Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10946

Search results for: strain approach

10946 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed


In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
10945 Efficiency of the Strain Based Approach Formulation for Plate Bending Analysis

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Sifeddine Abderrahmani, Toufik Maalem, Oussama Temami


In recent years many finite elements have been developed for plate bending analysis. The formulated elements are based on the strain based approach. This approach leads to the representation of the displacements by higher order polynomial terms without the need for the introduction of additional internal and unnecessary degrees of freedom. Good convergence can also be obtained when the results are compared with those obtained from the corresponding displacement based elements, having the same total number of degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the plate bending elements are free from any shear locking since they converge to the Kirchhoff solution for thin plates contrarily for the corresponding displacement based elements. In this paper the efficiency of the strain based approach compared to well known displacement formulation is presented. The results obtained by a new formulated plate bending element based on the strain approach and Kirchhoff theory are compared with some others elements. The good convergence of the new formulated element is confirmed.

Keywords: displacement fields, finite elements, plate bending, Kirchhoff theory, strain based approach

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10944 A 3D Eight Nodes Brick Finite Element Based on the Strain Approach

Authors: L. Belounar, K. Gerraiche, C. Rebiai, S. Benmebarek


This paper presents the development of a new three dimensional brick finite element by the use of the strain based approach for the linear analysis of plate bending behavior. The developed element has the three essential external degrees of freedom (U, V and W) at each of the eight corner nodes. The displacements field of the developed element is based on assumed functions for the various strains satisfying the compatibility and the equilibrium equations. The performance of this element is evaluated on several problems related to thick and thin plate bending in linear analysis. The obtained results show the good performances and accuracy of the present element.

Keywords: brick element, strain approach, plate bending, civil engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
10943 A Crystal Plasticity Approach to Model Dynamic Strain Aging

Authors: Burak Bal, Demircan Canadinc


Dynamic strain aging (DSA), resulting from the reorientation of C-Mn clusters in the core of dislocations, can provide a strain hardening mechanism. In addition, in Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity is observed due to the DSA. In our study, we incorporated dynamic strain aging onto crystal plasticity computations to predict the local instabilities and corresponding negative strain rate sensitivity. Specifically, the material response of Hadfield steel was obtained from monotonic and strain-rate jump experiments under tensile loading. The strain rate range was adjusted from 10⁻⁴ to 10⁻¹s ⁻¹. The crystal plasticity modeling of the material response was carried out based on Voce-type hardening law and corresponding Voce hardening parameters were determined. The solute pinning effect of carbon atom was incorporated to crystal plasticity simulations at microscale level by computing the shear stress contribution imposed on an arrested dislocation by carbon atom. After crystal plasticity simulations with modifying hardening rule, which takes into account the contribution of DSA, it was seen that the model successfully predicts both the role of DSA and corresponding strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: crystal plasticity, dynamic strain aging, Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity

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10942 A Comparative Study between Displacement and Strain Based Formulated Finite Elements Applied to the Analysis of Thin Shell Structures

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Oussama Temami, Abdallah Zatar, Sifeddine Abderrahmani


The analysis and design of thin shell structures is a topic of interest in a variety of engineering applications. In structural mechanics problems the analyst seeks to determine the distribution of stresses throughout the structure to be designed. It is also necessary to calculate the displacements of certain points of the structure to ensure that specified allowable values are not exceeded. In this paper a comparative study between displacement and strain based finite elements applied to the analysis of some thin shell structures is presented. The results obtained from some examples show the efficiency and the performance of the strain based approach compared to the well known displacement formulation.

Keywords: displacement formulation, finite elements, strain based approach, shell structures

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10941 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh


The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

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10940 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho


The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

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10939 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju


316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

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10938 Cyclic Stress and Masing Behaviour of Modified 9Cr-1Mo at RT and 300 °C

