Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: V. A. C. Vale

40 3D Dentofacial Surgery Full Planning Procedures

Authors: Oliveira M., Gonçalves L., Vale F., Caramelo F., Francisco I., Vale, F., Sanz D., Domingues M., Lopes M., Moreia D., Lopes T., Santos T., Cardoso H.

Abstract:

The ARTHUR project consists of a platform that allows the virtual performance of maxillofacial surgeries, offering, in a photorealistic concept, the possibility for the patient to have an idea of the surgical changes before they are performed on their face. For this, the system brings together several image formats, dicoms and objs that, after loading, will generate the bone volume, soft tissues and hard tissues. The system also incorporates the patient's stereophotogrammetry, in addition to their data and clinical history. After loading and inserting data, the clinician can virtually perform the surgical operation and present the final result to the patient, generating a new facial surface that contemplates the changes made in the bone and tissues of the maxillary area. This tool acts in different situations that require facial reconstruction, however this project focuses specifically on two types of use cases: bone congenital disfigurement and acquired disfiguration such as oral cancer with bone attainment. Being developed a cloud based solution, with mobile support, the tool aims to reduce the decision time window of patient. Because the current simulations are not realistic or, if realistic, need time due to the need of building plaster models, patient rates on decision, rely on a long time window (1,2 months), because they don’t identify themselves with the presented surgical outcome. On the other hand, this planning was performed time based on average estimated values of the position of the maxilla and mandible. The team was based on averages of the facial measurements of the population, without specifying racial variability, so the proposed solution was not adjusted to the real individual physiognomic needs.

Keywords: 3D computing, image processing, image registry, image reconstruction

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39 Characterization of Optical Communication Channels as Non-Deterministic Model

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

Increasingly telecommunications sectors are adopting optical technologies, due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects, telecommunication

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
38 Solar Energy for Decontamination of Ricinus communis

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

The solar energy was used as a source of heating in Ricinus communis pie with the objective of eliminating or minimizing the percentage of the poison in it, so that it can be used as animal feed. A solar cylinder and plane collector were used as heating system. In the focal area of the solar concentrator a gutter support endowed with stove effect was placed. Parameters that denote the efficiency of the systems for the proposed objective was analyzed.

Keywords: solar energy, concentrate, Ricinus communis, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
37 Study of the Behavior and Similarities of Flow and Level Transmitters in the Industries

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

In view of the requirements of the current industrial processes, the instrumentation plays a critical role. In this context, this work aims to raise some the operating characteristics of the level and flow transmitters, in addition to observing their similarities and possible limitations for certain configurations.

Keywords: flow, level, instrumentation, configurations of meters, method of choice of the meters, instrumentation in the industrial processes

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36 Estimation and Forecasting Debris Flow Phenomena on the Highway of the 'TRACECA' Corridor

Authors: Levan Tsulukidze

Abstract:

The paper considers debris flow phenomena and forecasting of them in the corridor of ‘TRACECA’ on the example of river Naokhrevistkali, as well as the debris flow -type channel passing between the villages of Vale-2 and Naokhrevi. As a result of expeditionary and reconnaissance investigations, as well as using empiric dependencies, the debris flow expenditure has been estimated in case of different debris flow provisions.

Keywords: debris flow, Traceca corridor, forecasting, river Naokhrevistkali

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
35 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles

Authors: E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, V. A. C. Vale, J. U. L. Mendes

Abstract:

Two of the objective principal in the study of the aerodynamics of vehicles are the safety and the acting. Those objectives can be reached through the development of devices modify the drainage of air about of the vehicle and also through alterations in the way of the external surfaces. The front lowest profile of the vehicle, for instance, has great influence on the coefficient of aerodynamic penetration (Cx) and later on great part of the pressure distribution along the surface of the vehicle. The objective of this work was of analyzing the aerodynamic behavior that it happens on some types the trucks of vehicles, based on experimentation in aerodynamic tunnel, seeking to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of each one of them.

Keywords: aerodynamic, vehicles, wind tunnel, safety, acting

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34 Thermal Analysis of a Composite of Coco Fiber and Látex

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

Given the unquestionable need of environmental preservation, the natural fibers have been seen as a salutary alternative for production of composites in substitution to the synthetic fibers, vitreous and metallic. In this work, the behavior of a composite was analyzed done with fiber of the peel of the coconut as reinforcement and latex as head office, when submitted the source of heat. The temperature profiles were verified in the internal surfaces and it expresses of the composite as well as the temperature gradient in the same. It was also analyzed the behavior of this composite when submitted to a cold source. As consequence, in function of the answers of the system, conclusions were reached.

