Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 634

Search results for: activated nanocarbon

634 Ultradrawing and Ultimate Tensile Properties of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Fibers Filled with Activated Nanocarbon Particles with Varying Specific Surface Areas

Authors: Wang-Xi Fan, Yi Ding, Zhong-Dan Tu, Kuo-Shien Huang, Chao-Ming Huang, Jen-Taut Yeh

Abstract:

Original and/or functionalized activated nanocarbon particles with a quoted specific surface area of 100, 500, 1000 and 1400 m2/g, respectively, were used to investigate the influence of specific surface areas of activated nanocarbon on ultra drawing and ultimate tensile properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), UHMWPE/activated nanocarbon and UHMWPE/ functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers. The specific surface areas of well dispersed functionalized activated nanocarbon in UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers can positively affect their ultra drawing, orientation, ultimate tensile properties and “micro-fibril” characteristics. Excellent orientation and ultimate tensile properties of UHMWPE/nanofiller fibers can be prepared by ultra drawing the UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon as-prepared fibers with optimal contents and compositions of functionalized activated nanocarbon. The ultimate tensile strength value of the best prepared UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon drawn fiber reached 8.0 GPa, which was about 2.86 times of that of the best-prepared UHMWPE drawn fiber prepared in this study. Specific surface area, morphological and Fourier transform infrared analyses of original and functionalized activated nanocarbon and/or investigations of thermal, orientation factor and ultimate tensile properties of as-prepared and/or drawn UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers were performed to understand the above-improved ultra drawing and ultimate tensile properties of the UHMWPE/functionalized activated nanocarbon fibers.

Keywords: activated nanocarbon, specific surface areas, ultradrawing, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

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633 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

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632 Synthesis and Characterization of Green Coke-Derived Activated Carbon by KOH Activation

Authors: Richard, Iyan Subiyanto, Chairul Hudaya

Abstract:

Activated carbon has been playing a significant role for many applications, especially in energy storage devices. However, commercially activated carbons generally require complicated processes and high production costs. Therefore, in this study, an activated carbon originating from green coke waste, that is economically affordable will be used as a carbon source. To synthesize activated carbon, KOH as an activator was employed with variation of C:KOH in ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively, with an activation temperature of 700°C. The characterizations of activated carbon are obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The optimal activated carbon sample with specific surface area of 2,024 m²/g with high carbon content ( > 80%) supported by the high porosity carbon image obtained by SEM was prepared at C:KOH ratio of 1:4. The result shows that the synthesized activated carbon would be an ideal choice for energy storage device applications. Therefore, this study is expected to reduce the costs of activated carbon production by expanding the utilization of petroleum waste.

Keywords: activated carbon, energy storage material, green coke, specific surface area

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
631 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: chromium, adsorption, Taguchi method, activated carbon

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630 Activated Carbons Prepared from Date Pits for Hydrogen Storage

Authors: M. Belhachemi, M. Monteiro de Castro, M. Casco, A. Sepúlveda-Escribano, F. Rodríguez-Reinoso

Abstract:

In this study, activated carbons were prepared from Algerian date pits using thermal activation with CO2 or steam. The prepared activated carbons were doped by vanadium oxide in order to increase the H2 adsorption capacity. The adsorbents were characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 K and 273K, respectively. The hydrogen adsorption experiments were carried at 298K in the 0–100 bar pressure range using a volumetric equipment. The results show that the H2 adsorption capacity is influenced by the size and volume of micropores in the activated carbon adsorbent. Furthermore, vanadium doping of activated carbons has a slight positive effect on H2 storage.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, activated carbon, vanadium doping, adsorption

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629 Viable Use of Natural Extract Solutions from Tuberous and Cereals to Enhance the Synthesis of Activated Carbon-Graphene Composite

Authors: Pamphile Ndagijimana, Xuejiao Liu, Zhiwei Li, Yin Wang

Abstract:

Enhancing the properties of activated carbon is very imperative for various applications. Indeed, the activated carbon has promising physicochemical properties desired for a considerable number of applications. In this regard, we are proposing an enhanced and green technology for increasing the efficiency and performance of the activated carbon to various applications. The technique poses on the use of natural extracts from tuberous and cereals based-solutions. These solutions showed high potentiality to be used in the synthesis of activated carbon-graphene composite with only 3 mL. The extracted liquid from tuberous sourcing was enough to induce precipitation within a fraction of a minute in contrast to that from cereal sourced. Using these extracts, a synthesis of activated carbon-graphene composite was successful. Different characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, BET, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to investigate the composite materials. The results confirmed a conjugation between activated carbon and graphene material.

