Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2486

Search results for: access to finances

2486 The Impact of Access to Finances on Survival of Small and Medium Enterprises: The South African Perspective in an Covid-19 Era

Authors: Thabiso Sthembiso Msomi

Abstract:

SMEs are the main engine of growth in most developing economies. One of the main factors that hinder the development of SME is access to finance. In this study, we explored the factors that hinder the growth and survival of SMEs in South Africa. The capital structure theory formed the theoretical underpinning for the study. The quantitative research design was adopted and data was collected from retail, construction, manufacturing and agriculture sectors of SMEs within the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The modified version of the Cochran formula was used to determine the sample size as 321 SMEs and analysed using the five-point Likert scale. The purposive sampling technique was used to select owners of SME. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for the data analysis through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to determine the factor structures of items employed to measure each of the constructs in this study. Then, the Cronbach’s alpha test was conducted to determine the reliability of each construct. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) was used to determine the adequacy of the sample size. Linear regression was done to determine the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The findings suggest that the main constraints facing South African SMEs were the lack of experienced management. Furthermore, the SMEs would fail to raise customer awareness of their products and services, which in turn affects their market access and monthly turnover. The study recommends that SMEs keep up-to-date records of business transactions to enable the business to keep track of its operations. The study recommends that South African banks adopt an SME accounting and bookkeeping program. The finding of this study benefits policymakers in both the private and public sectors.

Keywords: small businesses, access to finances, COVID-19, SMEs survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
2485 Microfinance and Women Empowerment in Bangladesh: Impact in Economic Dimension

Authors: Abm Mostafa, Rumbidzai Mukono, Peijie Wang

Abstract:

Using 285 respondents from two microfinance institutions, this research aims to assess the impact of microfinance on women’s economic empowerment in Bangladesh. Empirical measures of economic empowerment used in this paper are underpinned by a bargaining theory of household. Questionnaire is used for data collection following purposive sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, binary, and ordinal logistic regressions are deployed for data analysis. The findings of this study show that around three quarters of respondents have increased household income. They have increased their savings overwhelmingly; nonetheless, many of them are found to have a very small amount of savings. Still, more than half of the respondents are reported to have increased their savings when it is checked against at least 500 BDT per month. On the contrary, the percentage of women is moderate in terms of increasing control over finances. Empirical findings demonstrate the evidence of a relationship between the amount of loan and women’s household income, their savings, and control over finances. Nonetheless, no relationship is found in women’s areas. This study infers that women’s access to financial resources is fundamental to empower them in economic dimension.

Keywords: microfinance, women, economic, empowerment, Bangladesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2484 RAPDAC: Role Centric Attribute Based Policy Driven Access Control Model

Authors: Jamil Ahmed

Abstract:

Access control models aim to decide whether a user should be denied or granted access to the user‟s requested activity. Various access control models have been established and proposed. The most prominent of these models include role-based, attribute-based, policy based access control models as well as role-centric attribute based access control model. In this paper, a novel access control model is presented called “Role centric Attribute based Policy Driven Access Control (RAPDAC) model”. RAPDAC incorporates the concept of “policy” in the “role centric attribute based access control model”. It leverages the concept of "policy‟ by precisely combining the evaluation of conditions, attributes, permissions and roles in order to allow authorization access. This approach allows capturing the "access control policy‟ of a real time application in a well defined manner. RAPDAC model allows making access decision at much finer granularity as illustrated by the case study of a real time library information system.

Keywords: authorization, access control model, role based access control, attribute based access control

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2483 Model of Application of Blockchain Technology in Public Finances