Keywords: natural fiber, composite, temperature, latex, gradient

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33 Analysis of Brake System for Vehicle Off-Road

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

In elapsing of the years it elaborates automobile it is developing automobiles more and more modern that, every year, the vehicles recently of the assembly lines, practically they push for the past produced models there is very little time. Those innovations didn't also pass unperceived in 0respect the safety of the vehicles. It is in this development apprenticeship the brakes systems equipped more and more with resources sophisticated. In that way, before of that context, this research tried to project a brake system for a vehicle off-road and to analyze your acting as the brakes efficiency: distances traveled and time, concluding with possible improvements in the system.

Keywords: brakes system, off-road, vehicle acting, automotive and mechanical engineering

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32 Solar Heating System to Promote the Disinfection

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

It presents a heating system using low cost alternative solar collectors to promote the disinfection of water in low income communities that take water contaminated by bacteria. The system consists of two solar collectors, with total area of 4 m² and was built using PET bottles and cans of beer and soft drinks. Each collector is made up of 8 PVC tubes, connected in series and work in continuous flow. It will determine the flux the most appropriate to generate the temperature to promote the disinfection. Will be presented results of the efficiency and thermal loss of system and results of analysis of water after undergoing the process of heating.

Keywords: disinfection of water, solar heating system, poor communities, PVC

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31 Solar Heating System to Promote the Disinfection of Water

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

It presents a heating system using low cost alternative solar collectors to promote the disinfection of water in low income communities that take water contaminated by bacteria. The system consists of two solar collectors, with total area of 4 m² and was built using PET bottles and cans of beer and soft drinks. Each collector is made up of 8 PVC tubes, connected in series and work in continuous flow. It will determine the flux the most appropriate to generate the temperature to promote the disinfection. It will be presented results of the efficiency and thermal loss of system and results of analysis of water after undergoing the process of heating.

Keywords: Disinfection of water, solar heating system, poor communities, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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30 Solutions for Comfort and Safety on Vibrations Resulting from the Action of the Wind on the Building in the Form of Portico with Four Floors

Authors: G. B. M. Carvalho, V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

With the aim of increasing the levels of comfort and security structures, the study of dynamic loads on buildings has been one of the focuses in the area of control engineering, civil engineering and architecture. Thus, this work presents a study based on simulation of the dynamics of buildings in the form of portico subjected to wind action, besides presenting an action of passive control, using for this the dynamics of the structure, consequently representing a system appropriated on environmental issues. These control systems are named the dynamic vibration absorbers.

Keywords: dynamic vibration absorber, structure, comfort, safety, wind behavior, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
29 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles in the Wind Tunnel and Water Tunnel

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

The simulation in wind tunnel is used thoroughly to model real situations of drainages of air. Besides the automotive industry, a great number of applications can be numbered: dispersion of pollutant, studies of pedestrians comfort and dispersion of particles. This work had the objective of visualizing the characteristics aerodynamics of two automobiles in different ways. To accomplish that drainage of air a fan that generated a speed exists (measured with anemometer of hot thread) of 4,1m/s and 4,95m/s. To visualize the path of the air through the cars, in the wind tunnel, smoke was used, obtained with it burns of vegetable oil. For “to do smoke” vegetable oil was used, that was burned for a tension of 20 V generated by a thread of 2,5 mm. The cars were placed inside of the wind tunnel with the drainage of “air-smoke” and photographed, registering like this the path lines around them, in the 3 different speeds.

Keywords: aerodynamics, vehicle drag, vegetable oil, wind tunnel

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28 Passive Solar Distiller with Low Cost of Implementation, Operation and Maintenance

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Rudson de Sousa Lima

Abstract:

Around the planet Earth, access to clean water is a problem whose importance has increased due to population growth and its misuse. Thus, projects that seek to transform water sources improper (salty and brackish) in drinking water sources are current issues. However, this transformation generally requires a high cost of implementation, operation and maintenance. In this context, the aim of this work is the development of a passive solar distiller for brackish water, made from recycled and durable materials such as aluminum, cement, glass and PVC basins. The results reveal factors that influence the performance and viability of the expansion project.