Authors: Preeti Verma, P. Chellapandi, N.C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is widely used for structural components like heat exchangers, pressure vessels and steam generator in the nuclear reactors. It is also found to be a candidate material for future metallic fuel sodium cooled fast breeder reactor because of its high thermal conductivity, lower thermal expansion coefficient, micro structural stability, high irradiation void swelling resistance and higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking in water-steam systems compared to austenitic stainless steels. The components of steam generators that operate at elevated temperatures are often subjected to repeated thermal stresses as a result of temperature gradients which occur on heating and cooling during start-ups and shutdowns or during variations in operating conditions of a reactor. These transient thermal stresses give rise to LCF damage. In the present investigation strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature and 300 °C in normalized and tempered condition using total strain amplitudes in the range from ±0.25% to ±0.5% at strain rate of 10-2 s-1. Cyclic Stress response at high strain amplitudes (±0.31% to ±0.5%) showed initial softening followed by hardening upto a few cycles and subsequent softening till failure. The extent of softening increased with increase in strain amplitude and temperature. Depends on the strain amplitude of the test the stress strain hysteresis loops displayed Masing behaviour at higher strain amplitudes and non-Masing at lower strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. It is quite opposite to the usual Masing and Non-Masing behaviour reported earlier for different materials. Low cycle fatigue damage was evaluated in terms of plastic strain and plastic strain energy approach at room temperature and 300 °C. It was observed that the plastic strain energy approach was found to be more closely matches with the experimental fatigue lives particularly, at 300 °C where dynamic strain aging was observed.

Keywords: Modified 9Cr-mo steel, low cycle fatigue, Masing behavior, cyclic softening

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10937 Engine Thrust Estimation by Strain Gauging of Engine Mount Assembly

Authors: Rohit Vashistha, Amit Kumar Gupta, G. P. Ravishankar, Mahesh P. Padwale


Accurate thrust measurement is required for aircraft during takeoff and after ski-jump. In a developmental aircraft, takeoff from ship is extremely critical and thrust produced by the engine should be known to the pilot before takeoff so that if thrust produced is not sufficient then take-off can be aborted and accident can be avoided. After ski-jump, thrust produced by engine is required because the horizontal speed of aircraft is less than the normal takeoff speed. Engine should be able to produce enough thrust to provide nominal horizontal takeoff speed to the airframe within prescribed time limit. The contemporary low bypass gas turbine engines generally have three mounts where the two side mounts transfer the engine thrust to the airframe. The third mount only takes the weight component. It does not take any thrust component. In the present method of thrust estimation, the strain gauging of the two side mounts is carried out. The strain produced at various power settings is used to estimate the thrust produced by the engine. The quarter Wheatstone bridge is used to acquire the strain data. The engine mount assembly is subjected to Universal Test Machine for determination of equivalent elasticity of assembly. This elasticity value is used in the analytical approach for estimation of engine thrust. The estimated thrust is compared with the test bed load cell thrust data. The experimental strain data is also compared with strain data obtained from FEM analysis. Experimental setup: The strain gauge is mounted on the tapered portion of the engine mount sleeve. Two strain gauges are mounted on diametrically opposite locations. Both of the strain gauges on the sleeve were in the horizontal plane. In this way, these strain gauges were not taking any strain due to the weight of the engine (except negligible strain due to material's poison's ratio) or the hoop's stress. Only the third mount strain gauge will show strain when engine is not running i.e. strain due to weight of engine. When engine starts running, all the load will be taken by the side mounts. The strain gauge on the forward side of the sleeve was showing a compressive strain and the strain gauge on the rear side of the sleeve shows a tensile strain. Results and conclusion: the analytical calculation shows that the hoop stresses dominate the bending stress. The estimated thrust by strain gauge shows good accuracy at higher power setting as compared to lower power setting. The accuracy of estimated thrust at max power setting is 99.7% whereas at lower power setting is 78%.

Keywords: engine mounts, finite elements analysis, strain gauge, stress

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10936 Genome Sequencing of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 202-3

Authors: Yina A. Cifuentes Triana, Andrés M. Pinzón Velásco, Marío E. Velásquez Lozano


In this work the sequencing and genome characterization of a natural isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (strain 202-3), identified with potential for the production of second generation ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates is presented. This strain was selected because its capability to consume xylose during the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates, taking into account that many strains of S. cerevisiae are incapable of processing this sugar. This advantage and other prominent positive aspects during fermentation profiles evaluated in bagasse hydrolysates made the strain 202-3 a candidate strain to improve the production of second-generation ethanol, which was proposed as a first step to study the strain at the genomic level. The molecular characterization was carried out by genome sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform paired end; the assembly was performed with different programs, finally choosing the assembler ABYSS with kmer 89. Gene prediction was developed with the approach of hidden Markov models with Augustus. The genes identified were scored based on similarity with public databases of nucleotide and protein. Records were organized from ontological functions at different hierarchical levels, which identified central metabolic functions and roles of the S. cerevisiae strain 202-3, highlighting the presence of four possible new proteins, two of them probably associated with the positive consumption of xylose.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genome sequencing, xylose consumption