Authors: M. Vlahovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a model of public finances, which combines three concepts: participatory budgeting, crowdfunding and blockchain technology. Participatory budgeting is defined as a process in which community members decide how to spend a part of community’s budget. Crowdfunding is a practice of funding a project by collecting small monetary contributions from a large number of people via an Internet platform. Blockchain technology is a distributed ledger that enables efficient and reliable transactions that are secure and transparent. In this hypothetical model, the government or authorities on local/regional level would set up a platform where they would propose public projects to citizens. Citizens would browse through projects and support or vote for those which they consider justified and necessary. In return, they would be entitled to a tax relief in the amount of their monetary contribution. Since the blockchain technology enables tracking of transactions, it can be used to mitigate corruption, money laundering and lack of transparency in public finances. Models of its application have already been created for e-voting, health records or land registries. By presenting a model of application of blockchain technology in public finances, this paper takes into consideration the potential of blockchain technology to disrupt governments and make processes more democratic, secure, transparent and efficient. The framework for this paper consists of multiple streams of research, including key concepts of direct democracy, public finance (especially the voluntary theory of public finance), information and communication technology, especially blockchain technology and crowdfunding. The framework defines rules of the game, basic conditions for the implementation of the model, benefits, potential problems and development perspectives. As an oversimplified map of a new form of public finances, the proposed model identifies primary factors, that influence the possibility of implementation of the model, and that could be tracked, measured and controlled in case of experimentation with the model.

Keywords: blockchain technology, distributed ledger, participatory budgeting, crowdfunding, direct democracy, internet platform, e-government, public finance

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2482 Competitiveness and Pricing Policy Assessment for Resilience Surface Access System at Airports

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou

Abstract:

Considering a worldwide tendency, air transports are growing very fast and many changes have taken place in planning, management and decision making process. Given the complexity of airport operation, the best use of existing capacity is the key driver of efficiency and productivity. This paper deals with the evaluation framework for the ground access at airports, by using a set of mode choice indicators providing key messages towards airport’s ground access performance. The application presents results for a sample of 12 European airports, illustrating recommendations to define policy and improve service for the air transport access chain.

Keywords: airport ground access, air transport chain, airport access performance, airport policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
2481 Net Neutrality and Asymmetric Platform Competition

Authors: Romain Lestage, Marc Bourreau

Abstract:

In this paper we analyze the interplay between access to the last-mile network and net neutrality in the market for Internet access. We consider two Internet Service Providers (ISPs), which act as platforms between Internet users and Content Providers (CPs). One of the ISPs is vertically integrated and provides access to its last-mile network to the other (non-integrated) ISP. We show that a lower access price increases the integrated ISP's incentives to charge CPs positive termination fees (i.e., to deviate from net neutrality), and decreases the non-integrated ISP's incentives to charge positive termination fees.

Keywords: net neutrality, access regulation, internet access, two-sided markets

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
2480 Interest Charges and Sustainability Challenges: The Case of OECD Countries

Authors: Aime Philombe Zapji Ymele

Abstract:

Servicing public debt is a significant budgetary burden. In the sense that the payment of interest charges is a liability on the balance sheet of the public budget and affects fiscal policy. Interest charges can sometimes become a burden if they crowd out private activities. In order to analyse and understand the determinants of the debt burden and its impact on the sustainability of public finances, the present work focuses on OECD countries. It is noted from the literature that the factors that determine interest charges are macroeconomic (inflation, GDP growth, and interest rates) and public finances (primary balance and public debt). After analysing a panel of 33 OECD countries and using ordinary least squares (OLS), we find that public debt, inflation, and long-term interest rates are positively correlated with interest charges. An increase in any of these variables leads to an increase in debt charges. On the other hand, a growth in GDP is negatively associated with interest charges. Indeed, an increase in GDP generates enough revenue to meet the repayment of debt charges. According to the empirical analysis, we can say that, despite the large and growing debt-to-GDP ratio of major OECD countries, interest charges are not a threat to the sustainability of public finances. However, it is important for these countries to reduce the ratio of public debt to GDP because, in the face of the many challenges (health, aging population, etc.) that are looming on the horizon, an increase in interest rates could bring with it considerable burdens that would threaten the budgetary balance of these states.

