump, rack cutter

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
202 Evaluation of the Power Generation Effect Obtained by Inserting a Piezoelectric Sheet in the Backlash Clearance of a Circular Arc Helical Gear

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Yuya Nakamoto

Abstract:

Power generation effect, obtained by inserting a piezo- electric sheet in the backlash clearance of a circular arc helical gear, is evaluated. Such type of screw gear is preferred since, in comparison with the involute tooth profile, the circular arc profile leads to reduced stress-concentration effects, and improved life of the piezoelectric film. Firstly, geometry of the circular arc helical gear, and properties of the piezoelectric sheet are presented. Then, description of the test-rig, consisted of a right-hand thread gear meshing with a left-hand thread gear, and the voltage measurement procedure are given. After creating the tridimensional (3D) model of the meshing gears in SolidWorks, they are 3D-printed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin. Variation of the generated voltage versus time, during a meshing cycle of the circular arc helical gear, is measured for various values of the center distance. Then, the change of the maximal, minimal, and peak-to-peak voltage versus the center distance is illustrated. Optimal center distance of the gear, to achieve voltage maximization, is found and its significance is discussed. Such results prove that the contact pressure of the meshing gears can be measured, and also, the electrical power can be generated by employing the proposed technique.

Keywords: circular arc helical gear, contact problem, optimal center distance, piezoelectric sheet, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
201 Improvement of Fixed Offshore Structures' Boat Landing Performance Using Practicable Design Criteria

Authors: A. Hamadelnil, Z. Razak, E. Matsoom

Abstract:

Boat landings on fixed offshore structure are designed to absorb the impact energy from the boats approaching the platform for crew transfer. As the size and speed of operating boats vary, the design and maintenance of the boat landings become more challenging. Different oil and gas operators adopting different design criteria for the boat landing design in the region of South East Asia. Rubber strip is used to increase the capacity of the boat landing in absorbing bigger impact energy. Recently, it has been reported that all the rubber strips peel off the boat landing frame within one to two years, and replacement is required to avoid puncturing of the boat’s hull by the exposed sharp edges and bolts used to secure the rubber strip. The capacity of the boat landing in absorbing the impact energy is reduced after the failure of the rubber strip and results in failure of the steel members. The replacement of the rubber strip is costly as it requires a diving spread. The objective of this study is to propose the most practicable criteria to be adopted by oil and gas operators in the design of the boat landings in the region of South East Asia to improve the performance of the boat landing and assure safe operation and cheaper maintenance. This study explores the current design and maintenance challenges of boat landing and compares between the criteria adopted by different operators. In addition, this study explains the reasons behind the denting of many of the boat landing. It also evaluates the effect of grout and rubber strip in the capacity of the boat landing and jacket legs and highlight. Boat landing model and analysis using USFOS and SACS software are carried out and presented in this study considering different design criteria. This study proposes the most practicable criteria to be used in designing the boat landing in South East Asia region to save cost and achieve better performance, safe operation and less cost and maintenance.

Keywords: boat landing, grout, plastic hinge, rubber strip

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
200 Patterns of Gear Substitution in Norwegian Trawl Fishery

Authors: Tannaz Alizadeh Ashrafi

Abstract:

Seasonal variability in biological and ecological factors together with relevant socio-economic determinants affect the choice of fishing gear, frequency of its usage and decision about gear conversion under multi-species situation. In order to deal with the complex dynamics of fisheries, fishers, constantly, have to make decisions about how long to fish, when to go fishing, what species to target, and which gear to deploy. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of gear/ species combination in Norwegian fishery. A comprehensive vessel-level set of data for the main economically important species including: cod, haddock, saithe, shrimp and mixed catch have been obtained from the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries covering the daily data in 2010. The present study further analyzes the level of flexibility and rationality of the fishers operating in the trawl fishery. The results show the disproportion between intention of the trawl fishers to maximize profitability of each fishing trip and their harvesting behavior in reality. Discussion is based on so-called maximizing behavior.

Keywords: trawl fishery, gear substitution, rationality, profit maximizing behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
199 Design Improvement of Worm Gearing for Better Energy Utilization

Authors: Ahmed Elkholy

Abstract:

Most power transmission cases use gearing in general, and worm gearing, in particular for energy utilization. Therefore, designing gears for minimum weight and maximum power transmission is the main target of this study. In this regard, a new approach has been developed to estimate the load share and stress distribution of worm gear sets. The approach is based upon considering the instantaneous tooth meshing stiffness where the worm gear drive was modelled as a series of spur gear slices, and each slice was analyzed separately using a well-established criteria. By combining the results obtained for all slices, the entire worm gear set loading and stressing was determined. The geometric modelling method presented, allows tooth elastic deformation and tooth root stresses of worm gear drives under different load conditions to be investigated. On the basis of the method introduced in this study, the instantaneous meshing stiffness and load share were obtained. In comparison with existing methods, this approach has both good analytical accuracy and less computing time.

Keywords: gear, load/stress distribution, worm, wheel, tooth stiffness, contact line

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
198 Formulation of Optimal Shifting Sequence for Multi-Speed Automatic Transmission

Authors: Sireesha Tamada, Debraj Bhattacharjee, Pranab K. Dan, Prabha Bhola

Abstract:

The most important component in an automotive transmission system is the gearbox which controls the speed of the vehicle. In an automatic transmission, the right positioning of actuators ensures efficient transmission mechanism embodiment, wherein the challenge lies in formulating the number of actuators associated with modelling a gearbox. Data with respect to actuation and gear shifting sequence has been retrieved from the available literature, including patent documents, and has been used in this proposed heuristics based methodology for modelling actuation sequence in a gear box. This paper presents a methodological approach in designing a gearbox for the purpose of obtaining an optimal shifting sequence. The computational model considers factors namely, the number of stages and gear teeth as input parameters since these two are the determinants of the gear ratios in an epicyclic gear train. The proposed transmission schematic or stick diagram aids in developing the gearbox layout design. The number of iterations and development time required to design a gearbox layout is reduced by using this approach.

Keywords: automatic transmission, gear-shifting, multi-stage planetary gearbox, rank ordered clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
197 Gear Wear Product Analysis as Applied for Tribological Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

Abstract:

This paper describes an experimental investigation on a pair of gears in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back-to-back spur gear test rig was used. The test samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs was assessed with the utilization of the statistical design of the experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: tribology, spur gear wear, predictive maintenance, wear particle analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
196 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo

Abstract:

This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: friction, worm gear, column electric power steering system, simulink, bearing, EPS

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