Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: Jamun beverage

93 Storage Influence on Physico-Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Jamun Drink Prepared From Two Types of Pulp

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Mahreen Akhtar, Sidrah

Abstract:

In this paper, Jamun (Syzygium cumini; Myrtaceae) drink enriched with jamun pulp and seed was assessed for different physicochemical parameters (titratable acidity, pH, TSS, ascorbic acid, and total sugars and reducing sugars) and phytochemical aspects at every 15 days interval till 60 days storage period. Jamun pulp both with seed and without seed were used at levels of 7, 10 and 13 percent to prepare jamun drink in six combinations; T1 (7% pulp without seed), T2 (10% pulp without seed), T3 (13% pulp without seed), T4 (7% pulp with seed), T5 (10% pulp with seed), T6 (13% pulp with seed). Storage period resulted decrease in pH (4.18 to 4.08) and ascorbic acid (21.92%) significantly along with phenolic contents (6.13 to 4.85g of GAE/kg) and antioxidant activity (70.68 to 48.62 percent) within treatments. All treatments showed significant increases in total sugars (11.59 to 11.80%), reducing sugars (2.30 to 2.50%), TSS (12.2 to 13.32 °B) and acidity (0.23% to 0.31%) during storage. Treatments T3, T5 and T6 showed best results in terms of all physicochemical parameters during storage. Statistically significant differences were obtained among sensory parameters as a function of pulp type and concentration, while treatment T5 (10% pulp with seed) obtained highest score (7.16) in terms of all sensory parameters. It can be concluded that nutrient rich jamun drink can be prepared as an attempt to add value to the underutilized jamun fruit of Pakistan.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Jamun beverage, physicochemical, storage

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92 Column Studies on Chromium(VI) Adsorption onto Kala Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) Seed Powder

Authors: Sumi Deka, Krishna Gopal Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

This paper evaluate the industrial use of Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed powder (KSP) for the continuous adsorption of Cr(VI) in a column adsorption process. Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Kala jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed Powder have been examined with the variation of (a) bed depth of the adsorbents, (b) flow rate of the adsorbents and (c) Cr(VI) concentration. The results showed that both the adsorption and the regeneration of the Cr(VI) onto Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) seed Powder (KSP) can effectively occur in the column mode of adsorption. On increasing the bed depth, the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto KSP increases whereas on increasing the flow rate and the Cr(VI) concentration of KSP adsorption decreases. The results of the column studies were also fitted to Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model. The BDST model was appropriate for designing the column for industrial purpose.

Keywords: bed-depth-service-time, continuous adsorption, Cr(VI), KSP

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91 Jamun Juice Extraction Using Commercial Enzymes and Optimization of the Treatment with the Help of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties

Authors: Payel Ghosh, Rama Chandra Pradhan, Sabyasachi Mishra

Abstract:

Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) is one of the important indigenous minor fruit with high medicinal value. The jamun cultivation is unorganized and there is huge loss of this fruit every year. The perishable nature of the fruit makes its postharvest management further difficult. Due to the strong cell wall structure of pectin-protein bonds and hard seeds, extraction of juice becomes difficult. Enzymatic treatment has been commercially used for improvement of juice quality with high yield. The objective of the study was to optimize the best treatment method for juice extraction. Enzymes (Pectinase and Tannase) from different stains had been used and for each enzyme, best result obtained by using response surface methodology. Optimization had been done on the basis of physicochemical property, nutritional property, sensory quality and cost estimation. According to quality aspect, cost analysis and sensory evaluation, the optimizing enzymatic treatment was obtained by Pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus strain. The optimum condition for the treatment was 44 oC with 80 minute with a concentration of 0.05% (w/w). At these conditions, 75% of yield with turbidity of 32.21NTU, clarity of 74.39%T, polyphenol content of 115.31 mg GAE/g, protein content of 102.43 mg/g have been obtained with a significant difference in overall acceptability.

Keywords: enzymatic treatment, Jamun, optimization, physicochemical property, sensory analysis

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90 Development of Functional Dandelion (Tarazacum officinale) Beverage Using Lactobacillus acidophilus F46 with Cinnamoyl Esterase Activity

Authors: Yong Geun Yun, Jong Hui kim, Sang Ho Baik

Abstract:

This study was carried out to develop a fermented dandelion (Tarazacum officinale) beverage using lactic acid bacteria with cinnamoyl esterase (CE) activity isolated from human feces. Lactic acid bacteria were screened based on bacterial survival ability in dandelion extract and CE activity. Dandelion extract fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus F-46 (LA-F46) maintained approximately 105-106 log CFU/mL over an 8 days period. After fermented dandelion beverage (FDB) with LA-46 for 8 days at 37oC the pH was decreased from pH 7.0 to 3.5. Antioxidant activity by using DPPH radical scavenging activity of the prepared FDB was significantly increased compared to that of non-fermented dandelion beverage (NFDB). Moreover, CE activity was significantly enhanced during fermentation and showed the approximately 4.3 times increased concentration of caffeic acid up to 9.91 mg/100 mL after 8 days of incubation compared to NFDB. Therefore, it concluded that dandelion can be a good source for preparing a functional beverage and fermentation by LA-F46 enhanced the food functionality with enhanced caffeic acids.

