Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1737

Search results for: displacement formulation

1737 A Comparative Study between Displacement and Strain Based Formulated Finite Elements Applied to the Analysis of Thin Shell Structures

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Oussama Temami, Abdallah Zatar, Sifeddine Abderrahmani

Abstract:

The analysis and design of thin shell structures is a topic of interest in a variety of engineering applications. In structural mechanics problems the analyst seeks to determine the distribution of stresses throughout the structure to be designed. It is also necessary to calculate the displacements of certain points of the structure to ensure that specified allowable values are not exceeded. In this paper a comparative study between displacement and strain based finite elements applied to the analysis of some thin shell structures is presented. The results obtained from some examples show the efficiency and the performance of the strain based approach compared to the well known displacement formulation.

Keywords: displacement formulation, finite elements, strain based approach, shell structures

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1736 Efficiency of the Strain Based Approach Formulation for Plate Bending Analysis

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Sifeddine Abderrahmani, Toufik Maalem, Oussama Temami

Abstract:

In recent years many finite elements have been developed for plate bending analysis. The formulated elements are based on the strain based approach. This approach leads to the representation of the displacements by higher order polynomial terms without the need for the introduction of additional internal and unnecessary degrees of freedom. Good convergence can also be obtained when the results are compared with those obtained from the corresponding displacement based elements, having the same total number of degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the plate bending elements are free from any shear locking since they converge to the Kirchhoff solution for thin plates contrarily for the corresponding displacement based elements. In this paper the efficiency of the strain based approach compared to well known displacement formulation is presented. The results obtained by a new formulated plate bending element based on the strain approach and Kirchhoff theory are compared with some others elements. The good convergence of the new formulated element is confirmed.

Keywords: displacement fields, finite elements, plate bending, Kirchhoff theory, strain based approach

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1735 Material Failure Process Simulation by Improved Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities

Authors: Gelacio Juárez-Luna, Gustavo Ayala, Jaime Retama-Velasco

Abstract:

This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface. To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.

Keywords: variational formulation, strong discontinuity, embedded discontinuities, strain localization

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1734 Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Composite Structures Utilizing a Beam Finite Element Based on Global-Local Superposition

Authors: Andre S. de Lima, Alfredo R. de Faria, Jose J. R. Faria

Abstract:

Accurate prediction of thermal stresses is particularly important for laminated composite structures, as large temperature changes may occur during fabrication and field application. The normal transverse deformation plays an important role in the prediction of such stresses, especially for problems involving thick laminated plates subjected to uniform temperature loads. Bearing this in mind, the present study aims to investigate the thermo-mechanical behavior of laminated composite structures using a new beam element based on global-local superposition, accounting for through-the-thickness effects. The element formulation is based on a global-local superposition in the thickness direction, utilizing a cubic global displacement field in combination with a linear layerwise local displacement distribution, which assures zig-zag behavior of the stresses and displacements. By enforcing interlaminar stress (normal and shear) and displacement continuity, as well as free conditions at the upper and lower surfaces, the number of degrees of freedom in the model is maintained independently of the number of layers. Moreover, the proposed formulation allows for the determination of transverse shear and normal stresses directly from the constitutive equations, without the need of post-processing. Numerical results obtained with the beam element were compared to analytical solutions, as well as results obtained with commercial finite elements, rendering satisfactory results for a range of length-to-thickness ratios. The results confirm the need for an element with through-the-thickness capabilities and indicate that the present formulation is a promising alternative to such analysis.

Keywords: composite beam element, global-local superposition, laminated composite structures, thermal stresses

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1733 Finite Element Approximation of the Heat Equation under Axisymmetry Assumption

Authors: Raphael Zanella

Abstract:

This works deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric problems. The weak formulation of the heat equation under the axisymmetry assumption is established for continuous finite elements. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with implicit march-in-time. The code is verified by space and time convergence tests using a manufactured solution. The solving of an example problem with an axisymmetric formulation is compared to that with a full-3D formulation. Both formulations lead to the same result, but the code based on the axisymmetric formulation is much faster due to the lower number of degrees of freedom. This confirms the correctness of our approach and the interest in using an axisymmetric formulation when it is possible.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, continuous finite elements, heat equation, weak formulation

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1732 Perceptual Organization within Temporal Displacement

Authors: Michele Sinico

Abstract:

The psychological present has an actual extension. When a sequence of instantaneous stimuli falls in this short interval of time, observers perceive a compresence of events in succession and the temporal order depends on the qualitative relationships between the perceptual properties of the events. Two experiments were carried out to study the influence of perceptual grouping, with and without temporal displacement, on the duration of auditory sequences. The psychophysical method of adjustment was adopted. The first experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement of a white noise on sequence duration. The second experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement, along the pitch dimension, on temporal shortening of sequence. The results suggest that the temporal order of sounds, in the case of temporal displacement, is organized along the pitch dimension.

