Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5297

Search results for: structural dynamics

5297 Fractional Calculus into Structural Dynamics

Authors: Jorge Lopez


In this work, we introduce fractional calculus in order to study the dynamics of a damped multistory building with some symmetry. Initially we make a review of the dynamics of a free and damped multistory building. Then we introduce those concepts of fractional calculus that will be involved in our study. It has been noticed that fractional calculus provides models with less parameters than those based on classical calculus. In particular, a damped classical oscilator is more naturally described by using fractional derivatives. Accordingly, we model our multistory building as a set of coupled fractional oscillators and compare its dynamics with the results coming from traditional methods.

Keywords: coupled oscillators, fractional calculus, fractional oscillator, structural dynamics

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5296 An Empirical Investigation on the Dynamics of Knowledge and IT Industries in Korea

Authors: Sang Ho Lee, Tae Heon Moon, Youn Taik Leem, Kwang Woo Nam


Knowledge and IT inputs to other industrial production have become more important as a key factor for the competitiveness of national and regional economies, such as knowledge economies in smart cities. Knowledge and IT industries lead the industrial innovation and technical (r)evolution through low cost, high efficiency in production, and by creating a new value chain and new production path chains, which is referred as knowledge and IT dynamics. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and IT dynamics in Korea, which are analyzed through the input-output model and structural path analysis. Twenty-eight industries were reclassified into seven categories; Agriculture and Mining, IT manufacture, Non-IT manufacture, Construction, IT-service, Knowledge service, Non-knowledge service to take close look at the knowledge and IT dynamics. Knowledge and IT dynamics were analyzed through the change of input output coefficient and multiplier indices in terms of technical innovation, as well as the changes of the structural paths of the knowledge and IT to other industries in terms of new production value creation from 1985 and 2010. The structural paths of knowledge and IT explain not only that IT foster the generation, circulation and use of knowledge through IT industries and IT-based service, but also that knowledge encourages IT use through creating, sharing and managing knowledge. As a result, this paper found the empirical investigation on the knowledge and IT dynamics of the Korean economy. Knowledge and IT has played an important role regarding the inter-industrial transactional input for production, as well as new industrial creation. The birth of the input-output production path has mostly originated from the knowledge and IT industries, while the death of the input-output production path took place in the traditional industries from 1985 and 2010. The Korean economy has been in transition to a knowledge economy in the Smart City.

Keywords: knowledge and IT industries, input-output model, structural path analysis, dynamics of knowledge and it, knowledge economy, knowledge city and smart city

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5295 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Structural, Elastic, and Thermodynamic Properties of Cubic AlBi

Authors: M. Zemouli, K. Amara, M. Elkeurti, Y. Benallou


We present a theoretical study of the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of the zinc-blende AlBi for a wide temperature range. The simulation calculation is performed in the framework of the molecular dynamics method using the three-body Tersoff potential which reproduces provide, with reasonable accuracy, the lattice constants and elastic constants. Our results for the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and cohesive energy are in good agreement with other theoretical available works. Other thermodynamic properties such as the specific heat and the lattice thermal expansion can also be predicted. In addition, this method allows us to check its ability to predict the phase transition of this compound. In particular, the transition pressure to the rock-salt phase is calculated and the results are compared with other available works.

Keywords: aluminium compounds, molecular dynamics simulations, interatomic potential, thermodynamic properties, structural phase transition

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5294 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Beta-Glucosidase of Streptomyces

Authors: Adam Abate, Elham Rasti, Philip Romero


Beta-glucosidase is the key enzyme component present in cellulase and completes the final step during cellulose hydrolysis by converting the cellobiose to glucose. The regulatory properties of beta-glucosidases are most commonly found for the retaining and inverting enzymes. Hydrolysis of a glycoside typically occurs with general acid and general base assistance from two amino acid side chains, normally glutamic or aspartic acids. In order to obtain more detailed information on the dynamic events origination from the interaction with enzyme active site, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of beta-glycosidase in protonated state (Glu-H178) and deprotonated state (Glu178). The theoretical models generated from our molecular dynamics simulations complement and advance the structural information currently available, leading to a more detailed understanding of Beta-glycosidase structure and function. This article presents the important role of Asn307 in enzyme activity of beta-glucosidase