Keywords: interest charges, sustainability, public debt, interest rates

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2479 Interest Charges and Sustainability Challenges: The Case of OECD Countries

Authors: Zapji Ymele Aime Philombe

Abstract:

Servicing public debt is a significant budgetary burden in the sense that the payment of interest charges is a liability on the balance sheet of the public budget and affects fiscal policy. Interest charges can sometimes become a burden if they crowd out private activities. In order to analyse and understand the determinants of the debt burden and its impact on the sustainability of public finances, the present work focuses on OECD countries. It is noted from the literature that the factors that determine interest charges are macroeconomic (inflation, GDP growth and interest rates) and public finances (primary balance and public debt). After analysing a panel of 33 OECD countries and using ordinary least squares (OLS), we find that public debt, inflation and long-term interest rates are positively correlated with interest charges. An increase in any of these variables leads to an increase in debt charges. On the other hand, a growth in GDP is negatively associated with interest charges. Indeed, an increase in GDP generates enough revenue to meet the repayment of debt charges. According to the empirical analysis, we can say that, despite the large and growing debt-to-GDP ratio of major OECD countries, interest charges are not a threat to the sustainability of public finances. However, it is important for these countries to reduce the ratio of public debt to GDP because, in the face of the many challenges (health, aging population, etc.) that are looming on the horizon, an increase in interest rates could bring with it considerable burdens that would threaten the budgetary balance of these states.

Keywords: interests charges, public debt, sustainability, interest rates

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
2478 Low Electrical Energy Access Rate in Burundi as a Barrier to Achieving the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Gatoto Placide, Michel Roddy Lollchund, Gace Athanase Dalson

Abstract:

This paper first presents a review of the current situation of energy access rate in Burundi, which is relatively low compared to other countries. The paper aims to identify the key gaps in improving the electrical energy access in Burundi and proposes a solution to overcome these gaps. It is shown that the electrical power grid is old and concentrated in north-west and in Bujumbura city while other regions lack access to national grids. Next to that, the link between electricity access and sustainable development in Burundi is clarified. Further, some solutions are suggested to solve energy access problems such as the electricity transmission lines extension and renovation, diversification of energy sources.

Keywords: Burundi, energy access, hydropower, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
2477 Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?

Authors: Sarah Baker, Jayati Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.

Keywords: faculty scholarship, institutional repositories, library and information science journals, open access

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2476 Access Control System for Big Data Application

Authors: Winfred Okoe Addy, Jean Jacques Dominique Beraud

Abstract:

Access control systems (ACs) are some of the most important components in safety areas. Inaccuracies of regulatory frameworks make personal policies and remedies more appropriate than standard models or protocols. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of software, such as integrated Big Data (BD) software for controlling large volumes of encrypted data and resources embedded in a dedicated BD production system. This paper proposes a general access control strategy system for the diffusion of Big Data domains since it is crucial to secure the data provided to data consumers (DC). We presented a general access control circulation strategy for the Big Data domain by describing the benefit of using designated access control for BD units and performance and taking into consideration the need for BD and AC system. We then presented a generic of Big Data access control system to improve the dissemination of Big Data.

Keywords: access control, security, Big Data, domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2475 Dry Season Rice Production along Hadejia Valley Irrigation Scheme in Auyo Local Government Area in Jigawa State

Authors: Saifullahi Umar, Baba Mamman Yarima, Mohammed Bello Usman, Hassan Mohammed

Abstract:

This study was conducted along with the Hadejia valley project irrigation under the Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HRBDA) in Jigawa State. The multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 72 rice farmers operating along with the Hadejia Valley Irrigation Project. Data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive statistics and Farm budget technique. The result shows that 55% of the farmers were between 31-40 years of age, 66.01% were male, and the result also revealed that the total cost of cultivation of an acre of land for rice production during the dry season was N73,900 with input cost accounting for 63.59% of the total cost of production. The gross return was N332,500, with a net return of N258,600 per acre. The estimated benefit-cost ratio of 3.449 indicates the strong performance of the dry season rice production. The leading constraints to dry season rice production were low access to quality extension services, low access to finance, poor quality fertilizers, and poor prices. The study, therefore, concludes that dry season rice production is a profitable enterprise in the study area hence, to productivity the farmers should be linked to effective extension service delivery institutions, expanding their access to productive sources of finances, the government should strengthen fertilizer quality control measures and comprehensive market linkages for the farmers.