Keywords: time perception, perceptual present, temporal displacement, Gestalt laws of perceptual organization

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1731 Efficient Monolithic FEM for Compressible Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

Authors: Santhosh A. K.

Abstract:

This work presents an efficient monolithic finite element strategy for solving thermo-fluid-structure interaction problems involving compressible fluids and linear-elastic structure. This formulation uses displacement variables for structure and velocity variables for the fluid, with no additional variables required to ensure traction, velocity, temperature, and heat flux continuity at the fluid-structure interface. Rate of convergence in each time step is quadratic, which is achieved in this formulation by deriving an exact tangent stiffness matrix. The robustness and good performance of the method is ascertained by applying the proposed strategy on a wide spectrum of problems taken from the literature pertaining to steady, transient, two dimensional, axisymmetric, and three dimensional fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer. It is shown that the current formulation gives excellent results on all the case studies conducted, which includes problems involving compressibility effects as well as problems where fluid can be treated as incompressible.

Keywords: linear thermoelasticity, compressible flow, conjugate heat transfer, monolithic FEM

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1730 Studying the Impact of Soil Characteristics in Displacement of Retaining Walls Using Finite Element

Authors: Mojtaba Ahmadabadi, Akbar Masoudi, Morteza Rezai

Abstract:

In this paper, using the finite element method, the effect of soil and wall characteristics was investigated. Thirty and two different models were studied by different parameters. These studies could calculate displacement at any height of the wall for frictional-cohesive soils. The main purpose of this research is to determine the most effective soil characteristics in reducing the wall displacement. Comparing different models showed that the overall increase in internal friction angle, angle of friction between soil and wall and modulus of elasticity reduce the replacement of the wall. In addition, increase in special weight of soil will increase the wall displacement. Based on results, it can be said that all wall displacements were overturning and in the backfill, soil was bulging. Results show that the highest impact is seen in reducing wall displacement, internal friction angle, and the angle friction between soil and wall. One of the advantages of this study is taking into account all the parameters of the soil and walls replacement distribution in wall and backfill soil. In this paper, using the finite element method and considering all parameters of the soil, we investigated the impact of soil parameter in wall displacement. The aim of this study is to provide the best conditions in reducing the wall displacement and displacement wall and soil distribution.

Keywords: retaining wall, fem, soil and wall interaction, angle of internal friction of the soil, wall displacement

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1729 Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Frames Based on Inelastic Spectral Displacement

Authors: Chao Xu

Abstract:

Selecting ground motion intensity measures reasonably is one of the very important issues to affect the input ground motions selecting and the reliability of vulnerability analysis results. In this paper, inelastic spectral displacement is used as an alternative intensity measure to characterize the ground motion damage potential. The inelastic spectral displacement is calculated based modal pushover analysis and inelastic spectral displacement based incremental dynamic analysis is developed. Probability seismic demand analysis of a six story and an eleven story RC frame are carried out through cloud analysis and advanced incremental dynamic analysis. The sufficiency and efficiency of inelastic spectral displacement are investigated by means of regression and residual analysis, and compared with elastic spectral displacement. Vulnerability curves are developed based on inelastic spectral displacement. The study shows that inelastic spectral displacement reflects the impact of different frequency components with periods larger than fundamental period on inelastic structural response. The damage potential of ground motion on structures with fundamental period prolonging caused by structural soften can be caught by inelastic spectral displacement. To be compared with elastic spectral displacement, inelastic spectral displacement is a more sufficient and efficient intensity measure, which reduces the uncertainty of vulnerability analysis and the impact of input ground motion selection on vulnerability analysis result.