Keywords: Beta-glucosidase, GROMACS, molecular dynamics simulation, structural parameters

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5293 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Structural, Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Cubic GaBi

Authors: M. Zemouli, K. Amara, M. Elkeurti, Y. Benallou


We present the molecular dynamic simulations results of the structural and dynamical properties of the zinc-blende GaBi over a wide range of temperature (300-1000) K. Our simulation where performed in the framework of the three-body Tersoff potential, which accurately reproduces the lattice constants and elastic constants of the GaBi. A good agreement was found between our calculated results and the available theoretical data of the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and the cohesive energy. Our study allows us to predict the thermodynamic properties such as the specific heat and the lattice thermal expansion. In addition, this method allows us to check its ability to predict the phase transition of this compound. In particular, the transition pressure to the rock-salt phase is calculated and the results are compared with other available works.

Keywords: Gallium compounds, molecular dynamics simulations, interatomic potential thermodynamic properties, structural phase transition

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5292 Fluid Structure Interaction Study between Ahead and Angled Impact of AGM 88 Missile Entering Relatively High Viscous Fluid for K-Omega Turbulence Model

Authors: Abu Afree Andalib, Rafiur Rahman, Md Mezbah Uddin


The main objective of this work is to anatomize on the various parameters of AGM 88 missile anatomized using FSI module in Ansys. Computational fluid dynamics is used for the study of fluid flow pattern and fluidic phenomenon such as drag, pressure force, energy dissipation and shockwave distribution in water. Using finite element analysis module of Ansys, structural parameters such as stress and stress density, localization point, deflection, force propagation is determined. Separate analysis on structural parameters is done on Abacus. State of the art coupling module is used for FSI analysis. Fine mesh is considered in every case for better result during simulation according to computational machine power. The result of the above-mentioned parameters is analyzed and compared for two phases using graphical representation. The result of Ansys and Abaqus are also showed. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Finite Element analyses and subsequently the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) technique is being considered. Finite volume method and finite element method are being considered for modelling fluid flow and structural parameters analysis. Feasible boundary conditions are also utilized in the research. Significant change in the interaction and interference pattern while the impact was found. Theoretically as well as according to simulation angled condition was found with higher impact.

Keywords: FSI (Fluid Surface Interaction), impact, missile, high viscous fluid, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), FEM (Finite Element Analysis), FVM (Finite Volume Method), fluid flow, fluid pattern, structural analysis, AGM-88, Ansys, Abaqus, meshing, k-omega, turbulence model

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5291 Revealing the Structural and Dynamic Properties of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 from Rice (Oryza sativa): Simulation Studies

Authors: Apisaraporn Baicharoen, Prapasiri Pongprayoon


Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2) is an enzyme that inhibits the accumulation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), a potent flavor compound in rice fragrance. BADH2 contains three domains (NAD-binding, substrate-binding, and oligomerization domains). It catalyzes the oxidation of amino aldehydes. The lack of BADH2 results in the formation of 2AP and consequently an increase in rice fragrance. To date, inadequate data on BADH2 structure and function are available. An insight into the nature of BADH2 can serve as one of key starting points for the production of high quality fragrant rice. In this study, we therefore constructed the homology model of BADH2 and employed 500-ns Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) to primarily understand the structural and dynamic properties of BADH2. Initially, Ramachandran plot confirms the good quality of modeled protein structure. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was also calculated to capture the protein dynamics. Among 3 domains, the results show that NAD binding site is found to be more flexible. Moreover, interactions from key amino acids (N162, E260, C294, and Y419) that are crucial for function are investigated.

Keywords: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, fragrant rice, homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations

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5290 Model Updating Based on Modal Parameters Using Hybrid Pattern Search Technique

Authors: N. Guo, C. Xu, Z. C. Yang


In order to ensure the high reliability of an aircraft, the accurate structural dynamics analysis has become an indispensable part in the design of an aircraft structure. Therefore, the structural finite element model which can be used to accurately calculate the structural dynamics and their transfer relations is the prerequisite in structural dynamic design. A dynamic finite element model updating method is presented to correct the uncertain parameters of the finite element model of a structure using measured modal parameters. The coordinate modal assurance criterion is used to evaluate the correlation level at each coordinate over the experimental and the analytical mode shapes. Then, the weighted summation of the natural frequency residual and the coordinate modal assurance criterion residual is used as the objective function. Moreover, the hybrid pattern search (HPS) optimization technique, which synthesizes the advantages of pattern search (PS) optimization technique and genetic algorithm (GA), is introduced to solve the dynamic FE model updating problem. A numerical simulation and a model updating experiment for GARTEUR aircraft model are performed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the present dynamic model updating method, respectively. The updated results show that the proposed method can be successfully used to modify the incorrect parameters with good robustness.