Keywords: Auyo, dry season, Hadejia Valley, rice

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
2474 Survey of Access Controls in Cloud Computing

Authors: Monirah Alkathiry, Hanan Aljarwan

Abstract:

Cloud computing is one of the most significant technologies that the world deals with, in different sectors with different purposes and capabilities. The cloud faces various challenges in securing data from unauthorized access or modification. Consequently, security risks and levels have greatly increased. Therefore, cloud service providers (CSPs) and users need secure mechanisms that ensure that data are kept secret and safe from any disclosures or exploits. For this reason, CSPs need a number of techniques and technologies to manage and secure access to the cloud services to achieve security goals, such as confidentiality, integrity, identity access management (IAM), etc. Therefore, this paper will review and explore various access controls implemented in a cloud environment that achieve different security purposes. The methodology followed in this survey was conducting an assessment, evaluation, and comparison between those access controls mechanisms and technologies based on different factors, such as the security goals it achieves, usability, and cost-effectiveness. This assessment resulted in the fact that the technology used in an access control affects the security goals it achieves as well as there is no one access control method that achieves all security goals. Consequently, such a comparison would help decision-makers to choose properly the access controls that meet their requirements.

Keywords: access controls, cloud computing, confidentiality, identity and access management

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2473 Analyzing the Impact of DCF and PCF on WLAN Network Standards 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g

Authors: Amandeep Singh Dhaliwal

Abstract:

Networking solutions, particularly wireless local area networks have revolutionized the technological advancement. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have gained a lot of popularity as they provide location-independent network access between computing devices. There are a number of access methods used in Wireless Networks among which DCF and PCF are the fundamental access methods. This paper emphasizes on the impact of DCF and PCF access mechanisms on the performance of the IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g standards. On the basis of various parameters viz. throughput, delay, load etc performance is evaluated between these three standards using above mentioned access mechanisms. Analysis revealed a superior throughput performance with low delays for 802.11g standard as compared to 802.11 a/b standard using both DCF and PCF access methods.

Keywords: DCF, IEEE, PCF, WLAN

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
2472 Legal Means for Access to Information Management

Authors: Sameut Bouhaik Mostafa

Abstract:

Information Act is the Canadian law gives the right of access to information for the institution of government. It declares the availability of government information to the public, but that exceptions should be limited and the necessary right of access to be specific, and also states the need to constantly re-examine the decisions on the disclosure of any government information independently from the government. By 1982, it enacted a dozen countries, including France, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United States (1966) newly legally to access the information. It entered access to Canadian information into force of the Act of 1983, under the government of Pierre Trudeau, allowing Canadians to recover information from government files, and the development of what can be accessed from the information, and the imposition of timetables to respond. It has been applied by the Information Commissioner in Canada.

Keywords: law, information, management, legal

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
2471 A Robust Implementation of a Building Resources Access Rights Management System

Authors: Eugen Neagoe, Victor Balanica

Abstract:

A Smart Building Controller (SBC) is a server software that offers secured access to a pool of building specific resources, executes monitoring tasks and performs automatic administration of a building, thus optimizing the exploitation cost and maximizing comfort. This paper brings to discussion the issues that arise with the secure exploitation of the SBC administered resources and proposes a technical solution to implement a robust secure access system based on roles, individual rights and privileges (special rights).

Keywords: smart building controller, software security, access rights, access authorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
2470 The Inherent Flaw in the NBA Playoff Structure

Authors: Larry Turkish

Abstract:

Introduction: The NBA is an example of mediocrity and this will be evident in the following paper. The study examines and evaluates the characteristics of the NBA champions. As divisions and playoff teams increase, there is an increase in the probability that the champion originates from the mediocre category. Since it’s inception in 1947, the league has been mediocre and continues to this day. Why does a professional league allow any team with a less than 50% winning percentage into the playoffs? As long as the finances flow into the league, owners will not change the current algorithm. The objective of this paper is to determine if the regular season has meaning in finding an NBA champion. Statistical Analysis: The data originates from the NBA website. The following variables are part of the statistical analysis: Rank, the rank of a team relative to other teams in the league based on the regular season win-loss record; Winning Percentage of a team based on the regular season; Divisions, the number of divisions within the league and Playoff Teams, the number of playoff teams relative to a particular season. The following statistical applications are applied to the data: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation, Analysis of Variance, Factor and Regression analysis. Conclusion: The results indicate that the divisional structure and number of playoff teams results in a negative effect on the winning percentage of playoff teams. It also prevents teams with higher winning percentages from accessing the playoffs. Recommendations: 1. Teams that have a winning percentage greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean from the regular season will have access to playoffs. (Eliminates mediocre teams.) 2. Eliminate Divisions (Eliminates weaker teams from access to playoffs.) 3. Eliminate Conferences (Eliminates weaker teams from access to the playoffs.) 4. Have a balanced regular season schedule, (Reduces the number of regular season games, creates equilibrium, reduces bias) that will reduce the need for load management.