Keywords: activated carbon, cereals, extract solution, graphene, tuberous

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628 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen, A. S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chemical activation, microwave, pomegranate peel

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627 An Efficient Activated Carbon for Copper (II) Adsorption Synthesized from Indian Gooseberry Seed Shells

Authors: Somen Mondal, Subrata Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

Removal of metal pollutants by efficient activated carbon is challenging research in the present-day scenario. In the present study, the characteristic features of an efficient activated carbon (AC) synthesized from Indian gooseberry seed shells for the copper (II) adsorption are reported. A three-step chemical activation method consisting of the impregnation, carbonization and subsequent activation is used to produce the activated carbon. The copper adsorption kinetics and isotherms onto the activated carbon were analyzed. As per present investigation, Indian gooseberry seed shells showed the BET surface area of 1359 m²/g. The maximum adsorptivity of the activated carbon at a pH value of 9.52 was found to be 44.84 mg/g at 30°C. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model along with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This AC could be used as a favorable and cost-effective copper (II) adsorbent in wastewater treatment to remove the metal contaminants.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption isotherm, kinetic model, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
626 Emergency Treatment of Methanol Poisoning: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Priyanka Ghosh, Priti Kumar Roy

Abstract:

Every year a considerable number of people die due to methyl alcohol poisoning, in which most of them die even before proper treatment. This work gives a simple and cheap first aid to those affected individuals by the administration of activated charcoal. In this article, we emphasise on the adsorption capability of activated charcoal for the treatment of poisoning and use an impulsive differential equation to study the effect of activated charcoal during adsorption. We also investigate the effects of various parameters on the adsorption which are incorporated in the model system.

Keywords: activated charcoal, adsorption, impulsive differential equation, methanol poisoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
625 Comparative Evaluation of Kinetic Model of Chromium and Lead Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Activated Balanitesaegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Umar Manko

Abstract:

A series of batch experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds based activated carbon as compared with industrial activated carbon for the removal of chromium and lead ions from aqueous solution by the adsorption process within 30 to 150 minutes contact time. The activated samples were prepared using zinc chloride and tetraoxophophate(VI) acid. The results obtained showed that the activated carbon of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds studied had relatively high adsorption capacities for these heavy metal ions compared with industrial Activated Carbon. The percentage removal of Cr (VI) and lead (II) ions by the three activated carbon samples were 64%, 70% and 71%; 60%, 66% and 60% respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes for the heavy metal ions. The equilibrium data fitted the pseudo second order out of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich ,Natarajan and Khalaf models tested. The investigation also showed that the adsorbents can effectively remove metal ions from similar wastewater and aqueous media.

Keywords: activated carbon, pseudo second order, chromium, lead, Elovich model

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624 The Utilization of Tea Residues for Activated Carbon Preparation

Authors: Jiazhen Zhou, Youcai Zhao

Abstract:

Waste tea is commonly generated in certain areas of China and its utilization has drawn a lot of concern nowadays. In this paper, highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea by physical activation in the presence of water vapor in a tubular furnace. The effect of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of produced activated carbon are studied. The yield decreased with the increase of activation temperature. According to the Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the micropore and mesopore are both developed in the activated carbon. The specific surface area and the mesopore volume fractions of the activated carbon increased with the raise of activation temperature. The maximum specific surface area attained 756 m²/g produced at activation temperature 900°C. The results showed that the activation temperature had a significant effect on the micro and mesopore volumes as well as the specific surface area.

Keywords: activated carbon, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, physical activation, waste tea

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
623 Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen Koc, A. S. Kipcak, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.