Keywords: model updating, modal parameter, coordinate modal assurance criterion, hybrid genetic/pattern search

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5289 An Insight into the Conformational Dynamics of Glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: K. Veluraja


Glycan of glycolipids and glycoproteins is playing a significant role in living systems particularly in molecular recognition processes. Molecular recognition processes are attributed to their occurrence on the surface of the cell, sequential arrangement and type of sugar molecules present in the oligosaccharide structure and glyosidic linkage diversity (glycoinformatics) and conformational diversity (glycoconformatics). Molecular Dynamics Simulation study is a theoretical-cum-computational tool successfully utilized to establish glycoconformatics of glycan. The study on various oligosaccharides of glycan clearly indicates that oligosaccharides do exist in multiple conformational states and these conformational states arise due to the flexibility associated with a glycosidic torsional angle (φ,ψ) . As an example: a single disaccharide structure NeuNacα(2-3) Gal exists in three different conformational states due to the differences in the preferential value of glycosidic torsional angles (φ,ψ). Hence establishing three dimensional structural and conformational models for glycan (cartesian coordinates of every individual atoms of an oligosaccharide structure in a preferred conformation) is quite crucial to understand various molecular recognition processes such as glycan-toxin interaction and glycan-virus interaction. The gycoconformatics models obtained for various glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation stored in our 3DSDSCAR (3DSDSCAR.ORG) a public domain database and its utility value in understanding the molecular recognition processes and in drug design venture will be discussed.

Keywords: glycan, glycoconformatics, molecular dynamics simulation, oligosaccharide

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5288 Weak Instability in Direct Integration Methods for Structural Dynamics

Authors: Shuenn-Yih Chang, Chiu-Li Huang


Three structure-dependent integration methods have been developed for solving equations of motion, which are second-order ordinary differential equations, for structural dynamics and earthquake engineering applications. Although they generally have the same numerical properties, such as explicit formulation, unconditional stability and second-order accuracy, a different performance is found in solving the free vibration response to either linear elastic or nonlinear systems with high frequency modes. The root cause of this different performance in the free vibration responses is analytically explored herein. As a result, it is verified that a weak instability is responsible for the different performance of the integration methods. In general, a weak instability will result in an inaccurate solution or even numerical instability in the free vibration responses of high frequency modes. As a result, a weak instability must be prohibited for time integration methods.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, high frequency, integration method, overshoot, weak instability

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5287 Molecular Dynamics Studies of Homogeneous Condensation and Thermophysical Properties of HFC-1336mzz(Z)

Authors: Misbah Khan, Jian Wen, Muhammad Asif Shakoori


The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) plays an important role in converting low-temperature heat sources into electrical power by using refrigerants as working fluids. The thermophysical properties of working fluids are essential for designing ORC. HFO-1336mzz(Z) (cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene) considered as working fluid and have almost 99% low GWP and relatively same thermophysical properties used as a replacement of HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoro-propane). The environmental, safety, healthy and thermophysical properties of HFO-1336mzz(Z) are needed to use it in a practical system. In this paper, Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the Homogeneous condensation, thermophysical and structural properties of HFO-1336mzz(Z) and HFC-245fa. The effect of various temperatures and pressures on thermophysical properties and condensation was extensively investigated. The liquid densities and isobaric heat capacities of this refrigerant was simulated at 273.15K to 353.15K temperatures and pressure0.5-4.0MPa. The simulation outcomes were compared with experimental data to validate our simulation method. The mean square displacement for different temperatures was investigated for dynamical analysis. The variations in potential energies and condensation rate were simulated to get insight into the condensation process. The radial distribution function was simulated at the micro level for structural analysis and revealed that the phase transition of HFO-1336mzz(Z) did not affect the intramolecular structure.