Keywords: alignment, mediocrity, regression, z-score

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2469 Air Access Liberalisation and Tourism Trade Evidence from a Sids

Authors: Seetanah Boopen, R. V. Sannassee

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is two-fold. Firstly, to assess the impact of air access liberalization on tourism demand for Mauritius and secondly to analyses the dual impact of the interplay between air access liberalization and marketing promotion efforts on tourism demand. Using an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model, the results suggest that air access liberalization is an important ingredient, albeit to a lesser extent as compared to other classical explanatory variables, of tourism demand. The results also highlight the fact that Mauritius is perceived as a luxurious destination and tourists are deemed price sensitive. Moreover, our dynamic approach interestingly confirms the presence of repeat tourism in the island. Finally, the findings also uncover the positive impact of the interplay between air access liberalization and marketing promotion efforts on fostering tourism demand.

Keywords: air access liberalization, ARDL, SIDS, time series

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2468 Access to the Forest Ecosystem Services: Understanding the Interaction between Livelihood Capitals and Access

Authors: Abu S. M. G. Kibria, Alison M. Behie, Robert Costanza, Colin Groves, Tracy Farrell

Abstract:

This study is aimed to understand the level of access and the influence of livelihood capitals in maintaining access and control of ecosystem services (ESS) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Besides the villagers, we consider other stakeholders including the forest department, coast guard, police, merchants, pirates and villagers who ‘controlled’ or ‘maintained’ access to ESS (crab catching, shrimp fry, honey, shrimp, mixed fish, fuel wood) in this region. Villagers used human, physical, natural and social capitals to gain access to ESS. The highest level of access was observed in crab catching and the lowest was found in honey collection, both of which were done when balancing the costs and benefits of accessing one ESS against another. The outcomes of these ongoing access negotiations were determined by livelihood capitals of the households. In addition, it was often found that the certain variables could have a positive effect on one ESS and a negative effect on another. For instance, human, social and natural capitals (eldest daughter’s education and No. of livelihood group membership and) had significant positive effects on honey collection while two components of human and social capitals including ‘eldest son’s education’ and ‘severity of pirate problem’ had exactly the opposite impact. These complex interactions were also observed in access to other ESS. It thus seems that access to ESS is not anything which is provided, but rather it is achieved by using livelihood capitals. Protecting any ecosystem from over exploitation and improve wellbeing can be achieved by properly balancing the livelihood capital-access nexus.

Keywords: provisioning services, access level, livelihood capital, interaction, access gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
2467 Component Lifecycle and Concurrency Model in Usage Control (UCON) System

Authors: P. Ghann, J. Shiguang, C. Zhou

Abstract:

Access control is one of the most challenging issues facing information security. Access control is defined as, the ability to permit or deny access to a particular computational resource or digital information by an unauthorized user or subject. The concept of usage control (UCON) has been introduced as a unified approach to capture a number of extensions for access control models and systems. In UCON, an access decision is determined by three factors: Authorizations, obligations and conditions. Attribute mutability and decision continuity are two distinct characteristics introduced by UCON for the first time. An observation of UCON components indicates that, the components are predefined and static. In this paper, we propose a new and flexible model of usage control for the creation and elimination of some of these components; for example new objects, subjects, attributes and integrate these with the original UCON model. We also propose a model for concurrent usage scenarios in UCON.

Keywords: access control, concurrency, digital container, usage control

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2466 Analysis of Strategies to Reduce Patients’ Disposition Holding Time from Emergency Department to Ward

Authors: Kamonwat Suksumek, Seeronk Prichanont

Abstract:

Access block refers to the situation where Emergency Department (ED) patients requiring hospital admission spend an unreasonable holding time in an ED because their access to a ward is blocked by the full utilization of the ward’s beds. Not only it delays the proper treatments required by the patients, but access block is also the cause of ED’s overcrowding. Clearly, access block is an inter-departmental problem that needs to be brought to management’s attention. This paper focuses on the analysis of strategies to address the access block problem, both in the operational and intermediate levels. These strategies were analyzed through a simulation model with a real data set from a university hospital in Thailand. The paper suggests suitable variable levels for each strategy so that the management will make the final decisions.