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10935 Modeling Thin Shell Structures by a New Flat Shell Finite Element

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Ashraf Ayoub, Ounis Abdelhafid, Chebili Rachid


In this paper, a new computationally-efficient rectangular flat shell finite element named 'ACM_RSBEC' is presented. The formulated element is obtained by superposition of a new rectangular membrane element 'RSBEC' based on the strain approach and the well known plate bending element 'ACM'. This element can be used for the analysis of thin shell structures, no matter how the geometrical shape might be. Tests on standard problems have been examined. The convergence of the new formulated element is also compared to other types of quadrilateral shell elements. The presented shell element ‘ACM_RSBEC’ has been demonstrated to be effective and useful in analysing thin shell structures.

Keywords: finite element, flat shell element, strain based approach, static condensation

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10934 Development of a Highly Flexible, Sensitive and Stretchable Polymer Nanocomposite for Strain Sensing

Authors: Shaghayegh Shajari, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Mahmood Rajabian, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, Les J. Sudak


Although several strain sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported, the stretchability and sensitivity of these sensors have remained as a challenge. Highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors are in great demand for human motion monitoring and human-machine interface. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of strain sensors based on a stretchable fluoropolymer / CNT nanocomposite system made via melt-mixing technique. Electrical and mechanical characterizations were obtained. The results showed that this nanocomposite sensor has high stretchability up to 280% of strain at an optimum level of filler concentration. The piezoresistive properties and the strain sensing mechanism of the strain sensor were investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). High sensitivity was obtained (gauge factor as large as 12000 under 120% applied strain) in particular at the concentrations above the percolation threshold. Due to the tunneling effect, a non- linear piezoresistivity was observed at high concentrations of CNT loading. The nanocomposites with good conductivity and lightweight could be a promising candidate for strain sensing applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fluoropolymer, piezoresistive, strain sensor

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10933 The Derivation of a Four-Strain Optimized Mohr's Circle for Use in Experimental Reinforced Concrete Research

Authors: Edvard P. G. Bruun


One of the best ways of improving our understanding of reinforced concrete is through large-scale experimental testing. The gathered information is critical in making inferences about structural mechanics and deriving the mathematical models that are the basis for finite element analysis programs and design codes. An effective way of measuring the strains across a region of a specimen is by using a system of surface mounted Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs). While a single LVDT can only measure the linear strain in one direction, by combining several measurements at known angles a Mohr’s circle of strain can be derived for the whole region under investigation. This paper presents a method that can be used by researchers, which improves the accuracy and removes experimental bias in the calculation of the Mohr’s circle, using four rather than three independent strain measurements. Obtaining high quality strain data is essential, since knowing the angular deviation (shear strain) and the angle of principal strain in the region are important properties in characterizing the governing structural mechanics. For example, the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) developed at the University of Toronto, is a rotating crack model that requires knowing the direction of the principal stress and strain, and then calculates the average secant stiffness in this direction. But since LVDTs can only measure average strains across a plane (i.e., between discrete points), localized cracking and spalling that typically occur in reinforced concrete, can lead to unrealistic results. To build in redundancy and improve the quality of the data gathered, the typical experimental setup for a large-scale shell specimen has four independent directions (X, Y, H, and V) that are instrumented. The question now becomes, which three should be used? The most common approach is to simply discard one of the measurements. The problem is that this can produce drastically different answers, depending on the three strain values that are chosen. To overcome this experimental bias, and to avoid simply discarding valuable data, a more rigorous approach would be to somehow make use of all four measurements. This paper presents the derivation of a method to draw what is effectively a Mohr’s circle of 'best-fit', which optimizes the circle by using all four independent strain values. The four-strain optimized Mohr’s circle approach has been utilized to process data from recent large-scale shell tests at the University of Toronto (Ruggiero, Proestos, and Bruun), where analysis of the test data has shown that the traditional three-strain method can lead to widely different results. This paper presents the derivation of the method and shows its application in the context of two reinforced concrete shells tested in pure torsion. In general, the constitutive models and relationships that characterize reinforced concrete are only as good as the experimental data that is gathered – ensuring that a rigorous and unbiased approach exists for calculating the Mohr’s circle of strain during an experiment, is of utmost importance to the structural research community.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, shell tests, Mohr’s circle, experimental research

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10932 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