Keywords: solar distiller, passive distiller, distiller with pyramidal roof, ecologically correct

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27 Analysis Thermal of Composite Material in Cold Systems

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

Given the unquestionable need of environmental preservation of discarded industrial residues, The scrape of tires have been seen as a salutary alternative for addictive in concrete, asphalt production and of other composites materials. In this work, grew a composite the base of scrape of tire as reinforcement and latex as matrix, to be used as insulating thermal in "cold" systems (0º). Analyzed the acting of the material was what plays the thermal conservation when submitted the flow of heat. Verified the temperature profiles in the internal surfaces and it expresses of the composite as well as the temperature gradient in the same. As a consequence, in function of the answers of the system, conclusions were reached.

Keywords: cold system, latex, flow of heat, asphalt production

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26 Heating System for Water Pool by Solar Energy

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

A swimming pool heating system is presented, composed of two alternative collectors with serial PVC absorber tubes that work in regimen of forced stream that is gotten through a bomb. A 500 liters reservoir was used, simulating the swimming pool, being raised some data that show the viability of the considered system. The chosen outflow was corresponding to 100 l/h. In function of the low outflow it was necessary the use of a not popular bomb, choosing the use of a low outflow alternative pumping system, using an air conditioner engine with three different rotations for the desired end. The thermal data related to each collector and their developed system will be presented. The UV and thermal degradations of the PVC exposed to solar radiation will be also boarded, demonstrating the viability of using tubes of this material as absorber elements of radiation in water heating solar collectors.

Keywords: solar energy, solar swimming pool, water heating, PVC tubes, alternative system

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25 Development of Composite Material for Thermal and Electrical Insulation

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

Recycling has been greatly stimulated by the market. There are already several products that are produced with recycled materials and various wastes have been studied in various forms of applications. The vast majority of insulation applications in domestic, commercial and industrial systems in the range of low and medium temperatures (up to 180 ° C), using the aggressive nature materials such as glass wool, rock wool, polyurethane, polystyrene. Such materials, while retaining the effectiveness of the heat flux, are disposed as expensive and take years too absorbed by nature. Thus, trying to adapt to a global policy on the preservation of the environment, a study in order to develop an insulating compound of natural / industrial waste and biodegradable materials conducted. Thus, this research presents the development of a composite material based zest tire and latex for thermal and electrical insulation.

Keywords: composite, latex, scrapes tire, insulation, electrical

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24 Analysis of the Reaction to the Fire of a Composite Material the Base of Scrapes of Tires and Latex for Thermal Isolation in Vehicles

Authors: Elmo Thiao Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, R. M. Nascimento, J. U. L. Mendes

Abstract:

Now the great majority of the applications of thermal isolation in the strip of drops and averages temperatures (up to 200ºC), it is made being used from aggressive materials to the nature such an as: glass wool, rock wool, polystyrene, EPS among others. Such materials, in spite of the effectiveness in the retention of the flow of heat, possess considerable cost and when discarded they are long years to be to decompose. In that context, trying to adapt the world politics the about of the preservation of the environment, a study began with intention of developing a material composite, with properties of thermal, originating from insulating industrial residues. In this research, the behavior of the composite was analyzed, as submitted the fire. For this, the reaction rehearsals were accomplished to the fire for the composites 2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and for the latex, based in the "con" experiment in agreement with the norm ASTM–E 1334-90. As consequence, in function of the answers of the system, was possible to observe to the acting of each mixture proportion.

Keywords: composite, Latex, reacion to the fire, thermal isolation

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23 Using Wiki for Enhancing the Knowledge Transfer to Newcomers: An Experience Report

Authors: Hualter Oliveira Barbosa, Raquel Feitosa do Vale Cunha, Erika Muniz dos Santos, Fernanda Belmira Souza, Fabio Sousa, Luis Henrique Pascareli, Franciney de Oliveira Lima, Ana Cláudia Reis da Silva, Christiane Moreira de Almeida

Abstract:

Software development is intrinsic human-based knowledge-intensive. Due to globalization, software development has become a complex challenge and we usually face barriers related to knowledge management, team building, costly testing processes, especially in distributed settings. For this reason, several approaches have been proposed to minimize barriers caused by geographic distance. In this paper, we present as we use experimental studies to improve our knowledge management process using the Wiki system. According to the results, it was possible to identify learning preferences from our software projects leader team, organize and improve the learning experience of our Wiki and; facilitate collaboration by newcomers to improve Wiki with new contents available in the Wiki.