Keywords: vulnerability, probability seismic demand analysis, ground motion intensity measure, sufficiency, efficiency, inelastic time history analysis

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1728 Evaluation of the Nutritional Potential of a Developed Spice Formulation for nah poh (An Emulsion-Based Gravy): Physicochemical and Techno-Functional Characterisations

Authors: Djiazet Stève, Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine, Ravi Pullakhandam, Bethala L. A. Prabhavathi Devi, Tchiegang Clergé, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty

Abstract:

The nutritional potential of a developed spice formulation for nah poh was evaluated. It was found that when spices were used for the formulation for nah poh, the concentration of some nutrients is diluted while that of some of them increases. The proportion of unsaturated fats was estimated to be 76.2% of the total fat content while the chemical score varied between 31 to 39%. The contents of some essential minerals of nutritional interest in mg are as follows for 100g of spice: 2372.474 ± 0.007 for potassium, 16.447 ± 0.010 for iron, 4.772 ± 0.005 for zinc, 0.537 ± 0.001 for cupper, 0.138 ± 0.005 for selenium, and 112.954 ± 0.003 for manganese. This study shows that the consumption of these spices in the form of formulation significantly contributes to meet the mineral requirements of the populations whose food habits regularly require these spices.

Keywords: spice formulation, characterisation, nutritional potential, nah poh, techno functional properties

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1727 Analysis of Thermal Effect on Functionally Graded Micro-Beam via Mixed Finite Element Method

Authors: Cagri Mollamahmutoglu, Ali Mercan, Aykut Levent

Abstract:

Studies concerning the microstructures are becoming more important as the utilization of various micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) are increasing. Thus in recent years, thermal buckling and vibration analysis of microstructures have been subject to many investigations that are utilizing different numerical methods. In this study, thermal effects on mechanical response of a functionally graded (FG) Timoshenko micro-beam are presented in the framework of a mixed finite element formulation. Size effects are taken into consideration via modified couple stress theory. The mixed formulation is based on a function which in turn is derived via Gateaux Differential scientifically. After the resolution of all field equations of the beam, a potential operator is carefully constructed. Then this operator is used for the manufacturing of the functional. Usual procedures of finite element approximation are utilized for the derivation of the mixed finite element equations once the potential is obtained. Resulting finite element formulation allows usage of C₀ type simple linear shape functions and avoids shear-locking phenomena, which is a common shortcoming of the displacement-based formulations of moderately thick beams. The developed numerical scheme is used to obtain the effects of thermal loads on the static bending, free vibration and buckling of FG Timoshenko micro-beams for different power-law parameters, aspect ratios and boundary conditions. The versatility of the mixed formulation is presented over other numerical methods such as generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM). Another attractive property of the formulation is that it allows direct calculation of the contribution of micro effects on the overall mechanical response.

Keywords: micro-beam, functionally graded materials, thermal effect, mixed finite element method

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1726 Remediation and Health: A Systematic Review of the Role of Resulting Displacement in Damaging Health and Wellbeing

Authors: Rupert G. S. Legg

Abstract:

The connection between poor health outcomes and living near contaminated land has long been understood. Less examined has been the impact of remediation on residents’ health. The cleaning process undoubtedly changes the local area in which it occurs, leading to the possibility that local housing and rental prices could increase resulting in the displacement of those least able to cope. Whether or not this potential displacement resulting from remediation has a considerable impact on health remains unknown. This review aims to determine how these health effects have been approached in the health geography literature. A systematic review of health geographies literature was conducted, searching for two-word clusters: ‘health’ and ‘remediation’ (100 articles); and ‘health’, ‘displacement’ and ‘gentrification’ (43 articles). 43 articles were selected for their relevance (7 from the first cluster, 20 from the second, and 16 from those cited within the reviewed articles). Several of the reviewed cases identified that potential displacement was a contributor to stress and worry in residents living near remediation projects. Likewise, the experience of displacement in other cases beyond remediation was linked with several mental health issues. However, no remediation cases followed-up on the ultimate effects of experiencing displacement on residents’ health. A reason identified for this was a tendency for reviewed studies to adopt a contextual or compositional approach, as opposed to a relational approach, which is more concerned with dimensions of mobility and temporality. Given that remediation and displacement both involve changing mobility and temporality, focussing solely on contextual or compositional factors is problematic. This review concludes by suggesting that more thorough, relational research is conducted into the extent to which potential displacement resulting from remediation affects health.