Keywords: homogenous condensation, refrigerants, molecular dynamics simulations, organic rankine cycle

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5286 Lotus Mechanism: Validation of Deployment Mechanism Using Structural and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Parth Prajapati, A. R. Srinivas


The purpose of this paper is to validate the concept of the Lotus Mechanism using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools considering the statics and dynamics through actual time dependence involving inertial forces acting on the mechanism joints. For a 1.2 m mirror made of hexagonal segments, with simple harnesses and three-point supports, the maximum diameter is 400 mm, minimum segment base thickness is 1.5 mm, and maximum rib height is considered as 12 mm. Manufacturing challenges are explored for the segments using manufacturing research and development approaches to enable use of large lightweight mirrors required for the future space system.

Keywords: dynamics, manufacturing, reflectors, segmentation, statics

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5285 A Lagrangian Hamiltonian Computational Method for Hyper-Elastic Structural Dynamics

Authors: Hosein Falahaty, Hitoshi Gotoh, Abbas Khayyer


Performance of a Hamiltonian based particle method in simulation of nonlinear structural dynamics is subjected to investigation in terms of stability and accuracy. The governing equation of motion is derived based on Hamilton's principle of least action, while the deformation gradient is obtained according to Weighted Least Square method. The hyper-elasticity models of Saint Venant-Kirchhoff and a compressible version similar to Mooney- Rivlin are engaged for the calculation of second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, respectively. Stability along with accuracy of numerical model is verified by reproducing critical stress fields in static and dynamic responses. As the results, although performance of Hamiltonian based model is evaluated as being acceptable in dealing with intense extensional stress fields, however kinds of instabilities reveal in the case of violent collision which can be most likely attributed to zero energy singular modes.

Keywords: Hamilton's principle of least action, particle-based method, hyper-elasticity, analysis of stability

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5284 Quadrotor in Horizontal Motion Control and Maneuverability

Authors: Ali Oveysi Sarabi


In this paper, controller design for the attitude and altitude dynamics of an outdoor quadrotor, which is constructed with low cost actuators and drivers, is aimed. Before designing the controller, the quadrotor is modeled mathematically in Matlab-Simulink environment. To control attitude dynamics, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based controllers are designed, simulated and applied to the system. Two different proportional-integral-derivative action (PID) controllers are designed to control yaw and altitude dynamics. During the implementation of the designed controllers, different test setups are used. Designed controllers are implemented and tuned on the real system using xPC Target. Tests show that these basic control structures are successful to control the attitude and altitude dynamics.

Keywords: helicopter balance, flight dynamics, autonomous landing, control robotics

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5283 Atomistic Insight into the System of Trapped Oil Droplet/ Nanofluid System in Nanochannels

Authors: Yuanhao Chang, Senbo Xiao, Zhiliang Zhang, Jianying He


The role of nanoparticles (NPs) in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly emphasized. In this study, the motion of NPs and local stress distribution of tapped oil droplet/nanofluid in nanochannels are studied with coarse-grained modeling and molecular dynamic simulations. The results illustrate three motion patterns for NPs: hydrophilic NPs are more likely to adsorb on the channel and stay near the three-phase contact areas, hydrophobic NPs move inside the oil droplet as clusters and more mixed NPs are trapped at the oil-water interface. NPs in each pattern affect the flow of fluid and the interfacial thickness to various degrees. Based on the calculation of atomistic stress, the characteristic that the higher value of stress occurs at the place where NPs aggregate can be obtained. Different occurrence patterns correspond to specific local stress distribution. Significantly, in the three-phase contact area for hydrophilic NPs, the local stress distribution close to the pattern of structural disjoining pressure is observed, which proves the existence of structural disjoining pressure in molecular dynamics simulation for the first time. Our results guide the design and screen of NPs for EOR and provide a basic understanding of nanofluid applications.