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10931 Performance of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant Tunneling Diode under Uniaxial Strain

Authors: Milad Zoghi, M. Zahangir Kabir


Performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) alter if they go under strain. This may happen due to either using stretchable substrates or real working conditions such as heat generation. Therefore, it is informative to understand how mechanical deformations such as uniaxial strain can impact the performance of AGNR RTDs. In this paper, two platforms of AGNR RTD consist of width-modified AGNR RTD and electric-field modified AGNR RTD are subjected to both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain ranging from -2% to +2%. It is found that characteristics of AGNR RTD markedly change under both compressive and tensile strain. In particular, peak to valley ratio (PVR) can be totally disappeared upon strong enough strain deformation. Numerical tight binding (TB) coupled with Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) is derived for this study to calculate corresponding Hamiltonian matrices and transport properties.

Keywords: armchair graphene nanoribbon, resonant tunneling diode, uniaxial strain, peak to valley ratio

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10930 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh


Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

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10929 Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with 100% Spin- Polarization in the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 Superlattice under Uniaxial Strain

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Fabrizio Cossu, Udo Schwingenschlogl


By first-principles calculations we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 superlattice. We find that a monoclinic C2h symmetry is energetically favorable and that the spins order ferromagnetically. Under both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain the electronic structure of the superlattice shows a half-metallic character. In particular, a fully spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas, which traces back to the Ti 3dxy orbitals, is achieved under compressive uniaxial strain.

Keywords: manganite, strain, 2DEG, superlattice

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10928 An Integrated Approach to Find the Effect of Strain Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Randomly Oriented Short Glass Fiber Composite in Combination with Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Sharad Shrivastava, Arun Jalan


In this study tensile testing was performed on randomly oriented short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens which were prepared using hand lay-up method. Samples were tested over a wide range of strain rate/loading rate from 2mm/min to 40mm/min to see the effect on ultimate tensile strength of the composite. A multi layered 'back propagation artificial neural network of supervised learning type' was used to analyze and predict the tensile properties with strain rate and temperature as given input and output as UTS to predict. Various network structures were designed and investigated with varying parameters and network sizes, and an optimized network structure was proposed to predict the UTS of short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens with reasonably good accuracy.

Keywords: glass fiber composite, mechanical properties, strain rate, artificial neural network

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10927 Large Strain Compression-Tension Behavior of AZ31B Rolled Sheet in the Rolling Direction

Authors: A. Yazdanmehr, H. Jahed


Being made with the lightest commercially available industrial metal, Magnesium (Mg) alloys are of interest for light-weighting. Expanding their application to different material processing methods requires Mg properties at large strains. Several room-temperature processes such as shot and laser peening and hole cold expansion need compressive large strain data. Two methods have been proposed in the literature to obtain the stress-strain curve at high strains: 1) anti-buckling guides and 2) small cubic samples. In this paper, an anti-buckling fixture is used with the help of digital image correlation (DIC) to obtain the compression-tension (C-T) of AZ31B-H24 rolled sheet at large strain values of up to 10.5%. The effect of the anti-bucking fixture on stress-strain curves is evaluated experimentally by comparing the results with those of the compression tests of cubic samples. For testing cubic samples, a new fixture has been designed to increase the accuracy of testing cubic samples with DIC strain measurements. Results show a negligible effect of anti-buckling on stress-strain curves, specifically at high strain values.

Keywords: large strain, compression-tension, loading-unloading, Mg alloys

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10926 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo


Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

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10925 Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions

Authors: Walid M. Adel, Liang Guo-Zhu


To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.

Keywords: AP/HTPB composite solid propellant, mechanical behavior, nonlinear viscoelastic, tensile test, strain rate

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10924 Aptitude of a Lactococcus Strain to Grow on Whey Medium

Authors: Souid Wafa, Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Khacef Linda


In this work, we focused on the valuation of discharges from the dairy industry. Whey is by-product of dairy industry, which is a formidable pollution factor and contains components (lactose, minerals and proteins) with high nutritional value. Whey is an excellent culture medium for microorganisms. The objective of our work is to investigate the ability of a lactic strain (of the genus Lactococcus) to grow in culture media based on whey of cattle and camels and comparing it with that recorded on M17 as indicator medium. In this study we isolated from a local sample of camel milk a lactic strain (S1).the strain had positive Gram shaped, cocci form and catalase (-). The strain has been purified by the method of streaks on M17 medium. Phenotypic identification allows us to classify this strain in the species: Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris. We subsequently tested the ability of this strain to grow in cattle whey medium and camel whey, both media were deproteinized and unsupplemented. The obtained results revealed that: The cattle and camel whey are appropriate media for the growth of the strain Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris but is more adapted to grow on a medium rich in lactose as the camel whey. In fact, after 48h and at initial pH 6.8 this strain acidified more camel whey (pH 3.99) than cattle whey (pH 4.8). And biomass produced in the camel whey is 1.50g /1 by contributing to the cattle whey which is 1g / l.