Keywords: cinnamoyl esterase, dandelion, fermented beverage, lactic acid bacteria

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89 Drivers and Barriers for Implementing Environmental Management in Beverage Processors: A Case of Thailand

Authors: Auttasuriyanan Pakpoom, Setthasakko Watchaneeporn

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The main purpose of this study is to gain a clearer understanding of key determinants that drive environmental management and barriers that hinder its development. The study employs semi-structured interviews with key informants accompanied by site observations. Key informants include production, environmental and plant managers of six beverage companies, including three Thai and three multinational companies in Thailand. It is found that corporate image, government subsidies, top management leadership and education institutes are four primary factors influencing the implementation of environmental management in the beverage processors. No demand from Asian buyers, employee resistance to change and lack of environmental knowledge are identified as barriers.

Keywords: environmental management, beverage, government subsidies, education institutes, employee resistance, environmental knowledge, Thailand

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88 The Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Beverage in Retail Stores Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Winita Kitisak, Boontarika Panyomoon, Siriyakorn Nilpoun, Nithit Yosit, Peeraya Somsak

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The purpose of this study will affect the marketing mix that influences the consumers’ behavior towards beverage purchasing from retail stores. It aims to study the consumers and to better understand their behaviors and factors influencing their decision making on buying beverage in retail stores. We study the example of 400 consumers in Chiang Mai. The study shows that most of the respondents were male, 50 percent is 20-30 year old, and 36.66 percent is 31-40 year old, only 2.66 percent is upper 50 years old, bachelor’s degree holders, working in business field and student with 10,001-15,000 Baht income. Most buyers spend 4-6 times a week buying cheap beverage from retail stores. The consumer bought alcoholic beverages, green tea drinks, and soft drinks, but the mainly purchased product was beer. The results indicate that the brand of the product motivates more on consumers’ demand. While shelf displays, products presentation, and sales promotion affect the most on the consumers’ decision to purchase from the retail stores, the promotions moderately impact the consumers’ decision on purchasing from retail stores.

Keywords: consumer behavior, beverage, retail stores, convenience store

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87 Quality Service Standard of Food and Beverage Service Staff in Hotel

Authors: Thanasit Suksutdhi

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This survey research aims to study the standard of service quality of food and beverage service staffs in hotel business by studying the service standard of three sample hotels, Siam Kempinski Hotel Bangkok, Four Seasons Resort Chiang Mai, and Banyan Tree Phuket. In order to find the international service standard of food and beverage service, triangular research, i.e. quantitative, qualitative, and survey were employed. In this research, questionnaires and in-depth interview were used for getting the information on the sequences and method of services. There were three parts of modified questionnaires to measure service quality and guest’s satisfaction including service facilities, attentiveness, responsibility, reliability, and circumspection. This study used sample random sampling to derive subjects with the return rate of the questionnaires was 70% or 280. Data were analyzed by SPSS to find arithmetic mean, SD, percentage, and comparison by t-test and One-way ANOVA. The results revealed that the service quality of the three hotels were in the international level which could create high satisfaction to the international customers. Recommendations for research implementations were to maintain the area of good service quality, and to improve some dimensions of service quality such as reliability. Training in service standard, product knowledge, and new technology for employees should be provided. Furthermore, in order to develop the service quality of the industry, training collaboration between hotel organization and educational institutions in food and beverage service should be considered.

Keywords: service standard, food and beverage department, sequence of service, service method

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86 Determination of Physicochemical Properties, Bioaccessibility of Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mineral Enriched Linden Herbal Tea Beverage

Authors: Senem Suna, Canan Ece Tamer, Ömer Utku Çopur

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In this research, dried linden (Tilia argentea) leaves and blossoms were used as a raw material for mineral enriched herbal tea beverage production. For this aim, %1 dried linden was infused with boiling water (100 °C) for 5 minutes. After cooling, sucrose, citric acid, ascorbic acid, natural lemon flavor and natural mineral water were added. Beverage samples were plate filtered, filled into 200-mL glass bottles, capped then pasteurized at 98 °C for 15 minutes. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH, minerals (Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na), color (L*, a*, b*), turbidity, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, and ascorbic were determined as 7.66±0.28 g/100 g, 0.13±0.00 g/100 mL, and 19.42±0.62 mg/100 mL, respectively. pH was measured as 3.69. Fe, Ca, Mg, K and Na contents of the beverage were determined as 0.12±0.00, 115.48±0.05, 34.72±0.14, 48.67±0.43 and 85.72±1.01 mg/L, respectively. Color was measured as 13.63±0.05, -4.33±0.05, and 3.06±0.05 for L*, a*, and b* values. Turbidity was determined as 0.69±0.07 NTU. Bioaccessible phenolics were determined as 312.82±5.91 mg GAE/100 mL. Antioxidant capacities of chemical (MetOH:H2O:HCl) and physiological extracts (in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction) with DPPH (27.59±0.53 and 0.17±0.02 μmol trolox/mL), FRAP (21.01±0.97 and 13.27±0.19 μmol trolox/mL) and CUPRAC (44.71±9.42 and 2.80±0.64 μmol trolox/mL) methods were also evaluated. As a result, enrichment with natural mineral water was proposed for the development of functional and nutritional values together with a good potential for commercialization.