Keywords: local stress distribution, nanoparticles, enhanced oil recovery, molecular dynamics simulation, trapped oil droplet, structural disjoining pressure

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5282 Effect of Land Use on Soil Organic Carbon Stock and Aggregate Dynamics of Degraded Ultisol in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria

Authors: Chukwuebuka Vincent Azuka, Chidimma Peace Odoh


Changes in agricultural practices and land use influence the storage and release of soil organic carbon and soil structural dynamics. To investigate this in Nsukka, southeastern Nigeria, soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm from three locations; Ovoko (OV), Obukpa (OB) and University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) and three land use types; cultivated land (CL), forest land (FL) and grassland (GL)). Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS. Also, correlations between organic carbon stock, structural stability indices and other soil properties were established. The result showed that Ksat was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by location with mean values of 68 cmhr⁻¹,121.63 cmhr⁻¹, 8.42 cmhr⁻¹ in OV, OB and UNN respectively. The MWD and aggregate stability (AS) were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by land use and depth. The mean values of MWD are 0.85 (CL), 1.35 (FL) and 1.45 (GL), and 1.66 at 0-10 cm, 1.08 at 10-20 cm and 0.88 mm at 20-30 cm. The mean values of AS are; 27.66% (CL), 46.39% (FL) and 49.81% (GL), and 53.96% at 0-10cm, 40.22% at 10-20cm and 29.57% at 20-30cm. Clay flocculation (CFI) and dispersion indices (CDI) differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the land use. Soil pH differed significantly (p < 0.05) across the land use and locations with mean values ranging from 3.90-6.14. Soil organic carbon (SOC) significantly (p < 0.05) differed across locations and depths. SOC decreases as depth increases depth with mean values of 15.6 gkg⁻¹, 10.1 gkg⁻¹, and 8.6 gkg⁻¹ at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-30 cm respectively. SOC in the three land use was 8.8 g kg-1, 15.2 gkg⁻¹ and 10.4 gkg⁻¹ at CL, FL, and GL respectively. The highest aggregate-associated carbon was recorded in 0.5 mm across the land use and depth except in cultivated land and at 20-30 cm which recorded their highest SOC at 1mm. SOC stock, total nitrogen (TN) and CEC were significantly (p < 0.05) different across the locations with highest values of 23.43 t/ha, 0.07g/kg and 14.27 Cmol/kg respectively recorded in UNN. SOC stock was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by depth as follows; 0-10>10-20>20-30 cm. TN was low with mean values ranging from 0.03-0.07 across the locations, land use and depths. The mean values of CEC ranged from 9.96-14.27 Cmol kg⁻¹ across the locations and land use. SOC stock showed correlation with silt, coarse sand, N and CEC (r = 0.40*, -0.39*, -0.65** and 0.64** respectively. AS showed correlation with BD, Ksat, pH in water and KCl, and SOC (r = -0.42*, 0.54**, -0.44*, -0.45* and 0.49** respectively. Thus, land use and location play a significant role in sustainable management of soil resources.

Keywords: agricultural practices, structural dynamics, sequestration, soil resources, management

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5281 Structural Molecular Dynamics Modelling of FH2 Domain of Formin DAAM

Authors: Rauan Sakenov, Peter Bukovics, Peter Gaszler, Veronika Tokacs-Kollar, Beata Bugyi