Keywords: contamination, displacement, health geography, remediation

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1725 Impact of Forced Displacement on Place Attachment and Home Perception of Internally Displaced Turkish Cypriots

Authors: Makbule Oktay

Abstract:

Home is a significant entity in people’s lives. It is a place that provides shelter to people and a place to which one feels a sense of attachment and belonging. It is an entity that people develop feelings and meaning to it. People – place bond, or in other words place attachment, and home perception might alter as a consequence of lifetime experiences. Thus, forced displacement appears as a dramatic experience for people who lose their homes, belongings and communities. It impacts people who involuntarily leave their homes and belongings behind, experience physical, social, cultural and economic disruption and are forced to settle in an unfamiliar environment. Place attachment and home perception of internally displaced people who involuntarily leave their homes might be different from those who haven’t experience forced displacement. Although place attachment, meaning of home and forced displacement are the subjects that have been broadly studied, there is a lack of studies which question the relation between the three subjects in general and on Turkish Cypriot case in particular. Considering this, it is the aim of this paper to investigate the impact of forced displacement to internally displaced people’s attachment to a particular place and home perception. To do so, the study focuses on internally displaced Turkish Cypriots who have been internally displaced as a result of conflict. Interview and questionnaire as two of the commonly used techniques in the place attachment and home perception studies have been used in this study too. The results of the study indicate that internal displacement has an apparent impact on place attachment of forcibly displaced people. As a consequence of longstanding displacement, forcibly displaced people developed multiple attachments. Compared to people who have not experienced displacement, forcibly displaced people have low attachments. Forced displacement does not strongly impact the home perception in terms of meaning of home in longstanding displacement situations even though displacement-related meanings of home exist.

Keywords: forcibly displaced people, home perception, internal displacement, place attachment, Turkish Cypriots

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1724 Displacement Due to Natural Disasters Vis-à-Vis Policy Framework: Case Study of Mising Community of Majuli, Assam

Authors: Mausumi Chetia

Abstract:

One of the main causes of impoverishment of the rural areas of Assam has been the recurrent floods and riverbank erosion. One of the life-changing consequences is displacement. This results not only in a loss of livelihoods but also has wide-reaching socio-economic and cultural effects. Thus, due to such disasters, not only families but communities too are being displaced at large. This compels them to find temporary shelter and begin life from scratch. The role of the state has been highly negligible, with a displacement not being perceived as an ‘issue’ to be addressed. A more holistic approach is thus needed to take socio-economic, cultural, political as well as ecological considerations into account.

Keywords: displacement, policy-framework, human-induced disasters, marginalised communities, India, Assam

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1723 Multiobjective Optimization of a Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Regression Method

Authors: J. Satya Eswari, Ch. Venkateswarlu

Abstract:

The formulation of a commercial pharmaceutical product involves several composition factors and response characteristics. When the formulation requires to satisfy multiple response characteristics which are conflicting, an optimal solution requires the need for an efficient multiobjective optimization technique. In this work, a regression is combined with a non-dominated sorting differential evolution (NSDE) involving Naïve & Slow and ε constraint techniques to derive different multiobjective optimization strategies, which are then evaluated by means of a trapidil pharmaceutical formulation. The analysis of the results show the effectiveness of the strategy that combines the regression model and NSDE with the integration of both Naïve & Slow and ε constraint techniques for Pareto optimization of trapidil formulation. With this strategy, the optimal formulation at pH=6.8 is obtained with the decision variables of micro crystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and compression pressure. The corresponding response characteristics of rate constant and release order are also noted down. The comparison of these results with the experimental data and with those of other multiple regression model based multiobjective evolutionary optimization strategies signify the better performance for optimal trapidil formulation.

Keywords: pharmaceutical formulation, multiple regression model, response surface method, radial basis function network, differential evolution, multiobjective optimization

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1722 Political Economy of Internal Dispalcement, Migration and Human Security in Zimbabwe: 1800 to Present Day

Authors: Chupicai Manuel

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to examine the political economy and history of internal displacement, migration and human security in Zimbabwe from 1800 to present day. The article gives a timeline of major internal displacement, migration trends that took place in Zimbabwe before colonialism, through the colonial period up to the present day and examines the human security context of such periods. In view of the above, a political economy analysis will be employed to examine the different factors that promoted internal displacement and human movements from 1800 to the present day and explore the architecture of human security in Zimbabwe. The ultimate goal of this literature review is to provide a longitudinal analysis of internal displacement, migration and human security regimes that existed in Zimbabwe with the view of promoting social cohesion and nation building.