Keywords: access block, emergency department, health system analysis, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2465 Social Work Students Acquiring Tools to Help Families Manage Their Household Finances

Authors: Ahuva Even-Zohar

Abstract:

ackground: Families living in poverty have been always the focus of social workers’ attention, and many families in a difficult financial situation are assisted by welfare departments. One of the difficulties of families is manifested in poor financial management, inability to properly manage the resources available to them, and in accumulating debts. To help those families it is important to provide them with financial management tools. Thus, although social workers have the opportunity to help people and families suffering from financial problems in a variety of ways, they typically receive no formal training in this regard. This study examined the impact of a Paamonim (a voluntary Israeli organization dedicated to helping people conduct their household finances) workshop for social work students (BSW) aimed at teaching them to assess clients' financial situations and assist them in managing their household finances. The sample consisted of 134 social work students, 55 in a regular program, and 79 in a retraining program (studying social work after earning a degree in a different academic discipline). Most of the participants were women (88.2%). In the first stage of the study, the students received an explanation of the research, and confidentiality and anonymity were ensured, and they signed informed consent. The students completed two questionnaires: The Student Attitudes Questionnaire to the role of social workers in providing material support for families and helping them manage their household finances, and A sociodemographic questionnaire. In the second stage, three months after participating in the workshop, the students completed again The Student Attitudes Questionnaire, and The Feedback Questionnaire assessed the students' perception of the contribution of participation in the workshop and their actual use of the tools they had acquired in their practical training. Findings: In a comparison of the students' attitudes regarding the role of social workers in providing material support and assistance in proper financial management to families living in poverty, before and after their participation in the workshop, no differences were found. Their attitudes were positive at a medium level or higher. The students reported that in the workshop they learned tools to help families living in poverty, and used these tools to a certain extent in their fieldwork training. They described the workshop as interesting, and noted that it helped raise awareness about budget management, enriched their knowledge of money management, and was both effective and important for them personally and for their work with clients. However, the students mentioned that the workshop was too short. Conclusions: Although the workshop was short and consists of only one session, it emphasized the importance of developing programs to help people living in poverty manage their household finances. The workshop enriched the students' knowledge, and the skills learned were important and useful for their role as social workers, working with families in poverty, to rehabilitate their financial situation. Therefore, the practical recommendation is to continue holding such a workshop as part of the curriculum.

Keywords: household, financial literacy, poverty, social work students, workshop

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
2464 Functional Variants Detection by RNAseq

Authors: Raffaele A. Calogero

Abstract:

RNAseq represents an attractive methodology for the detection of functional genomic variants. RNAseq results obtained from polyA+ RNA selection protocol (POLYA) and from exonic regions capturing protocol (ACCESS) indicate that ACCESS detects 10% more coding SNV/INDELs with respect to POLYA. ACCESS requires less reads for coding SNV detection with respect to POLYA. However, if the analysis aims at identifying SNV/INDELs also in the 5’ and 3’ UTRs, POLYA is definitively the preferred method. No particular advantage comes from ACCESS or POLYA in the detection of fusion transcripts.

Keywords: fusion transcripts, INDEL, RNA-seq, WES, SNV

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2463 A Conceptual Framework for Managing Municipal Finances in South Africa

Authors: Abongile Zweni

Abstract:

As a post-apartheid strategy to redress the social imbalances of the past, local governments are tasked with the role of delivering crucial services to their constituents. Apart from political instability, evidence shows that managers in South African municipalities lack effective financial management skills and competencies. This resulted in a failure to fulfill its administrative obligations, particularly municipal financial management. Most municipalities have, however, failed in this role, which has led them to be placed under administration by the provincial government in terms of Section 139 of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa. Thus, this study proposed a leadership conceptual framework for effectively managing ever-eroding municipal finances in South Africa. The study adopted a desktop research approach to explore the key components of leadership and municipal financial management toward the development of the conceptual framework. The study fostered a better understanding of the need for transformation in relation to the current financial management practices and sustainability of a municipality. Moreover, the conceptual framework applies not only to municipalities but also to other government departments and public authorities in the country for financial management.