Keywords: linden, herbal tea beverage, bioaccessibility, antioxidant capacity

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85 Impact of a Locally-Prepared Fermented Alcoholic Beverage from Jaggery on the Gut Bacterial Profile of the Tea-Tribal Populations of Assam, India

Authors: Rupamoni Thakur, Madhusmita Dehingia, Narayan C. Talukdar, Mojibur R. Khan

Abstract:

The human gut is an extremely active fermentation site and is inhabited by diverse bacterial species. Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been shown to substantially modulate the human gut bacterial profile (GBP) of an individual. Assam, a major north-eastern state of India, is home to a number of tribal populations of which the tea-tribes form a major community. These tea-tribal communities are known to prepare and consume a locally-prepared alcoholic beverage from fermented jaggery, whose chemical composition is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of daily intake of the locally-prepared alcoholic beverage on the GBP of the tea-tribal communities and correlate it with the changes in the biochemical biomarkers of the population. The fecal bacterial diversity of 40 drinkers and 35 non-drinking healthy individuals were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results suggested that the GBP was significantly modulated in the fermented-beverage consuming subjects. Significant difference was also observed in the serum biochemical parameters such as triglyceride, total cholesterol and the liver marker enzymes (ASAT/ALAT and GGT). Further studies to identify the GBP of drinkers vs non-drinkers through Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis and to correlate the changes with the biochemical biomarkers of the population is underway.

Keywords: alcoholic beverage, gut bacterial profile, PCR-DGGE analysis, tea-tribes of India

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84 Perception of Hygiene Knowledge among Staff Working in Top Five Famous Restaurants of Male’

Authors: Zulaikha Reesha Rashaad

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One of the major factors which can contribute greatly to success of catering businesses is to employ food and beverage staff having sound hygiene knowledge. Individuals having sound knowledge of hygiene has a higher chance of following safe food practices in food production. One of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illnesses has been identified as lack of hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in catering establishments and restaurants. This research aims to analyze the hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in top five restaurants of Male’, in relation to their age, educational background, occupation and training. The research uses quantitative and descriptive methods in data collection and in data analysis. Data was obtained through random sampling technique with self-administered survey questionnaires which was completed by 60 respondents working in 5 different restaurants operating at top level in Male’. The respondents of the research were service staff and chefs working in these restaurants. The responses to the questionnaires have been analyzed by using SPSS. The results of the research indicated that age, education level, occupation and training correlated with hygiene knowledge perception scores.

Keywords: food and beverage staff, food poisoning, food production, hygiene knowledge

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83 Toxicity of Bisphenol-A: Effects on Health and Regulations

Authors: Tuğba Özdal, Neşe Şahin Yeşilçubuk

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Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide in the plastic industry. This compound is mostly used in producing polycarbonate plastics that are often used for food and beverage storage, and BPA is also a component of epoxy resins that are used to line food and beverage containers. Studies performed in this area indicated that BPA could be extracted from such products while they are in contact with food. Therefore, BPA exposure is presumed. In this paper, the chemical structure of BPA, factors affecting BPA migration to food and beverages, effects on health, and recent regulations will be reviewed.

Keywords: BPA, health, regulations, toxicity

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82 Efficiency and Scale Elasticity in Network Data Envelopment Analysis: An Application to International Tourist Hotels in Taiwan

Authors: Li-Hsueh Chen

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Efficient operation is more and more important for managers of hotels. Unlike the manufacturing industry, hotels cannot store their products. In addition, many hotels provide room service, and food and beverage service simultaneously. When efficiencies of hotels are evaluated, the internal structure should be considered. Hence, based on the operational characteristics of hotels, this study proposes a DEA model to simultaneously assess the efficiencies among the room production division, food and beverage production division, room service division and food and beverage service division. However, not only the enhancement of efficiency but also the adjustment of scale can improve the performance. In terms of the adjustment of scale, scale elasticity or returns to scale can help to managers to make decisions concerning expansion or contraction. In order to construct a reasonable approach to measure the efficiencies and scale elasticities of hotels, this study builds an alternative variable-returns-to-scale-based two-stage network DEA model with the combination of parallel and series structures to explore the scale elasticities of the whole system, room production division, food and beverage production division, room service division and food and beverage service division based on the data of international tourist hotel industry in Taiwan. The results may provide valuable information on operational performance and scale for managers and decision makers.

Keywords: efficiency, scale elasticity, network data envelopment analysis, international tourist hotel

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81 Determination of Vitamin C Red Guava (Psidium guajava Linn) Fruit Juice, with Variation of Beverage Packaging by Titrimetic Method Using 2,6- Dichlorophenol Indophenol

Authors: Novriyanti Lubis, Riska Prasetiawati, Wulan Septiani

Abstract:

The quantitative analysis of vitamin C content from variations beverage packaging containing red guava (Psidium Guajava Linn) fruit juice had been done. In this study, four samples were obtained from the shopping center in Garut and Bandung City. Samples were tested quantitatively by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol titration method. The results showed different concentration of 4 samples consist of tetra pack packaging, tin, glass, and plastic bottles, such as; 17.99 mg/100 gr, 31.46 mg/100 gr, 13.00 mg/100 gr, and 12.01 mg/100 gr, respectively. These results indicated that the packaging variations affected the level of vitamin C content which was characterized by decreased levels of vitamin C. It means the levels of vitamin C from this research were not in accordance with nutritional value information on the packaging. Tetra pack packaging was the most stable compared to other packaging even though it had a shorter expired date than with other.