Keywords: activated carbon, chemical activation, H₂SO₄, microwave, pomegranate peel

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622 Magnetic Activated Carbon: Preparation, Characterization, and Application for Vanadium Removal

Authors: Hakimeh Sharififard, Mansooreh Soleimani

Abstract:

In this work, the magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite (Fe-CAC) has been synthesized by anchorage iron hydr(oxide) nanoparticles onto commercial activated carbon (CAC) surface and characterized using BET, XRF, SEM techniques. The influence of various removal parameters such as pH, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium on vanadium removal was evaluated using CAC and Fe-CAC in batch method. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm models. These equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich model. Results showed that CAC had the vanadium adsorption capacity of 37.87 mg/g, while the Fe-AC was able to adsorb 119.01 mg/g of vanadium. Kinetic data was found to confirm pseudo-second-order kinetic model for both adsorbents.

Keywords: magnetic activated carbon, remove, vanadium, nanocomposite, freundlich

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
621 Decoloriation of Rhodamine-B Dye by Pseudomonas putida on Activated Carbon

Authors: U. K. Ghosh, A. Ullhyan

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Activated carbon prepared from mustard stalk was applied to decolorize Rhodamine-B dye bearing synthetic wastewater by simple adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Results showed that percentage of Rhodamine-B dye removal was 82% for adsorption and 99.3% for SAB at pH 6.5, adsorbent dose 10 g/L and temperature 32ºC.

Keywords: activated carbon, mustard stalk, Rhodamine-B, adsorption, SAB, Pseudomonas putida

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620 Preparation of Activated Carbon from Lignocellulosic Precursor for Dyes Adsorption

Authors: H. Mokaddem, D. Miroud, N. Azouaou, F. Si-Ahmed, Z. Sadaoui

Abstract:

The synthesis and characterization of activated carbon from local lignocellulosic precursor (Algerian alfa) was carried out for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The effect of the production variables such as impregnation chemical agents, impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time were investigated. Carbon obtained using the optimum conditions (CaCl2/ 1:1/ 500°C/2H) was characterized by various analytical techniques scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) and zero-point-of-charge (pHpzc). Adsorption tests of methylene blue on the optimal activated carbon were conducted. The effects of contact time, amount of adsorbent, initial dye concentration and pH were studied. The adsorption equilibrium examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich–Peterson models reveals that the Langmuir model is most appropriate to describe the adsorption process. The kinetics of MB sorption onto activated carbon follows the pseudo-second order rate expression. The examination of the thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous (ΔG ° < 0) and endothermic (ΔH ° > 0), the positive value of the standard entropy shows the affinity between the activated carbon and the dye. The present study showed that the produced optimal activated carbon prepared from Algerian alfa is an effective low-cost adsorbent and can be employed as alternative to commercial activated carbon for removal of MB dye from aqueous solution.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, cationic dyes, Algerian alfa

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619 In-Situ LDH Formation of Sodium Aluminate Activated Slag

Authors: Tao Liu, Qingliang Yu, H. J. H. Brouwers

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Among the reaction products in the alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (AAS), the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have a remarkable capacity of chloride and heavy metal ions absorption. The promotion of LDH phases in the AAS matrix can increase chloride resistance. The objective of this study is that use the different dosages of sodium aluminate to activate slag, consequently promoting the formation of in-situ LDH. The hydration kinetics of the sodium aluminate activated slag (SAAS) was tested by the isothermal calorimetry. Meanwhile, the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sodium hydroxide-activated slag is selected as the reference. The results of XRD, TGA, and FTIR showed that the formation of LDH in SAAS was increased by the aluminate dosages.

Keywords: ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium aluminate activated slag, in-situ LDH formation, chloride absorption

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618 Adsorption of Paracetamol Using Activated Carbon of Dende and Babassu Coconut Mesocarp

Authors: R. C. Ferreira, H. H. C. De Lima, A. A. Cândido, O. M. Couto Junior, P. A. Arroyo, K. Q De Carvalho, G. F. Gauze, M. A. S. D. Barros

Abstract:

Removal of the widespread used drug paracetamol from water was investigated using activated carbon originated from dende coconut mesocarp and babassu coconut mesocarp. Kinetic and equilibrium data were obtained at different values of pH. Babassu activated carbon showed higher efficiency due to its acidity and higher microporosity. Pseudo-second order model was better adjusted to the kinetic results. Equilibrium data may be represented by Langmuir equation. Lower solution pH provided better removal efficiency as the carbonil groups may be attracted by the positively charged carbon surface.