Keywords: mobile product, knowledge transfer, knowledge management process, wiki, GSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
22 Analysis of the Feasibility of Using a Solar Spiral Type Water Heater for Swimming Pool Application in Physiotherapy and Sports Centers

Authors: G. B. M. Carvalho, V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

A heated pool makes it possible to use it during all hours of the day and in the seasons, especially in physiotherapies and sports centers. However, the cost of installation, operation and maintenance often makes it difficult to deploy. In addition, the current global policy for the use of natural resources from energy sources contradicts the most common means of heating swimming pools, such as the use of gas (Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas), the use of firewood or oil and the use of electricity (heat pumps and electrical resistances). In this sense, this work focuses on the use of solar water heaters to be used in swimming pools of physiotherapy centers, in order to analyze their viability for this purpose in view of the costs linked to the medium and/or long term heating. For this, materials of low cost, low weight, easy commercial acquisition were used besides easy manufacture. Parameters such as flow, temperature distribution, efficiency and technical-economic feasibility were evaluated.

Keywords: heating, water, pool, solar energy, solar collectors, temperature, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
21 Construction of a Radial Centrifuge Pump for Agricultural Applications

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

With the evolution of the productive processes, demonstrated mainly by the presence every time larger of the irrigation and to crescent it disputes for water, accompanied by your shortage (distances every time larger), there is need to project facilities that can provide supply of water with larger speed and efficiency. Being like this, the presence of hydraulic pumps in an irrigation project or water supply for small communities, is of highest importance, and the knowledge of the fundamental parts to your good operation it deserves the due attention and care. Hydraulic pumps are machines of flow, whose function is to supply energy for the water, in order to press down her, through the conversion of mechanical energy of your originating from rotor a motor the combustion or of an electric motor. This way, the hydraulic pumps are had as generating hydraulic machines. The objective of this work was to project and to build a radial centrifugal pump for agricultural application in small communities.

Keywords: centrifuge pump, hydraulic energy, agricultural applications, irrigation

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20 Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structure on Very High Aggressive Environment: A Case Study

Authors: Karla Peitl Miller, Leomar Bravin Porto, Kaitto Correa Fraga, Nataniele Eler Mendes

Abstract:

This paper presents the evaluation and study of a real reinforced concrete structure of a fertilizer storage building, constructed on a Vale’s Port at Brazil, which has been recently under refurbishment. Data that will be shared and commented aim to show how wrong choices in project concepts allied to a very high aggressive environment lead to a fast track degradation, incurring on a hazardous condition associated with huge and expensive treatment for repair and guarantee of minimum performance conditions and service life. It will be also shown and discussed all the covered steps since pathological manifestations first signs were observed until the complete revitalization and reparation planning would be drawn. The conclusions of the work easily explicit the importance of professional technical qualification, the importance of minimum requirements for design and structural reforms, and mainly, the importance of good inspection and diagnostic engineering continuous work.

Keywords: durability, reinforced concrete repair, structural inspection, diagnostic engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
19 Development of One-Axis Didactic Solar Tracker for Photovoltaic Panels

Authors: L. J. de Bessa Neto, M. R. B. Guerra Vale, F. K. O. M. Varella Guerra

Abstract:

In recent years, solar energy has established itself as one of the main sources of renewable energy, gaining a large space in electricity generation around the world. However, due to the low performance of photovoltaic panels, technologies need to be sought to maximize the production of electricity. In this regard, the present study aims to develop a prototype of solar tracker for didactics applications, controlled with the Arduino® platform, that enables the movement of photovoltaic plates in relation to the sun positions throughout the day through an electromechanical system, optimizing, thus, the efficiency of solar photovoltaic generation and improvements for the photovoltaic effect. The solar tracking technology developed in this work was presented of the shape oral and practical in two middle schools in the municipality of Mossoró/RN, being one of the public network and other of the private network, always keeping the average age of the students, in the case, around 16 years, contemplating an average of 60 students in each of the visits. Thus, it is concluded that the present study contributed substantially to the dissemination of knowledge concerning the photovoltaic solar generation, as well as the study of solar trackers, thus arousing the interest and curiosity of the students regarding the thematic approached.