Keywords: cremoris, dairy industry, Lactococcus lactis subsp, medium, whey

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10923 Reliability Based Optimal Design of Laterally Loaded Pile with Limited Residual Strain Energy Capacity

Authors: M. Movahedi Rad


In this study, a general approach to the reliability based limit analysis of laterally loaded piles is presented. In engineering practice, the uncertainties play a very important role. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lateral load capacity of free head and fixed-head long pile when the plastic limit analysis is considered. In addition to the plastic limit analysis to control the plastic behaviour of the structure, uncertain bound on the complementary strain energy of the residual forces is also applied. This bound has a significant effect for the load parameter. The solution to reliability-based problems is obtained by a computer program which is governed by the reliability index calculation.

Keywords: reliability, laterally loaded pile, residual strain energy, probability, limit analysis

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10922 Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Sarita Sahu, H. N. Bar


Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.

Keywords: dynamic strain ageing, hardening, low cycle fatigue, softening

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10921 Numerical Study on Pretensioned Bridge Girder Using Thermal Strain Technique

Authors: Prashant Motwani, Arghadeep Laskar


The transfer of prestress force from prestressing strands to the surrounding concrete is dependent on the bond between the two materials. It is essential to understand the actual bond stress distribution along the transfer length to determine the transfer zone in pre-tensioned concrete. A 3-D nonlinear finite element model has been developed to simulate the transfer of prestress force from steel to concrete in pre-tensioned bridge girders through thermal strain technique using commercially available package ABAQUS. Full-scale bridge girder has been analyzed with thermal strain approach where the damage plasticity constitutive model has been used to model concrete. Parameters such as concrete strain, effective prestress, upward camber and longitudinal stress have been compared with analytical results. The discrepancy between numerical and analytical values was within 20%. The paper also presents a convergence study on mesh density and aspect ratio of the elements to perform the finite element study.

Keywords: aspect ratio, bridge girder, centre of gravity of strand, mesh density, finite element model, pretensioned bridge girder

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10920 Genome Sequencing of Infectious Bronchitis Virus QX-Like Strain Isolated in Malaysia

Authors: M. Suwaibah, S. W. Tan, I. Aiini, K. Yusoff, A. R. Omar


Respiratory diseases are the most important infectious diseases affecting poultry worldwide. One of the avian respiratory virus of global importance causing significant economic losses is Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). The virus causes a wide spectrum disease known as Infectious Bronchitis (IB), affecting not only the respiratory system but also the kidney and the reproductive system, depending on its strain. IB and Newcastle disease are two of the most prevalent diseases affecting poultry in Malaysia. However, a study on the molecular characterization of Malaysian IBV is lacking. In this study, an IBV strain IBS130 which was isolated in 2015 was fully sequenced using next-gene sequencing approach. Sequence analysis of IBS130 based on the complete genome, polyprotein 1ab and S1 genes were compared with other IBV sequences available in Genbank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). IBV strain IBS130 is characterised as QX-like strain based on whole genome and S1 gene sequence analysis. Comparisons of the virus with other IBV strains showed that the nucleotide identity ranged from 67% to 99.2%, depending on the region analysed. The similarity in whole genome nucleotide ranging from 84.9% to 90.7% with the least similar was from Singapore strains (84.9%) and highly similar with China QX-like strains. Meanwhile, the similarity in polyprotein 1ab ranging from 85.3% to 89.9% with the least similar to Singapore strains (85.3%) and highly similar with Mass strains from USA.

Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus, phylogenetic analysis, chicken, Malaysia

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10919 Creep Analysis and Rupture Evaluation of High Temperature Materials

Authors: Yuexi Xiong, Jingwu He


The structural components in an energy facility such as steam turbine machines are operated under high stress and elevated temperature in an endured time period and thus the creep deformation and creep rupture failure are important issues that need to be addressed in the design of such components. There are numerous creep models being used for creep analysis that have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The Isochronous Creep Analysis is one of the simplified approaches in which a full-time dependent creep analysis is avoided and instead an elastic-plastic analysis is conducted at each time point. This approach has been established based on the rupture dependent creep equations using the well-known Larson-Miller parameter. In this paper, some fundamental aspects of creep deformation and the rupture dependent creep models are reviewed and the analysis procedures using isochronous creep curves are discussed. Four rupture failure criteria are examined from creep fundamental perspectives including criteria of Stress Damage, Strain Damage, Strain Rate Damage, and Strain Capability. The accuracy of these criteria in predicting creep life is discussed and applications of the creep analysis procedures and failure predictions of simple models will be presented. In addition, a new failure criterion is proposed to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of the existing criteria. Comparisons are made between the existing criteria and the new one using several examples materials. Both strain increase and stress relaxation form a full picture of the creep behaviour of a material under high temperature in an endured time period. It is important to bear this in mind when dealing with creep problems. Accordingly there are two sets of rupture dependent creep equations. While the rupture strength vs LMP equation shows how the rupture time depends on the stress level under load controlled condition, the strain rate vs rupture time equation reflects how the rupture time behaves under strain-controlled condition. Among the four existing failure criteria for rupture life predictions, the Stress Damage and Strain Damage Criteria provide the most conservative and non-conservative predictions, respectively. The Strain Rate and Strain Capability Criteria provide predictions in between that are believed to be more accurate because the strain rate and strain capability are more determined quantities than stress to reflect the creep rupture behaviour. A modified Strain Capability Criterion is proposed making use of the two sets of creep equations and therefore is considered to be more accurate than the original Strain Capability Criterion.

Keywords: creep analysis, high temperature mateials, rapture evalution, steam turbine machines

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10918 Environmental Fatigue Analysis for Control Rod Drive Mechanisms Seal House

Authors: Xuejiao Shao, Jianguo Chen, Xiaolong Fu


In this paper, the elastoplastic strain correction factor computed by software of ANSYS was modified, and the fatigue usage factor in air was also corrected considering in water under reactor operating condition. The fatigue of key parts on control rod drive mechanisms was analyzed considering the influence of environmental fatigue caused by the coolant in the react pressure vessel. The elastoplastic strain correction factor was modified by analyzing thermal and mechanical loads separately referring the rules of RCC-M 2002. The new elastoplastic strain correction factor Ke(mix) is computed to replace the original Ke computed by the software of ANSYS when evaluating the fatigue produced by thermal and mechanical loads together. Based on the Ke(mix) and the usage cycle and fatigue design curves, the new range of primary plus secondary stresses was evaluated to obtain the final fatigue usage factor. The results show that the precision of fatigue usage factor can be elevated by using modified Ke when the amplify of the primary and secondary stress is large to some extent. One approach has been proposed for incorporating the environmental effects considering the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life in terms of an environmental correction factor Fen, which is the ratio of fatigue life in air at room. To incorporate environmental effects into the RCCM Code fatigue evaluations, the fatigue usage factor based on the current Code design curves is multiplied by the correction factor. The contribution of environmental effects to results is discussed. Fatigue life decreases logarithmically with decreasing strain rate below 10%/s, which is insensitive to strain rate when temperatures below 100°C.

Keywords: environmental fatigue, usage factor, elastoplastic strain correction factor, environmental correction

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10917 Modeling of Complex Structures: Shear Wall with Openings and Stiffened Shells

Authors: Temami Oussama, Bessais Lakhdar, Hamadi Djamal, Abderrahmani Sifeddine


The analysis of complex structures encourages the engineer to make simplifying assumptions, sometimes attempting the analysis of the whole structure as complex as it is, and it can be done using the finite element method (FEM). In the modeling of complex structures by finite elements, various elements can be used: beam element, membrane element, solid element, plates and shells elements. These elements formulated according to the classical formulation and do not generally share the same nodal degrees of freedom, which complicates the development of a compatible model. The compatibility of the elements with each other is often a difficult problem for modeling complicated structure. This compatibility is necessary to ensure the convergence. To overcome this problem, we have proposed finite elements with a rotational degree of freedom. The study used is based on the strain approach formulation with 2D and 3D formulation with different degrees of freedom at each node. For the comparison and confrontation of results; the finite elements available in ABAQUS/Standard are used.

Keywords: compatibility requirement, complex structures, finite elements, modeling, strain approach

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