Keywords: leadership, municipal finance, financial performance, management skills, municipality

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
2462 The Effect of Visual Fluency and Cognitive Fluency on Access Rates of Web Pages

Authors: Xiaoying Guo, Xiangyun Wang

Abstract:

Access rates is a key indicator of reflecting the popularity of web pages. Having high access rates are very important for web pages, especially for news web pages, online shopping sites and searching engines. In this paper, we analyzed the influences of visual fluency and cognitive fluency on access rates of Chinese web pages. Firstly, we conducted an experiment of scoring the web pages. Twenty-five subjects were invited to view top 50 web pages of China, and they were asked to give a score in a 5-point Likert-scale from four aspects, including complexity, comfortability, familiarity and usability. Secondly, the obtained results was analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis in R. By factor analysis; we analyzed the contributions of visual fluency and cognitive fluency to the access rates. The results showed that both visual fluency and cognitive fluency affect the access rate of web pages. Compared to cognitive fluency, visual fluency play a more important role in user’s accessing of web pages.

Keywords: visual fluency, cognitive fluency, visual complexity, usability

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
2461 Remittances and Water Access: A Cross-Sectional Study of Sub Saharan Africa Countries

Authors: Narges Ebadi, Davod Ahmadi, Hiliary Monteith, Hugo Melgar-Quinonez

Abstract:

Migration cannot necessarily relieve pressure on water resources in origin communities, and male out-migration can increase the water management burden of women. However, inflows of financial remittances seem to offer possibilities of investing in improving drinking-water access. Therefore, remittances may be an important pathway for migrants to support water security. This paper explores the association between water access and the receipt of remittances in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Data from round 6 of the 'Afrobarometer' surveys in 2016 were used (n= 49,137). Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out in this study. Regardless of country, findings from descriptive analyses showed that approximately 80% of the respondents never received remittance, and 52% had enough clean water. Only one-fifth of the respondents had piped water supply inside the house (19.9%), and approximately 25% had access to a toilet inside the house. Bivariate analyses revealed that even though receiving remittances was significantly associated with water supply, the strength of association was very weak. However, other factors such as the area of residence (rural vs. urban), cash income frequencies, electricity access, and asset ownership were strongly associated with water access. Results from unadjusted multinomial logistic regression revealed that the probability of having no access to piped water increased among remittance recipients who received financial support at least once a month (OR=1.324) (p < 0.001). In contrast, those not receiving remittances were more likely to regularly have a water access concern (OR=1.294) (p < 0.001), and not have access to a latrine (OR=1.665) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, receiving remittances is significantly related to water access as the strength of odds ratios for socio-demographic factors was stronger.

Keywords: remittances, water access, SSA, migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2460 Access to Higher Education in Nigeria: The University of Calabar Pre-Degree Programme Experience

Authors: Eni I. Eni, James Okon, Ashang J. Ashang

Abstract:

The pre-degree programme of the University of Calabar was introduced to help increase access to tertiary Education in science related courses. This has become necessary due to population increase and public awareness. Its main objective was to provide access to candidates from educationally less developed states (ELDS) and states within its catchment area. To find out if this objective of the programme has been achieved, an impact evaluation of the programme was conducted, from where the aspect of providing access to University Education was reported here. It was reasoned that if this objective of the programme was properly implemented, there should be an evidence of increase in the access to University Education. To achieve the purpose of this study, two research questions were formulated; expost-facto research design and purposive sampling technique were adopted for the study. Data was collected from the Faculty of Science and analyzed using descriptive statistics in terms of frequencies and percentages. The result of data analysis showed that the pre-degree programme of the University of Calabar has provided educational access to Nigerians especially those from educationally less developed states in science related courses. It was therefore recommended that the programme be sustained and further be improved upon to facilitate its continued provision of access to University Education in Nigeria.