Keywords: alternative energy, solar tracker, energy efficiency, photovoltaic panels

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18 Construction of Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

The study of the aerodynamics is related to the improvement in the acting of airplanes and automobiles with the objective of being reduced the effect of the attrition of the air on structures, providing larger speeds and smaller consumption of fuel. The application of the knowledge of the aerodynamics not more limits to the aeronautical and automobile industries. In that way, being tried the new demands with relationship to the aerodynamic study in the most several areas of the engineering, this work presents the stages of the project and construction of a wind tunnel for application in aerodynamic rehearsals. Among the several configurations of existent wind tunnels, opted to build open circuit, due to smaller construction complexity and installation; operational simplicity and cost reduced. Belonging to the type blower, to take advantage of a larger efficiency of the motor; and with diffusion so that flowed him of air it wins speed before reaching the section of rehearsals. The guidelines for project were: didactic practices: study of the layer it limits and analyze of the drainages on proof bodies with different geometries. For the pressure variation in the test section a connected manometer used a pitot tube. Quantitative and qualitative results showed to be satisfactory.

Keywords: wind tunnel, aerodynamics, air, airplane

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17 Central Solar Tower Model

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

It is presented a model of two subsystems of Central Solar Tower to produce steam in applications to help in energy consumption. The first subsystem consists of 24 heliostats constructed of adaptive and mobile metal structures to track the apparent movement of the sun on its focus and covered by 96 layers of mirror of 150 mm at width and 220 mm at length, totaling an area of concentration of 3.2 m². Thereby obtaining optical parameters essential to reflection of sunlight by the reflector surface and absorption of this light by focus located in the light receiver, which is inserted in the second subsystem, which is at the top of a tower. The tower was built in galvanized iron able to support the absorber, and a gas cylinder to cool the equipment. The area illuminated by the sun was 9 x 10-2m2, yielding a concentration factor of 35.22. It will be shown the processes of manufacture and assembly of the Mini-Central Tower proposal, which has as main characteristics the construction and assembly facilities, in addition to reduced cost. Data of tests to produce water vapor parameters are presented and determined to diagnose the efficiency of the mini-solar central tower. It will be demonstrated the thermal, economic and material viability of the proposed system.

Keywords: solar oven, solar cooker, composite material, low cost, sustainable development

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16 Viability Study of the Use of Solar Energy for Water Heating in Homes in Brazil

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

The sun is an inexhaustible source and harnessing its potential both for heating and for power generation is one of the most promising and necessary alternatives, mainly due to environmental issues. However, it should be noted that this has always been present in the generation of energy on the planet, only indirectly, as it is responsible for virtually all other energy sources, such as: Generates the evaporation source of the water cycle, which allows the impoundment and the consequent generation of electricity (hydroelectricity); Winds are caused by large-scale atmospheric induction caused by solar radiation; Oil, coal and natural gas were generated from waste plants and animals that originally obtained the energy needed for its development of solar radiation. Thus, the idea of using solar energy for practical purposes for the benefit of man is not new, as it accompanies the story since the beginning of time, which means that the sun was always of utmost importance in the design of shelters, or homes is, constructed by taking into consideration the use of sunlight, practicing what was being lost through the centuries, until a time when the buildings started to be designed completely independent of the sun. However, the climatic rigors still needed to be fought, only artificially and today seen as unsustainable, with additional facilities fueled by energy consumption. This paper presents a study on the feasibility of using solar energy for heating water in homes, developing a simplified methodology covering the mode of operation of solar water heaters, solar potential existing alternative systems of Brazil, the international market, and barriers encountered.