Keywords: adsorption, activated carbon, babassu, dende

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617 Adsorption Studies of Lead from Aqueos Solutions on Cocount Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: G. E. Sharaf El-Deen, S. E. A. Sharaf El-Deen

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Activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell (ACS); a discarded agricultural waste was used to produce bioadsorbent through easy and environmental friendly processes. This activated carbon based biosorbent was evaluated for adsorptive removal of lead from water. The characterisation results showed this biosorbent had very high specific surface area and functional groups. The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by Langmuir, whilst kinetics data by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption process could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic.

Keywords: coconut shell, activated carbon, adsorption isotherm and kinetics, lead removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
616 Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, ammonium, NH₄-N, chemical oxygen demand, COD, greywater, nitrate, NO₃-N, total suspended solids, TSS

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615 Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Mohammed Jibril, Husna M. Zain

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Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation, and microwave activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 1500C. Seven successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles; the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.

Keywords: activated carbon, palm shell-PEEK, regeneration, thermal

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614 Application of Nitric Acid Modified Cocos nucifera, Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor Activated Carbon for Adsorption of H₂S Gas

Authors: Z. N. Ali, O. A. Babatunde, S. Garba, H. M. S. Haruna

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The potency of modified and unmodified activated carbons prepared from shells of Cocos nucifera (coconut shell), straws of Pennisetum glaucum (millet) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) for adsorption of hydrogen sulphide gas were investigated using an adsorption apparatus (stainless steel cylinder) at constant temperature (ambient temperature). The adsorption equilibria states were obtained when the pressure indicated on the pressure gauge remained constant. After modification with nitric acid, results of the scanning electron microscopy of the unmodified and modified activated carbons showed that HNO3 greatly improved the formation of micropores and mesopores on the activated carbon surface. The adsorption of H2S gas was found to be highest in modified Cocos nucifera activated carbon with maximum monolayer coverage of 28.17 mg/g, and the adsorption processes were both physical and chemical with the physical process being predominant. The adsorption data were well fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model with the adsorption capacities of the activated carbons in the order modified Cocos nucifera > modified Pennisetum glaucum > modified Sorghum bicolor > unmodified Cocos nucifera > unmodified Pennisetum glaucum > unmodified Sorghum bicolour.

Keywords: activated carbon adsorption, hydrogen sulphide, nitric acid, modification, stainless steel cylinder

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613 Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Physiological Level Using Anodized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube–Poldimethylsiloxane Paste Electrode

Authors: Angelo Gabriel Buenaventura, Allan Christopher Yago

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A carbon paste electrode (CPE) composed of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) conducting particle and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) binder was used for simultaneous detection of Dopamine (DA) and Uric Acid (UA) in the presence of Ascorbic Acid (AA) at physiological level. The MWCNT-PDMS CPE was initially activated via potentiodynamic cycling in a basic (NaOH) solution, which resulted in enhanced electrochemical properties. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements revealed a significantly lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) for the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 5.08kΩ) as compared to buffer (pH 7)-activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 25.9kΩ). Reversibility analysis of Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple of both Buffer-Activated CPE and OH--Activated CPE showed that the OH—Activated CPE have peak current ratio (Ia/Ic) of 1.11 at 100mV/s while 2.12 for the Buffer-Activated CPE; this showed an electrochemically reversible behavior for Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple even at relatively fast scan rate using the OH--activated CPE. Enhanced voltammetric signal for DA and significant peak separation between DA and UA was obtained using the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE in the presence of 50 μM AA via Differential Pulse Voltammetry technique. The anodic peak currents which appeared at 0.263V and 0.414 V were linearly increasing with increasing concentrations of DA and UA, respectively. The linear ranges were obtained at 25 μM – 100 μM for both DA and UA. The detection limit was determined to be 3.86 μM for DA and 5.61 μM for UA. These results indicate a practical approach in the simultaneous detection of important bio-organic molecules using a simple CPE composed of MWCNT and PDMS with base anodization as activation technique.