Keywords: higher education, pre-degree programme, University of Calabar, educationally less developed states

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2459 An Attribute Based Access Control Model with POL Module for Dynamically Granting and Revoking Authorizations

Authors: Gang Liu, Huimin Song, Can Wang, Runnan Zhang, Lu Fang

Abstract:

Currently, resource sharing and system security are critical issues. This paper proposes a POL module composed of PRIV ILEGE attribute (PA), obligation and log which improves attribute based access control (ABAC) model in dynamically granting authorizations and revoking authorizations. The following describes the new model termed PABAC in terms of the POL module structure, attribute definitions, policy formulation and authorization architecture, which demonstrate the advantages of it. The POL module addresses the problems which are not predicted before and not described by access control policy. It can be one of the subject attributes or resource attributes according to the practical application, which enhances the flexibility of the model compared with ABAC. A scenario that illustrates how this model is applied to the real world is provided.

Keywords: access control, attribute based access control, granting authorizations, privilege, revoking authorizations, system security

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
2458 Analyzing the Technology Affecting on the Social Integration of Students at University

Authors: Sujit K. Basak, Simon Collin

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the technology access and use on the affecting social integration of local students at university. This aim is achieved by designing a structural equation modeling (SEM) in terms of integration with peers, integration with faculty, faculty support and on the other hand, examining the socio demographic impact on the technology access and use. The collected data were analyzed using the WarpPLS 5.0 software. This study was survey based and it was conducted at a public university in Canada. The results of the study indicated that technology has a strong impact on integration with faculty, faculty support, but technology does not have an impact on integration with peers. However, the social demographic has also an impact on the technology access and use.

Keywords: faculty, integration, peer, technology access and use

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2457 Health Inequalities in the Global South: Identification of Poor People with Disabilities in Cambodia to Generate Access to Healthcare

Authors: Jamie Lee Harder

Abstract:

In the context of rapidly changing social and economic circumstances in the developing world, this paper analyses access to public healthcare for poor people with disabilities in Cambodia. Like other countries of South East Asia, Cambodia is developing at rapid pace. The historical past of Cambodia, however, has set former social policy structures to zero. This past forces Cambodia and its citizens to implement new public health policies to align with the needs of social care, healthcare, and urban planning. In this context, the role of people with disabilities (PwDs) is crucial as new developments should and can take into consideration their specific needs from the beginning onwards. This paper is based on qualitative research with expert interviews and focus group discussions in Cambodia. During the field work it became clear that the identification tool for the poorest households (HHs) does not count disability as a financial risk to fall into poverty neither when becoming sick nor because of higher health expenditures and/or lower income because of the disability. The social risk group of poor PwDs faces several barriers in accessing public healthcare. The urbanization, the socio-economic health status, and opportunities for education; all influence social status and have an impact on the health situation of these individuals. Cambodia has various difficulties with providing access to people with disabilities, mostly due to barriers regarding finances, geography, quality of care, poor knowledge about their rights and negative social and cultural beliefs. Shortened budgets and the lack of prioritizations lead to the need for reorientation of local communities, international and national non-governmental organizations and social policy. The poorest HHs are identified with a questionnaire, the IDPoor program, for which the Ministry of Planning is responsible. The identified HHs receive an ‘Equity Card’ which provides access free of charge to public healthcare centers and hospitals among other benefits. The dataset usually does not include information about the disability status. Four focus group discussions (FGD) with 28 participants showed various barriers in accessing public healthcare. These barriers go far beyond a missing ramp to access the healthcare center. The contents of the FGDs were ratified and repeated during the expert interviews with the local Ministries, NGOs, international organizations and private persons working in the field. The participants of the FGDs faced and continue to face high discrimination, low capacity to work and earn an own income, dependency on others and less social competence in their lives. When discussing their health situation, we identified, a huge difference between those who are identified and hold an Equity Card and those who do not. Participants reported high costs without IDPoor identification, positive experiences when going to the health center in terms of attitude and treatment, low satisfaction with specific capacities for treatments, negative rumors, and discrimination with the consequence of fear to seek treatment in many cases. The problem of accessing public healthcare by risk groups can be adapted to situations in other countries.

Keywords: access, disability, health, inequality, Cambodia

Procedia PDF Downloads 80