Keywords: solar energy, solar heating, solar project, water heating

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15 Lateritic Soils from Ceara, Brazil: Sustainable Use in Constructive Blocks for Social Housing

Authors: Ivelise M. Strozberg, Juliana Sales Frota, Lucas de Oliveira Vale

Abstract:

The state of Ceara, located in the northeast region of Brazil, is abundant in lateritic soil which has been usually discarded due to its lack of agricultural potential while materials of similar nature have been used as constituents of housing constructive elements in many parts of the world, such as India and Portugal, for decades. Since many of the semi-arid housing conditions in the state of Ceara fail to meet the minimum criteria regarding comfort and safety requirements, this research proposed to study the Ceara lateritic soil and the possibility of its use as a sustainable building block constituent for social housings, collaborating to the improvement of the region living conditions. In order to achieve this objective, soil samples were collected from five different locations within the specific region, three of which presented lateritic nature, being characterized according to the Unified Soil Classification System and the MCT methodology, which is a Brazilian methodology developed during the 80’s that aimed to better describe and approach tropical soils, its characterization and behavior. Two of these samples were used to build two different miniature block prototypes, which were manually molded, heated at low temperatures -( < 300 ºC) in order to save energy and lessen the CO₂ high emission rate common in traditional burning methods- and then submitted to load tests. Among the soils tested, the one with the highest degree of laterization and greater presence of fines constituted the block with the best performance in terms of flexural strength tensions, presenting resistance gains when heated at increasing temperatures, which can indicate that this type of soil has potential towards being used as constructing material.

Keywords: constructive blocks, lateritic soil, MCT methodology, sustainability

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14 Coagulation-flocculation Process with Metal Salts, Synthetic Polymers and Biopolymers for the Removal of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) from Wastewater

Authors: Andrew Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Pablo Campo

Abstract:

As a consequence of their potential to cause harm, there are strong regulatory drivers that require metals to be removed as part of the wastewater treatment process. Bioavailability-based standards have recently been specified for copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) and are expected to reduce acceptable metal concentrations. In order to comply with these standards, wastewater treatment works may require new treatment types to enhance metal removal and it is, therefore, important to examine potential treatment options. A substantial proportion of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in effluent is adsorbed to and/or complexed with macromolecules (eg. proteins, polysaccharides, aminosugars etc.) that are present in the colloidal size fraction. Therefore, technologies such as coagulation-flocculation (CF) that are capable of removing colloidal particles have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CF at removing trace metals from humus effluent using the following coagulants; ferric chloride (FeCl3), the synthetic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the biopolymers chitosan and Tanfloc. Effluent samples were collected from a trickling filter treatment works operating in the UK. Using jar tests, the influence of coagulant dosage and the velocity and time of the slow mixing stage were studied. Chitosan and PEI had a limited effect on the removal of trace metals (<35%). FeCl3 removed 48% Cu, 56% Pb and 41% Zn at the recommended dose of 0.10 mg/L. At the recommended dose of 0.25 mg/L Tanfloc removed 77% Cu, 68% Pb, 18% Ni and 42% Zn. The dominant mechanism for particle removal by FeCl3 was enmeshment in the precipitates (i.e. sweep flocculation) whereas, for Tanfloc, inter-particle bridging was the dominant removal mechanism. Overall, FeCl3 and Tanfloc were found to be most effective at removing trace metals from wastewater.

Keywords: coagulation-flocculation, jar test, trace metals, wastewater

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13 Rural Territorial Sustainable Development: Interinstitutional Dialogue and Transition to Sustainable Livelihoods

Authors: Aico Nogueira

Abstract:

This paper examines the interinstitutional dialogues within the Brazilian federal structures, which comprises federal, state and local levels, around the themes of new approaches and interventions aimed to promote sustainable rural development, particularly rural development as part of a territorial approach. The work seeks to understand to what extent the various levels of the state interact with these strategies, particularly with the locally constituted powers, focusing on the importance of the transition of traditional agriculture methods to more sustainable agroecological systems and its effects on food security and sustainable rural development. The research analyses as case studies the Sustainable Rural Territories Development Program (PRONAT) of the Ministry of Agrarian Development at the federal level, as well as the State of São Paulo and the Vale do Ribeira Territory, an area characterized by environmental and social vulnerability, restrictive environmental laws and attempts to promote sustainable development. In order to examine how the interrelationships between different levels of governance and civil society, in addition to the neo-institutionalist polity centered literature, the research uses an adaptation of the concept of arena in Ostrom and Hannigan, produced at different scales of decision-making processes, as well as the multilevel governance literature. Document analysis, interviews, focus groups and direct observation techniques are also used. The main findings of this study are that how different levels of governance understand and organize themselves for this work and have a direct impact on the actions taken. Consequently, programs formulated for this purpose are not associated with the creation of institutions capable of breaking with a traditional sectoral view that has historically prevailed in policymaking. And the transition from traditional agriculture to agroecological production systems is hampered by a sectorial foundation, based on large-scale production and the strengthening of the traditional country's land concentration model.