Keywords: vitamin C, variations beverage packaging, red guava, titration 2, 6- dichlorophenol indophenol

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80 Optimisation of Stored Alcoholic Beverage Joufinai with Reverse Phase HPLC Method and Its Antioxidant Activities: North- East India

Authors: Dibakar Chandra Deka, Anamika Kalita Deka

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Fermented alcoholic beverage production has its own stand among the tribal communities of North-East India. This biological oxidation method is followed by Ahom, Dimasa, Nishi, Miri, Bodo, Rabha tribes of this region. Bodo tribes among them not only prepare fermented alcoholic beverage but also store it for various time periods like 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months and 15 months etc. They prepare alcoholic beverage Jou (rice beer) following the fermentation of Oryza sativa with traditional yeast culture Amao. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main domain strain present in Amao. Dongphangrakep (Scoparia dulcis), Mwkhna (Clerodendrum viscosum), Thalir (Musa balbisina) and Khantal Bilai (Ananas cosmos) are the main plants used for Amao preparation. The stored Jou is known as Joufinai. They store the fermented mixture (rice and Amao) in anaerobic conditions for the preparation of Joufinai. We observed a successive increase in alcohol content from 3 months of storage period with 11.79 ± 0.010 (%, v/v) to 15.48 ± 0.070 (%, v/v) at 15 months of storage by a simple, reproducible and solution based colorimetric method. A positive linear correlation was also observed between pH and ethanol content with storage having correlation coefficient 0.981. Here, we optimised the detection of change in constituents of Joufinai during storage using reverse phase HPLC method. We found acetone, ethanol, acetic acid, glycerol as main constituents present in Joufinai. A very good correlation was observed from 3 months to 15 months of storage periods with its constituents. Increase in glycerol content was also detected with storage periods and hence Joufinai can be use as a precursor of above stated compounds. We also observed antioxidant activities increase from 0.056 ±2.80 mg/mL for 3 months old to 0.078± 5.33 mg/mL (in ascorbic acid equivalents) for 15 month old beverage by DPPH radical scavenging method. Therefore, we aimed for scientific validation of storage procedure used by Bodos in Joufinai production and to convert the Bodos’ traditional alcoholic beverage to a commercial commodity through our study.

Keywords: Amao, correlation, beverage, joufinai

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79 Cleaner Production Framework for an Beverage Manufacturing Company

Authors: Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

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This study explores to improve the resource efficiency, waste water reduction and to reduce losses of raw materials in a beverage making industry. A number of cleaner production technologies were put across in this work. It was also noted that cleaner production technology practices are not only desirable from the environmental point of view, but they also make good economic sense, in their contribution to the bottom line by conserving resources like energy, raw materials and manpower, improving yield as well as reducing treatment/disposal costs. This work is a resource in promoting adoption and implementation of CP in other industries for sustainable development.

Keywords: resource efficiency, beverages, reduce losses, cleaner production, energy, yield

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78 Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ayodeji Boyede

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Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy, psychological well-being, job performance

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77 Development of Sulfite Biosensor Based on Sulfite Oxidase Immobilized on 3-Aminoproplytriethoxysilane Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode

Authors: Pawasuth Saengdee, Chamras Promptmas, Ting Zeng, Silke Leimkühler, Ulla Wollenberger

Abstract:

Sulfite has been used as a versatile preservative to limit the microbial growth and to control the taste in some food and beverage. However, it has been reported to cause a wide spectrum of severe adverse reactions. Therefore, it is important to determine the amount of sulfite in food and beverage to ensure consumer safety. An efficient electrocatalytic biosensor for sulfite detection was developed by immobilizing of human sulfite oxidase (hSO) on 3-aminoproplytriethoxysilane (APTES) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of the hSO modified ITO electrode for various pretreatment and binding conditions. Amperometry was also utilized to demonstrate the current responses of the sulfite sensor toward sodium sulfite in an aqueous solution at a potential of 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl 1 M KCl). The proposed sulfite sensor has a linear range between 0.5 to 2 mM with a correlation coefficient 0.972. Then, the additional polymer layer of PVA was introduced to extend the linear range of sulfite sensor and protect the enzyme. The linear range of sulfite sensor with 5% coverage increases from 2.8 to 20 mM at a correlation coefficient of 0.983. In addition, the stability of sulfite sensor with 5% PVA coverage increases until 14 days when kept in 0.5 mM Tris-buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 8C. Therefore, this sensor could be applied for the detection of sulfite in the real sample, especially in food and beverage.

Keywords: sulfite oxidase, bioelectrocatalytsis, indium tin oxide, direct electrochemistry, sulfite sensor

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76 Container Chaos: The Impact of a Casual Game on Learning and Behavior

Authors: Lori L. Scarlatos, Ryan Courtney

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This paper explores the impact that playing a casual game can have on a player's learning and subsequent behavior. A casual mobile game, Container Chaos, was created to teach undergraduate students about the carbon footprint of various disposable beverage containers. Learning was tested with a short quiz, and behavior was tested by observing which beverage containers players choose when offered a drink and a snack. The game was tested multiple times, under a variety of different circumstances. Findings of these tests indicate that, with extended play over time, players can learn new information and sometimes even change their behavior as a result. This has implications for how other casual games can be used to teach concepts and possibly modify behavior.