Keywords: anodization, ascorbic acid, carbon paste electrodes, dopamine, uric acid

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612 Total Dissolved Solids and Total Iron in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: M. Y. Saleh, G. M. ELanany, M. H. Elzahar, M. Z. Elshikhipy

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Industrial wastewater discharge, which carries high concentrations of dissolved solids and iron, could be treated by high rate activated sludge stage of the multiple-stage sludge treatment plant, a system which is characterized by high treatment efficiency, optimal prices, and small areas compared with conventional activated sludge treatment plants. A pilot plant with an influent industrial discharge flow of 135 L/h was designed following the activated sludge system to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of dosages 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L alum salt to the aeration tank. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and iron (Fe) in industrial discharge flow had an average range of 140000 TDS and 4.5 mg/L iron. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using a dosage of 200 mg/L alum succeeded to improve the removal efficiency of TDS and total iron to 48.15% and 68.11% respectively.

Keywords: wastewater, activated sludge, TDS, total iron

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611 Removal of Nitrate and Phosphates from Waste Water Using Activated Bio-Carbon Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Natania De Wet, Tefo Mbambo, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

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Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients which are required in the ecosystem, however, at high levels, these nutrients contribute to the process of eutrophication in the receiving water bodies, which threatens aquatic organisms. Hence it is vital that they are removed before the water is discharged. This phenomenon increases the cost related to wastewater treatment. This raises the need for the development of processes that are cheaper. Activated biocarbon was used in batch and filtration system to remove nitrates and phosphates. The batch system has higher nutrients removal capabilities than the filtration system. For phosphate removal, 93 % removal is achieved at the adsorbent of 300 g while for nitrates, 84 % removal is achieved when 200 g of activated carbon is loaded.

Keywords: waste water treatment, phosphates, nitrates, activated carbon, agricultural waste

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610 Comparative Study of Fenton and Activated Carbon Treatment for Dyeing Waste Water

Authors: Prem Mohan, Namrata Jariwala

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In recent years 10000 dyes are approximately used by dying industry which makes dyeing wastewater more complex in nature. It is very difficult to treat dyeing wastewater by conventional methods. Here an attempt has been made to treat dyeing wastewater by the conventional and advanced method for removal of COD. Fenton process is the advanced method and activated carbon treatment is the conventional method. Experiments have been done on synthetic wastewater prepared from three different dyes; acidic, disperse and reactive. Experiments have also been conducted on real effluent obtained from industry. The optimum dose of catalyst and hydrogen peroxide in Fenton process and optimum activated carbon dose for each of these wastewaters were obtained. In Fenton treatment, COD removal was obtained up to 95% whereas 70% removal was obtained with activated carbon treatment.

Keywords: activated carbon, advanced oxidation process, dyeing waste water, fenton oxidation process

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609 Evaluation of the Adsorption Adaptability of Activated Carbon Using Dispersion Force

Authors: Masao Fujisawa, Hirohito Ikeda, Tomonori Ohata, Miho Yukawa, Hatsumi Aki, Takayoshi Kimura

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We attempted to predict adsorption coefficients by utilizing dispersion energies. We performed liquid-phase free energy calculations based on gas-phase geometries of organic compounds using the DFT and studied the relationship between the adsorption of organic compounds by activated carbon and dispersion energies of the organic compounds. A linear correlation between absorption coefficients and dispersion energies was observed.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, prediction, dispersion energy

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608 Elimination of Phosphorus by Activated Carbon Prepared from Algerian Dates Stones

Authors: A. Kamarchoua, A. A. Bebaa, A. Douadi

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The current work has a goal of the preparation of activated carbon from the stones of dates from southern Algeria (El-Oued province) using a simple pyrolysis proceeded by chemical impregnation in sulphuric acid. For the preparation of the carbon, we choose the diameter of the pellets (0.5-1)mm, activation by acid and water (1:1), carbonization at 450˚C. The prepared carbon has the following characteristics: specific surface 125.86 m2/g, methylene blue number 40, CCE = 0.3meq.g/l, IR and micrographics SEM. The activated carbon thus obtained is used at the water purification in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Kouinine, El- Oued province, to totally eliminate phosphorus. We analyzed the water at the WWTP before the purification procedure. In this study, we have looked at the effect of the following parameters on the adsorption of carbon: the pH, the contact time (Tc) and the agitation speed (Va). The best conditions for phosphorus adsorption are: pH=4 or pH >5, Tc = 60 min and Va = 900 rotations per minute.