Keywords: agroecology, food security, inter-institutional dialogue, rural poverty, sustainable rural development, territorial development

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
12 Numerical Methodology to Support the Development of a Double Chamber Syringe

Authors: Lourenço Bastos, Filipa Carneiro, Bruno Vale, Rita Marques Joana Silva, Ricardo Freitas, Ângelo Marques, Sara Cortez, Alberta Coelho, Pedro Parreira, Liliana Sousa, Anabela Salgueiro, Bruno Silva

Abstract:

The process of flushing is considered to be an adequate technique to reduce the risk of infection during the clinical practice of venous catheterization. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of adhesion to this method, in part due to the complexity of this procedure. The project SeringaDuo aimed to develop an innovative double-chamber syringe for intravenous sequential administration of drugs and serums. This device served the purpose of improving the adherence to the practice, through the reduction of manipulations needed, which also improves patient safety, and though the promotion of flushing practice by health professionals, by simplifying this task. To assist on the development of this innovative syringe, a numerical methodology was developed and validated in order to predict the syringe’s mechanical and flow behavior during the fluids’ loading and administration phases, as well as to allow the material behavior evaluation during its production. For this, three commercial numerical simulation software was used, namely ABAQUS, ANSYS/FLUENT, and MOLDFLOW. This methodology aimed to evaluate the concepts feasibility and to optimize the geometries of the syringe’s components, creating this way an iterative process for product development based on numerical simulations, validated by the production of prototypes. Through this methodology, it was possible to achieve a final design that fulfils all the characteristics and specifications defined. This iterative process based on numerical simulations is a powerful tool for product development that allows obtaining fast and accurate results without the strict need for prototypes. An iterative process can be implemented, consisting of consecutive constructions and evaluations of new concepts, to obtain an optimized solution, which fulfils all the predefined specifications and requirements.

Keywords: Venous catheterization, flushing, syringe, numerical simulation

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11 Recycling Waste Product for Metal Removal from Water

Authors: Saidur R. Chowdhury, Mamme K. Addai, Ernest K. Yanful

Abstract:

The research was performed to assess the potential of nickel smelter slag, an industrial waste, as an adsorbent in the removal of metals from aqueous solution. An investigation was carried out for Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) adsorption from aqueous solution. Smelter slag was obtain from Ni ore at the Vale Inco Ni smelter in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The batch experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of smelter slag. The slag was characterized by surface analytical techniques. The slag contained different iron oxides and iron silicate bearing compounds. In this study, the effect of pH, contact time, particle size, competition by other ions, slag dose and distribution coefficient were evaluated to measure the optimum adsorption conditions of the slag as an adsorbent for As, Cu, Pb and Cd. The results showed 95-99% removal of As, Cu, Pb, and almost 50-60% removal of Cd, while batch experimental studies were conducted at 5-10 mg/L of initial concentration of metals, 10 g/L of slag doses, 10 hours of contact time and 170 rpm of shaking speed and 25oC condition. The maximum removal of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) was achieved at pH 5 while the maximum removal of Cd was found after pH 7. The column experiment was also conducted to evaluate adsorption depth and service time for metal removal. This study also determined adsorption capacity, adsorption rate and mass transfer rate. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 3.84 mg/g for As, 4 mg/g for Pb, and 3.86 mg/g for Cu. The adsorption capacity of nickel slag for the four test metals were in decreasing order of Pb > Cu > As > Cd. Modelling of experimental data with Visual MINTEQ revealed that saturation indices of < 0 were recorded in all cases suggesting that the metals at this pH were under- saturated and thus in their aqueous forms. This confirms the absence of precipitation in the removal of these metals at the pHs. The experimental results also showed that Fe and Ni leaching from the slag during the adsorption process was found to be very minimal, ranging from 0.01 to 0.022 mg/L indicating the potential adsorbent in the treatment industry. The study also revealed that waste product (Ni smelter slag) can be used about five times more before disposal in a landfill or as a stabilization material. It also highlighted the recycled slags as a potential reactive adsorbent in the field of remediation engineering. It also explored the benefits of using renewable waste products for the water treatment industry.

Keywords: adsorption, industrial waste, recycling, slag, treatment

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