Keywords: behavior, carbon footprint, casual games, environmental impact, material sciences

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75 Corporate Social Responsibility and Competitiveness: An Empirical Research Applied to Food and Beverage Industry in Croatia

Authors: Mirjana Dragas, Marli Gonan Bozac, Morena Paulisic

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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a balance between strategic and financial goals of companies, as well as social needs. The integration of competitive strategy and CSR in food and beverage industry has allowed companies to find new sources of competitive advantage. The paper discusses the fact that socially responsible companies encourage co-operation with socially responsible suppliers in order to strengthen market competitiveness. In addition to the descriptive interpretation of the results obtained by a questionnaire, factor analysis was used, while principal components analysis was applied as a factor extraction method. The research results based on two multiple regression analyses show that: (1) selecting the CSR supplier explains a statistically significant part of the variance of the results on the scale of financial aspects of competitiveness (as much as 44.7% of the explained variance); and (2) selecting the CSR supplier is a significant predictor of non-financial aspects of competitiveness (explains 43.9% of the variance of the results on the scale of non-financial aspects of competitiveness). A successful competitive strategy must ultimately support the growth strategy. This implies an analytical approach to finding factors that influence competitiveness through socially sustainable solutions and satisfactory top management decisions.

Keywords: competitiveness, corporate social responsibility, food and beverage industry, supply chain decision making

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74 Impact of Fermentation Time and Microbial Source on Physicochemical Properties, Total Phenols and Antioxidant Activity of Finger Millet Malt Beverage

Authors: Henry O. Udeha, Kwaku G. Duodub, Afam I. O. Jideanic

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Finger millet (FM) [Eleusine coracana] is considered as a potential ‘‘super grain’’ by the United States National Academies as one of the most nutritious among all the major cereals. The regular consumption of FM-based diets has been associated with reduced risk of diabetes, cataract and gastrointestinal tract disorder. Hyperglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and anticataractogenic, and other health improvement properties have been reported. This study examined the effect of fermentation time and microbial source on physicochemical properties, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of two finger millet (FM) malt flours. Sorghum was used as an external reference. The grains were malted, mashed and fermented using the grain microflora and Lactobacillus fermentum. The phenolic compounds of the resulting beverage were identified and quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and mass spectrometer system (MS). A fermentation-time dependent decrease in pH and viscosities of the beverages, with a corresponding increase in sugar content were noted. The phenolic compounds found in the FM beverages were protocatechuic acid, catechin and epicatechin. Decrease in total phenolics of the beverages was observed with increased fermentation time. The beverages exhibited 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2, 2՛-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging action and iron reducing activities, which were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 96 h fermentation for both microbial sources. The 24 h fermented beverages retained a higher amount of total phenolics and had higher antioxidant activity compared to other fermentation periods. The study demonstrates that FM could be utilised as a functional grain in the production of non-alcoholic beverage with important phenolic compounds for health promotion and wellness.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, eleusine coracana, fermentation, phenolic compounds

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73 Functional Beverage to Boosting Immune System in Elderly

Authors: Adineh Tajmousavilangerudi, Ali Zein Alabiden Tlais, Raffaella Di Cagno

Abstract:

The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has exposed our vulnerability to new illnesses and novel viruses that attack our immune systems, particularly in the elderly. The vaccine is being gradually introduced over the world, but new strains of the virus and COVID-19 will emerge and continue to cause illness. Aging is associated with significant changes in intestinal physiology, which increases the production of inflammatory products, alters the gut microbiota, and consequently establish inadequate immune response to minimize symptoms and disease development. In this context, older people who followed a Mediterranean-style diet, rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber, performed better physically and mentally (1,2). This demonstrates the importance of the human gut microbiome in transforming complex dietary macromolecules into the most biologically available and active nutrients, which in turn help to regulate metabolism and both intestinal and systemic immune function (3,4). The role of lactic acid fermentation is prominent also as a powerful tool for improving the nutritional quality of the human diet by releasing nutrients and boosting the complex bioactive compounds and vitamin content. the PhD project aims to design fermented and functional foods/beverages capable of modulating human immune function via the gut microbiome.

Keywords: functional bevarage, fermented beverage, gut microbiota functionality, immun system

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72 Influence of Different Sports on the Taste Perception and Acceptability of a Commercial Sports Drink among University Student-Athletes

Authors: Jana Daher, Ammar Olabi, Elie-Jacques Fares, Samer Kharrroubi, Tarek Gherbal

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It has been previously suggested that the perception and acceptability of fluids significantly varies between exercise and non-exercise situations. The study investigates the influence of different types of sports on the taste perception and acceptability of a commercial sports drink. A sample of Gatorade – red orange flavor was evaluated pre and post exercise by 34 male university athletes (20 weightlifters, 14 runners) recruited from the American University of Beirut. Urine samples were collected from the participants to test for hydration. Sensory testing examined the change in the intensity of sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and the thirst-quenching ability of the drink as well as its acceptability with respect to the type of sport practiced. Results indicated that the acceptability of the drink increased as the hydration status of the athletes decreased (p<0.01). No significant change was found in the perception of the sensory attributes between exercise and non-exercise conditions. However, there were significant differences between the two sports groups in the ratings of the thirst-quenching ability of the drink where runners’ ratings increased after exercise while weightlifters’ ratings decreased after exercise (p<0.01). These findings suggest that exercise has a larger effect on the acceptability and overall liking of the beverage compared to other sensory attributes. An enhanced liking of the beverage is key for optimal replenishment of lost fluids and electrolytes after exercise.