Keywords: human security, internal displacement, migration, political economy

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1721 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

Abstract:

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow

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1720 Design, Development and Evaluation of Ketoconazole Loaded Nanosponges in Hydrogel for the Management of Topical Fungal Infections

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani

Abstract:

This work aims at investigating the use of β-Cyclodextrin as a cross linker, in an attempt to formulate nanosponges containing ketoconazole. The nanosponges were prepared by cross-linking method. The excipients used in this study did not alter the physicochemical properties of a drug as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. Studies on various formulation variables revealed that all the variables are inter-related with the formulation. The ideal batch among the formulation was selected based on the higher entrapment efficiency and drug loading. The in vitro release studies of ketoconazole nanosponges in hydrogel exhibited a sustained release over a period of 24 hours. Mathematical analysis of drug release from the formulation followed non-Fickian diffusion obeying first order kinetics. The anti-fungal activity of the formulation exhibited better zone of inhibition when compared to pure drug (ketoconazole) against Tinea corporis.

Keywords: nanosponges, beta-cyclodextrin, ketoconazole, tinea corporis

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1719 New Modification Negative Stiffness Device with Constant Force-Displacement Characteristic for Seismic Protection of Structures

Authors: Huan Li, Jianchun Li, Yancheng Li, Yang Yu

Abstract:

As a seismic protection method of civil and engineering structures, weakening and damping is effective during the elastic region, while it somehow leads to the early yielding of the entire structure accompanying with large excursions and permanent deformations. Adaptive negative stiffness device is attractive for realizing yielding property without changing the stiffness of the primary structure. In this paper, a new modification negative stiffness device (MNSD) with constant force-displacement characteristic is proposed by combining a magnetic negative stiffness spring, a piecewise linear positive spring and a passive damper with a certain adaptive stiffness device. The proposed passive control MNSD preserves no effect under small excitation. When the displacement amplitude increases beyond the pre-defined yielding point, the force-displacement characteristics of the system with MNSD will keep constant. The seismic protection effect of the MNSD is evaluated by employing it to a single-degree-of-freedom system under sinusoidal excitation, and real earthquake waves. By comparative analysis, the system with MNSD performs better on reducing acceleration and displacement response under different displacement amplitudes than the scenario without it and the scenario with unmodified certain adaptive stiffness device.

Keywords: negative stiffness, adaptive stiffness, weakening and yielding, constant force-displacement characteristic

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1718 Influence of Bra Band Tension and Underwire Angles on Breast Motion

Authors: Cheuk Wing Lee, Kit Lun Yick, Sun Pui Ng, Joanne Yip

Abstract:

Daily activities and exercise may result in large displacements of the breasts, which lead to breast pain and discomfort. Therefore, a proper bra design and fit can help to control excessive breast motion to prevent the over-stretching of the connective tissues. Nevertheless, bra fit problems, such as excessively high tension of the shoulder straps and a tight underband could have substantially negative effects on the wear comfort and health of the wearer. The purpose of this study is to, therefore, examine the effects of bra band tension on breast displacement. Usually, human wear trials are carried out, but there are inconsistencies during testing. Therefore, a soft manikin torso is used to examine breast displacement at walking speeds of 2.30 km/h and 4.08 km/h. The breast displacement itself is determined by using a VICON motion capture system. The 3D geometric changes of the underwire bra band tension and the corresponding control of breast movement are also analyzed by using a 3D handheld scanner along with Rapidform software. The results indicate that an appropriate bra band tension can help to reduce breast displacement and provide a comfortable angle for the underwire. The findings can be used by designers and bra engineers as a reference source to advance bra design and development.

Keywords: bra band, bra features, breast displacement, underwire angle

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1717 An Improved Mesh Deformation Method Based on Radial Basis Function

Authors: Xuan Zhou, Litian Zhang, Shuixiang Li

Abstract:

Mesh deformation using radial basis function interpolation method has been demonstrated to produce quality meshes with relatively little computational cost using a concise algorithm. However, it still suffers from the limited deformation ability, especially in large deformation. In this paper, a pre-displacement improvement is proposed to improve the problem that illegal meshes always appear near the moving inner boundaries owing to the large relative displacement of the nodes near inner boundaries. In this improvement, nodes near the inner boundaries are first associated to the near boundary nodes, and a pre-displacement based on the displacements of associated boundary nodes is added to the nodes near boundaries in order to make the displacement closer to the boundary deformation and improve the deformation capability. Several 2D and 3D numerical simulation cases have shown that the pre-displacement improvement for radial basis function (RBF) method significantly improves the mesh quality near inner boundaries and deformation capability, with little computational burden increasement.