Keywords: activated carbon, date stones, pyrolysis, phosphate pollutants

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607 Effect of TPA and HTLV-1 Tax on BRCA-1 and ERE Controlled Genes Expression

Authors: Azhar Jabareen, Mahmoud Huleihel

Abstract:

BRCA-1 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor, whose expression is activated by the estrogen (E2)-liganded ERα receptor. The activated ERα is a transcriptional factor which activates various genes either by direct binding to the DNA at E2-responsive elements (EREs) and indirectly associated with a range of alternative non-ERE elements. Interference with BRCA-1 expression and/or functions leads to high risk of breast or/and ovarian cancer. Our lab investigated the involvement of Human T-cell leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) in breast cancer, since HTLV-1 Tax was found to strongly inhibit BRCA-1 expression. In addition, long exposure of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which is one of the stress-inducing agents activated the HTLV-1 promoter. So here the involvement of TPA in breast cancer had been examined by testing the effect of TPA on BRCA-1 and ERE expression. The results showed that TPA activated both BRCA-1 and ERE expression. In the 12 hours TPA activated the tow promoters more than others time, and after 24 hours the level of the tow promoters was decreased. Tax inhibited BRCA-1 expression but did not succeed to inhibit the effect of TPA. Then the activation of the two promoters was not through ERα pathway because TPA had no effect on ERα binding to the two promoters of the BRCA-1 and ERE. Also, the activation was not via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway because when the inhibitory of NF-κB had been added to the TPA, it still activated the tow promoters. However, it seems that 53BP1 may be involved in TPA activation of these promoters because ectopic high expression of 53BP1 significantly reduced the TPA activity. In addition, in the presence of Bisindolylmaleimide-I (BI)- the inhibitor of Protein Kinase C (PKC)- there was no activation for the two promoters, so the PKC is agonized BRCA-1 and ERE activation.

Keywords: BRCA-1, ERE, HTLV-1, TPA

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606 Production of Clean Reusable Distillery Waste Water Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Orange Peels

Authors: Joseph Govha, Sharon Mudutu

Abstract:

The research details the treatment of distillery waste water by making use of activated carbon prepared from orange peels as an adsorbent. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions to determine the optimum conditions that work best for the removal of color in distillery waste water using orange peel activated carbon. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions by varying contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, testing for color intensity and Biological Oxygen Demand. A maximum percentage color removal of 88% was obtained at pH 7 at an adsorbent dosage of 1g/20ml. Maximum adsorption capacity was obtained from the Langmuir isotherm at R2=0.98.

Keywords: distillery, waste water, orange peel, activated carbon, adsorption

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605 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Duckweed (Lemna gibba) and Waste Activated Sludge in Batch Mode

Authors: Rubia Gaur, Surindra Suthar

Abstract:

The present study investigates the anaerobic co-digestion of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and waste activated sludge (WAS) of different proportions with acclimatized anaerobic granular sludge (AAGS) as inoculum in mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments were performed in 500 mL capacity reagent bottles at 300C temperature. Varied combinations of pre-treated duckweed biomass with constant volume of anaerobic inoculum (AAGS - 100 mL) and waste activated sludge (WAS - 22.5 mL) were devised into five batch tests. The highest methane generation was observed with batch study, T4. The Gompertz model fits well on the experimental data of the batch study, T4. The values of correlation coefficient were achieved relatively higher (R2 ≥ 0.99). The co-digestion without pre-treatment of both duckweed and WAS shows poor generation of methane gas.

Keywords: aquatic weed, biogas, biomass, Gompertz equation, waste activated sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 207