Keywords: hedonic, liking, sweetness, thirst-quenching

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71 Alcohol and Soda Consumption of University Students in Manila

Authors: Alexi Colleen F. Lim, Inna Felicia I. Agoncillo, Quenniejoy T. Dizon, Jennifer Joyce T. Eti, Carlota Aileen H. Monares, Neil Roy B. Rosales, Joshua F. Santillan, Alyssa Francesca D. S. Tanchuling, Josefina A. Tuazon, Mary Joan Therese C. Valera-Kourdache

Abstract:

Majority of leading causes of mortality in the Philippines are NCDs, which are preventable through control of known risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and alcohol. Sugar-sweetened beverages such as soda and energy drinks also contribute to NCD risk and are of concern particularly for youth. This study provides baseline data on beverage consumption of university students in Manila with the focus on alcohol and soda. It further aims to identify factors affecting consumption. Specific objectives include: (1) to describe beverage consumption practices of university students in Manila; and (2) to determine factors promoting excessive consumption of alcohol and soda including demographic characteristics, attitude, interpersonal and environmental variables. Methods: The study employed correlational design with randomly selected students from two universities in Manila. Students 18 years or older who agreed to participate were included after obtaining ethical clearance. The study had two instruments: (1) World Health Organization’s Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used with permission, to determine excessive alcohol consumption; and (2) a questionnaire to obtain information regarding soda and energy drink consumption. Results: Out of 400 students surveyed, 70% were female and 78.75% were 18-20 years old (mean=19.79; SD=3.76). Among them, 51.50% consumed alcohol, with 30.10% excessive drinkers. Soda consumption is 91.50% with 37.70% excessive consumers. For energy drinks, 36.75% consume this and only 4.76% drink excessively. Using logistic regression, students who were more likely to be excessive alcohol drinkers belonged to non-health courses (OR=2.21) and purchased alcohol from bars (OR=7.84). Less likely to drink excessively are students who do not drink due to stress (OR=0.05) and drink when it is accessible (OR=0.02). Excessive soda consumption was less likely for female students (OR=0.28), those who drink when it is accessible (OR=0.14), do not drink soda during stressful situations (OR=0.19), and do not use soda as hangover treatment (OR=0.15). Conclusion: Excessive alcohol consumption was greater among students in Manila (30.10%) than in US (20%). Drinking alcohol with friends was not related to excessive consumption but availability in bars was. It is expected that health sciences students are less likely to engage in excessive alcohol as they are more aware of its ill effects. Prevalence of soda consumption in Manila (91.50%) is markedly higher compared to 24.5% in the US. These findings can inform schools in developing appropriate health education interventions and policies. For greater understanding of these behaviors and factors, further studies are recommended to explore knowledge and other factors that may promote excessive consumption.

Keywords: alcohol consumption, beverage consumption, energy drinks consumption, soda consumption, university students

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70 Nutritional Composition of Provitamin A-Biofortified Amahewu, a Maize Based Beverage with Potential to Alleviate Vitamin A Deficiency

Authors: Temitope D. Awobusuyi, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela

Abstract:

Amahewu, a lactic acid fermented non-alcoholic maize based beverage is widely consumed in Southern Africa. It is traditionally made with white maize which is deficient in vitamin A. Provitamin A-biofortified maize has been developed for use as a complementary strategy to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. In this study the nutritional composition and protein digestibility of amahewu produced using provitamin A-biofortified maize was determined. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was processed by fermenting cooked maize porridge using malted provitamin A-biofortified maize, wheat bran and lactobacillus mixed starter culture with either malted maize or wheat bran. The total provitamin A content in amahewu products ranged from 3.3-3.8 μg/g (DW). The % retention of total provitamin A ranged from 79 %- 90 % μg/g (DW). The lowest % retention was observed in products fermented with the addition of starter culture. The gross energy of amahewu products were approx. 20 MJ/kg. There was a slight increase in the lysine content of amahewu after fermentation. Protein digestibility of amahewu (approx.91%) was slightly higher compared to unprocessed provitamin A maize (86%). However, a general decrease was observed in the minerals when compared to the unprocessed provitamin A maize. Amahewu processed using starter cultures has higher iron content than those processed with the addition of malt. These result suggests that provitamin A-biofortified amahewu has the potential to make a significant contribution towards alleviating Vitamin A Deficiency in rural communities who are also the most vulnerable to VAD.

Keywords: vitamin A deficiency, provitamin A maize, biofortification, fermentation

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69 Use and Health Effects of Caffeinated Beverages in Omani Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan

Abstract:

The increased use of caffeinated beverages and energy drink is posing threat to all ages and gender especially, younger adults. There is a lack of scientific evidence in Oman regarding caffeine and energy drink consumption. Our study aims to demonstrate the prevalence, pattern, knowledge and awareness, and side effects of caffeine intake among university students. This cross-sectional study including (N=365) apparently healthy male and female Omani university students aged 18-30 years, was carried out from February 2018-June 2018. A self-administered questionnaire with various sections was used to obtain information. The prevalence of caffeinated beverage consumption was commonly high among participants (97%). The males preferred Nescafe, coffee (both p < 0.001), espresso (p < 0.022), and soda (p < 0.008) while females consumed more tea (p < 0.029). The awareness about negative health impact of caffeine intake was significantly higher in females rather than males (p < 0.002). The overall prevalence of energy drink consumption was 42.1% (n=149), and higher in males (75%, p < 0.001). More males consumed 3-5 and > 5 cans/day while females used 1-2 cans/day. The starting age of energy drink use was higher in females (16-20 years (51.1%)) as compared to males (11-15 years (33.3%)). Females were more aware of caffeine as energy drink ingredient (p < 0.036) than males. The major source of information about enery drink was family and friends (58.3%). Red Bull was the commonly used brand (55.5%) among participants. Common reasons for high energy drink consumption were energy boost (68.4 %), taste (62.9%), reduce fatigue (52.1%), and better performance (47.3%). Females reported breathing problem, and abnormal heart beat (p < 0.004, 0.054, respectively), while more males reported irritability than females (p < 0.052). The prevalence of caffeinated beverage and energy drink consumption is high among participants. The awareness, and knowledge among university student is not satisfactory and needs immediate action to avoid excess use of such consumption.

Keywords: energy drink, caffeinated beverages, awareness, Oman

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68 A Quantitative Case Study Analysis of Store Format Contributors to U.S. County Obesity Prevalence in Virginia

Authors: Bailey Houghtaling, Sarah Misyak

Abstract:

Food access; the availability, affordability, convenience, and desirability of food and beverage products within communities, is influential on consumers’ purchasing and consumption decisions. These variables may contribute to lower dietary quality scores and a higher obesity prevalence documented among rural and disadvantaged populations in the United States (U.S.). Current research assessing linkages between food access and obesity outcomes has primarily focused on distance to a traditional grocery/supermarket store as a measure of optimality. However, low-income consumers especially, including U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants, seem to utilize non-traditional food store formats with greater frequency for household dietary needs. Non-traditional formats have been associated with less nutritious food and beverage options and consumer purchases that are high in saturated fats, added sugars, and sodium. Authors’ formative research indicated differences by U.S. region and rurality in the distribution of traditional and non-traditional SNAP-authorized food store formats. Therefore, using Virginia as a case study, the purpose of this research was to determine if a relationship between store format, rurality, and obesity exists. This research applied SNAP-authorized food store data (food access points for SNAP as well as non-SNAP consumers) and obesity prevalence data by Virginia county using publicly available databases: (1) SNAP Retailer Locator, and; (2) U.S. County Health Rankings. The alpha level was set a priori at 0.05. All Virginia SNAP-authorized stores (n=6,461) were coded by format – grocery, drug, mass merchandiser, club, convenience, dollar, supercenter, specialty, farmers market, independent grocer, and non-food store. Simple linear regression was applied primarily to assess the relationship between store format and obesity. Thereafter, multiple variables were added to the regression to account for potential moderating relationships (e.g., county income, rurality). Convenience, dollar, non-food or restaurant, mass merchandiser, farmers market, and independent grocer formats were significantly, positively related to obesity prevalence. Upon controlling for urban-rural status and income, results indicated the following formats to be significantly related to county obesity prevalence with a small, positive effect: convenience (p=0.010), accounting for 0.3% of the variance in obesity prevalence; dollar (p=0.005; 0.5% of the variance), and; non-food (p=0.030; 1.3% of the variance) formats. These results align with current literature on consumer behavior at non-traditional formats. For example, consumers’ food and beverage purchases at convenience and dollar stores are documented to be high in saturated fats, added sugars, and sodium. Further, non-food stores (i.e., quick-serve restaurants) often contribute to a large portion of U.S. consumers’ dietary intake and thus poor dietary quality scores. Current food access research investigates grocery/supermarket access and obesity outcomes. These results suggest more research is needed that focuses on non-traditional food store formats. Nutrition interventions within convenience, dollar, and non-food stores, for example, that aim to enhance not only healthy food access but the affordability, convenience, and desirability of nutritious food and beverage options may impact obesity rates in Virginia. More research is warranted utilizing the presented investigative framework in other U.S. and global regions to explore the role and the potential of non-traditional food store formats to prevent and reduce obesity.

Keywords: food access, food store format, non-traditional food stores, obesity prevalence

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67 Process Optimization and Microbial Quality of Provitamin A-Biofortified Amahewu, a Non-Alcoholic Maize Based Beverage

Authors: Temitope D. Awobusuyi, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi

Abstract:

Provitamin A-biofortified maize has been developed to alleviate Vitamin A deficiency; a major public health problem in developing countries. Amahewu, a non-alcoholic fermented maize based beverage is produced using white maize, which is deficient in Vitamin A. In this study, the suitable processing conditions for the production of amahewu using provitamin A-biofortified maize and the microbial quality of the processed products were evaluated. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was produced with reference to traditional processing method. Processing variables were Inoculum types (Malted provitamin A maize, Wheat bran, and lactobacillus mixed starter culture with either malted provitamin A or wheat bran) and concentration (0.5 %, 1 % and 2 %). A total of four provitamin A-biofortified amahewu products after fermentation were subjected to different storage conditions: 4ᴼC, 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. pH and TTA were monitored throughout the storage period. Sample of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu were plated and observed every day for 5 days to assess the presence of Aerobic and Anaerobic spore formers, E.coli, Lactobacillus and Mould. The addition of starter culture substantially reduced the fermentation time (6 hour, pH 3.3) compared to those with no addition of starter culture (24 hour pH 3.5). It was observed that Lactobacillus were present from day 0 for all the storage temperatures. The presence of aerobic spore former and mould were observed on day 3. E.coli and Anaerobic spore formers were not present throughout the storage period. These microbial growth were minimal at 4ᴼC while 25ᴼC had higher counts of growth with 37ᴼC having the highest colony count. Throughout the storage period, pH of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was stable. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu stored under refrigerated condition (4ᴼC) had better storability compared to 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. The production and microbial quality of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu might be important in combating Vitamin A Deficiency.