Keywords: mesh deformation, mesh quality, background mesh, radial basis function

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1716 Ductility Reduction Factors for Displacement Spectra Corresponding to Soft Soil Zone of the Valley of Mexico

Authors: Noé D. Lazos-Gallardo, Sonia E. Ruiz, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran

Abstract:

A simplified mathematical expression to estimate ductility reduction factors of the displacement spectra corresponding to the soft soil zone of Mexico City is proposed. The aim is to allow a better characterization of the displacement spectra and provide a simple expression to be used in displacement based design (DBD). Emphasis is on the Mexico City Building Code. The study is based on the analysis of single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with elasto-plastic hysteretic behavior. Several seismic ground motions corresponding to subduction events with magnitudes equal to or greater than 6 and recorded in different stations of Mexico City are used. The proposed expression involves the ratio of elastic and inelastic pseudo-aceleration spectra, and depends on factors such the ductility demand and the vibration period of the structural system. The resulting ductility reduction factors obtained in this study are compared with others existing in the literature, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: displacement based design, displacements spectrum, ductility reduction factors, soft soil

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1715 Stochastic Programming and C-Somga: Animal Ration Formulation

Authors: Pratiksha Saxena, Dipti Singh, Neha Khanna

Abstract:

A self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm(C-SOMGA) is developed for animal diet formulation. This paper presents animal diet formulation using stochastic and genetic algorithm. Tri-objective models for cost minimization and shelf life maximization are developed. These objectives are achieved by combination of stochastic programming and C-SOMGA. Stochastic programming is used to introduce nutrient variability for animal diet. Self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm provides exact and quick solution and presents an innovative approach towards successful application of soft computing technique in the area of animal diet formulation.

Keywords: animal feed ration, feed formulation, linear programming, stochastic programming, self-migrating genetic algorithm, C-SOMGA technique, shelf life maximization, cost minimization, nutrient maximization

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1714 Analysis of a Damage-Control Target Displacement of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier for Seismic Design

Authors: Mohd Ritzman Abdul Karim, Zhaohui Huang

Abstract:

A current focus in seismic engineering practice is the development of seismic design approach that focuses on the performance-based design. Performance-based design aims to design the structures to achieve specified performance based on the damage limit states. This damage limit is more restrictive limit than life safety and needs to be carefully estimated to avoid damage in piers due to failure in transverse reinforcement. In this paper, a different perspective of damage limit states has been explored by integrating two damage control material limit state, concrete and reinforcement by introduced parameters such as expected yield stress of transverse reinforcement where peak tension strain prior to bar buckling is introduced in a recent study. The different perspective of damage limit states with modified yield displacement and the modified plastic-hinge length is used in order to predict damage-control target displacement for reinforced concreate (RC) bridge pier. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model has been developed for estimating damage target displacement to validate proposed damage limit states. The result from 3D FE analysis was validated with experimental study found in the literature. The validated model then was applied to predict the damage target displacement for RC bridge pier and to validate the proposed study. The tensile strain on reinforcement and compression on concrete were used to determine the predicted damage target displacement and compared with the proposed study. The result shows that the proposed damage limit states were efficient in predicting damage-control target displacement consistent with FE simulations.

Keywords: damage-control target displacement, damage limit states, reinforced concrete bridge pier, yield displacement

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1713 Facile Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles on Graphene via Galvanic Displacement Reaction for Sensing Application

Authors: Juree Hong, Sanggeun Lee, Jungmok Seo, Taeyoon Lee

Abstract:

We report a facile synthesis of metal nano particles (NPs) on graphene layer via galvanic displacement reaction between graphene-buffered copper (Cu) and metal ion-containing salts. Diverse metal NPs can be formed on graphene surface and their morphologies can be tailored by controlling the concentration of metal ion-containing salt and immersion time. The obtained metal NP-decorated single-layer graphene (SLG) has been used as hydrogen gas (H2) sensing material and exhibited highly sensitive response upon exposure to 2% of H2.