Keywords: biofortification, fermentation, maize, vitamin A deficiency

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66 Improving Productivity in a Glass Production Line through Applying Principles of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Authors: Omar Bataineh

Abstract:

Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a principle-based method that aims to get a high-level production with no breakdowns, no slow running and no defects. Key principles of TPM were applied in this work to improve the performance of the glass production line at United Beverage Company in Kuwait, which is producing bottles of soft drinks. Principles such as 5S as a foundation for TPM implementation, developing a program for equipment management, Cause and Effect Analysis (CEA), quality improvement, training and education of employees were employed. After the completion of TPM implementation, it was possible to increase the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) from 23% to 40%.

Keywords: OEE, TPM, FMEA, CEA

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65 Forecasting of Grape Juice Flavor by Using Support Vector Regression

Authors: Ren-Jieh Kuo, Chun-Shou Huang

Abstract:

The research of juice flavor forecasting has become more important in China. Due to the fast economic growth in China, many different kinds of juices have been introduced to the market. If a beverage company can understand their customers’ preference well, the juice can be served more attractively. Thus, this study intends to introduce the basic theory and computing process of grapes juice flavor forecasting based on support vector regression (SVR). Applying SVR, BPN and LR to forecast the flavor of grapes juice in real data, the result shows that SVR is more suitable and effective at predicting performance.

Keywords: flavor forecasting, artificial neural networks, Support Vector Regression, China

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64 The Distribution of Prevalent Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Food Store Formats Differ by U.S. Region and Rurality: Implications for Food Access and Obesity Linkages

Authors: Bailey Houghtaling, Elena Serrano, Vivica Kraak, Samantha Harden, George Davis, Sarah Misyak

Abstract:

United States (U.S.) Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants are low-income Americans receiving federal dollars for supplemental food and beverage purchases. Participants use a variety of (traditional/non-traditional) SNAP-authorized stores for household dietary purchases - also representing food access points for all Americans. Importantly consumers' food and beverage purchases from non-traditional store formats tend to be higher in saturated fats, added sugars, and sodium when compared to purchases from traditional (e.g., grocery/supermarket) formats. Overconsumption of energy-dense and low-nutrient food and beverage products contribute to high obesity rates and adverse health outcomes that differ in severity among urban/rural U.S. locations and high/low-income populations. Little is known about the SNAP-authorized food store format landscape nationally, regionally, or by urban-rural status, as traditional formats are currently used as the gold standard in food access research. This research utilized publicly available U.S. databases to fill this large literature gap and to provide insight into modes of food access for vulnerable U.S. populations: (1) SNAP Retailer Locator which provides a list of all authorized food stores in the U.S., and; (2) Rural-Urban Continuum Codes (RUCC) that categorize U.S. counties as urban (RUCC 1-3) or rural (RUCC 4-9). Frequencies were determined for the highest occurring food store formats nationally and within two regionally diverse U.S. states – Virginia in the east and California in the west. Store format codes were assigned (e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, mass merchandiser, supercenter, dollar, club, or other). RUCC was applied to investigate state-level differences in urbanity-rurality regarding prevalent food store formats and Chi Square test of independence was used to determine if food store format distributions significantly (p < 0.05) differed by region or rurality. The resulting research sample that represented highly prevalent SNAP-authorized food stores nationally included 41.25% of all SNAP stores in the U.S. (N=257,839), comprised primarily of convenience formats (31.94%) followed by dollar (25.58%), drug (19.24%), traditional (10.87%), supercenter (6.85%), mass merchandiser (1.62%), non-food store or restaurant (1.81%), and club formats (1.09%). Results also indicated that the distribution of prevalent SNAP-authorized formats significantly differed by state. California had a lower proportion of traditional (9.96%) and a higher proportion of drug (28.92%) formats than Virginia- 11.55% and 19.97%, respectively (p < 0.001). Virginia also had a higher proportion of dollar formats (26.11%) when compared to California (10.64%) (p < 0.001). Significant differences were also observed for rurality variables (p < 0.001). Prominently, rural Virginia had a significantly higher proportion of dollar formats (41.71%) when compared to urban Virginia (21.78%) and rural California (21.21%). Non-traditional SNAP-authorized formats are highly prevalent and significantly differ in distribution by U.S. region and rurality. The largest proportional difference was observed for dollar formats where the least nutritious consumer purchases are documented in the literature. Researchers/practitioners should investigate non-traditional food stores at the local level using these research findings and similar applied methodologies to determine how access to various store formats impact obesity prevalence. For example, dollar stores may be prime targets for interventions to enhance nutritious consumer purchases in rural Virginia while targeting drug formats in California may be more appropriate.

Keywords: food access, food store format, nutrition interventions, SNAP consumers

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