Keywords: metal nanoparticle, galvanic displacement reaction, graphene, hydrogen sensor

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1712 Experimental and Graphical Investigation on Oil Recovery by Buckley-Leveret Theory

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Zabihullah Mahdi, Shigeo Honma

Abstract:

Recently increasing oil production from petroleum reservoirs is one of the most important issues in the global energy sector. So, in this paper, the recovery of oil by the waterflooding technique from petroleum reservoir are considered. To investigate the aforementioned phenomena, the relative permeability of two immiscible fluids in sand is measured in the laboratory based on the steady-state method. Two sorts of oils, kerosene and heavy oil, and water are pumped simultaneously into a vertical sand column with different pumping ratio. From the change in fractional discharge measured at the outlet, a method for determining the relative permeability is developed focusing on the displacement mechanism in sand. Then, displacement mechanism of two immiscible fluids in the sand is investigated under the Buckley-Leveret frontal displacement theory and laboratory experiment. Two sorts of experiments, one is the displacement of pore water by oil, the other is the displacement of pore oil by water, are carried out. It is revealed that the relative permeability curves display tolerably different shape owing to the properties of oils, and produce different amount of residual oils and irreducible water saturation.

Keywords: petroleum reservoir engineering, relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement in porous media, steady-state method, waterflooding

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1711 SIPINA Induction Graph Method for Seismic Risk Prediction

Authors: B. Selma

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of SIPINA method to predict the harmfulness parameters controlling the seismic response. The approach developed takes into consideration both the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration. The parameter to determine is displacement. The data used for the learning of this method and analysis nonlinear seismic are described and applied to a class of models damaged to some typical structures of the existing urban infrastructure of Jassy, Romania. The results obtained indicate an influence of the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration on the displacement.

Keywords: SIPINA algorithm, seism, focal depth, peak ground acceleration, displacement

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1710 Formulation Development and Evaluation Chlorpheniramine Maleate Containing Nanoparticles Loaded Thermo Sensitive in situ Gel for Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

Authors: Vipin Saini, Manish Kumar, Shailendra Bhatt, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermo sensitive gel containing Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of allergic rhinitis. Chitosan based nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation method followed by the addition of developed NPs within the Poloxamer 407 and carbopol 934P based mucoadhesive thermo-reversible gel. Developed formulations were evaluated for Particle size, PDI, % entrapment efficiency and % cumulative drug permeation. NP3 formulation was found to be optimized on the basis of minimum particle size (143.9 nm), maximum entrapment efficiency (80.10±0.414 %) and highest drug permeation (90.92±0.531 %). The optimized formulation NP3 was then formulated into thermo reversible in situ gel. This intensifies the contact between nasal mucosa and the drug, increases and facilitates the drug absorption which results in increased bioavailability. G4 formulation was selected as the optimize on the basis of gelation ability and mucoadhesive strength. Histology was carried out to examine the damage caused by the optimized G4 formulation. Results revealed no visual signs of tissue damage thus indicated safe nasal delivery of nanoparticulate in situ gel formulation G4. Thus, intranasal CPM NP-loaded in situ gel was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

Keywords: chitosan, nanoparticles, in situ gel, chlorpheniramine maleate, poloxamer 407

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1709 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma

Abstract:

Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous medium

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1708 In-Vivo Study of Annacardium occidentale L. Emulgel Extract Using Non-Invasive Probes

Authors: Akhtar Naveed, Kanwal Shahla, Khan HMS, Rasool Fatima, Ijaz Shakeel

Abstract:

The focus of the study was to design, develop and characterize in vivo, a stable Emulgel formulation containing Anacardium occidentale L.(cashew extract) as an active ingredient. The formulation was prepared and kept at 8ºC, 25 ºC, 40ºC and 40ºC±RH for a period of 28 days. During this time period, stability, pH values, conductivity, organoleptic features (color, liquefaction, phase separation) were conducted at the intervals of day 1st, 2nd, 3rd , 7th, 14th and 28th days. In In vivo studies, the test formulation (5% Anacardium occidentale L, extract) and a base formulation (without cashew extract) were prepared and both were applied on cheek areas of healthy human female volunteers, after the skin sensitivity test of each volunteer, for a study period of 8 weeks after getting consent from them. Various parameters of skin like Melanin level, Erythema level, and skin elasticity were measured at regular time intervals. Results of the study were analyzed by statistical techniques i.e. Two Way ANOVA and paired sample t-test. The result showed significant results as the p ≤ 0.05. Findings of paired sample t-test explained that test formulation have profound effects on skin parameters when compared with control formulation.

Keywords: Anacardium occientale L., anti-oxidant, cashew nut, emulgel

Procedia PDF Downloads 236