FH2 (formin homology-2) domains of several proteins, collectively known as formins, including DAAM, DAAM1 and mDia1, promote G-actin nucleation and elongation. FH2 domains of these formins exist as oligomers. Chain dimerization by ring structure formation serves as a structural basis for actin polymerization function of FH2 domain. Proper single chain configuration and specific interactions between its various regions are necessary for individual chains to form a dimer functional in G-actin nucleation and elongation. FH1 and WH2 domain-containing formins were shown to behave as intrinsically disordered proteins. Thus, the aim of this research was to study structural dynamics of FH2 domain of DAAM. To investigate structural features of FH2 domain of DAAM, molecular dynamics simulation of chain A of FH2 domain of DAAM solvated in water box in 50 mM NaCl was conducted at temperatures from 293.15 to 353.15K, with VMD 1.9.2, NAMD 2.14 and Amber Tools 21 using 2z6e and 1v9d PDB structures of DAAM was obtained on I-TASSER webserver. Calcium and ATP bound G-actin 3hbt PDB structure was used as a reference protein with well-described structural dynamics of denaturation. Topology and parameter information of CHARMM 2012 additive all-atom force fields for proteins, carbohydrate derivatives, water and ions were used in NAMD 2.14 and ff19SB force field for proteins in Amber Tools 21. The systems were energy minimized for the first 1000 steps, equilibrated and produced in NPT ensemble for 1ns using stochastic Langevin dynamics and the particle mesh Ewald method. Our root-mean square deviation (RMSD) analysis of molecular dynamics of chain A of FH2 domains of DAAM revealed similar insignificant changes of total molecular average RMSD values of FH2 domain of these formins at temperatures from 293.15 to 353.15K. In contrast, total molecular average RMSD values of G-actin showed considerable increase at 328K, which corresponds to the denaturation of G-actin molecule at this temperature and its transition from native, ordered, to denatured, disordered, state which is well-described in the literature. RMSD values of lasso and tail regions of chain A of FH2 domain of DAAM exhibited higher than total molecular average RMSD at temperatures from 293.15 to 353.15K. These regions are functional in intra- and interchain interactions and contain highly conserved tryptophan residues of lasso region, highly conserved GNYMN sequence of post region and amino acids of the shell of hydrophobic pocket of the salt bridge between Arg171 and Asp321, which are important for structural stability and ordered state of FH2 domain of DAAM and its functions in FH2 domain dimerization. In conclusion, higher than total molecular average RMSD values of lasso and post regions of chain A of FH2 domain of DAAM may explain disordered state of FH2 domain of DAAM at temperatures from 293.15 to 353.15K. Finally, absence of marked transition, in terms of significant changes in average molecular RMSD values between native and denatured states of FH2 domain of DAAM at temperatures from 293.15 to 353.15K, can make it possible to attribute these formins to the group of intrinsically disordered proteins rather than to the group of intrinsically ordered proteins such as G-actin.

Keywords: FH2 domain, DAAM, formins, molecular modelling, computational biophysics

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5280 Universality and Synchronization in Complex Quadratic Networks

Authors: Anca Radulescu, Danae Evans


The relationship between a network’s hardwiring and its emergent dynamics are central to neuroscience. We study the principles of this correspondence in a canonical setup (in which network nodes exhibit well-studied complex quadratic dynamics), then test their universality in biological networks. By extending methods from discrete dynamics, we study the effects of network connectivity on temporal patterns, encapsulating long-term behavior into the rich topology of network Mandelbrot sets. Then elements of fractal geometry can be used to predict and classify network behavior.

Keywords: canonical model, complex dynamics, dynamic networks, fractals, Mandelbrot set, network connectivity

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5279 Belt Conveyor Dynamics in Transient Operation for Speed Control

Authors: D. He, Y. Pang, G. Lodewijks


Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are significantly important since the poor dynamics might result in risks. In this paper, the potential risks in transient operation will be analyzed. An existing finite element model will be applied to build a conveyor model, and simulations will be carried out to analyze the conveyor dynamics. In order to realize the soft speed regulation, Harrison’s sinusoid acceleration profile will be applied, and Lodewijks estimator will be built to approximate the required acceleration time. A long inclined belt conveyor will be studied with two major simulations. The conveyor dynamics will be given.

Keywords: belt conveyor , speed control, transient operation, dynamics

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5278 Structural Identification for Layered Composite Structures through a Wave and Finite Element Methodology

Authors: Rilwan Kayode Apalowo, Dimitrios Chronopoulos


An approach for identifying the geometric and material characteristics of layered composite structures through an inverse wave and finite element methodology is proposed. These characteristics are obtained through multi-frequency single shot measurements. However, it is established that the frequency regime of the measurements does not matter, meaning that both ultrasonic and structural dynamics frequency spectra can be employed. Taking advantage of a full FE (finite elements) description of the periodic composite, the scheme is able to account for arbitrarily complex structures. In order to demonstrate the robustness of the presented scheme, it is applied to a sandwich composite panel and results are compared with that of experimental characterization techniques. Excellent agreement is obtained with the experimental measurements.

Keywords: structural identification, non-destructive evaluation, finite elements, wave propagation, layered structures, ultrasound

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5277 Dynamics, Hierarchy and Commensalities: A Study of Inter Caste Relationship in a North Indian Village

Authors: K. Pandey


The present study is a functional analysis of the relationship between castes which indicates the dynamics of the caste structure in the rural setting. The researcher has tried to show both the cooperation and competition on important ceremonial and social occasions. The real India exists in the villages, so we need to know about their solidarity and also what the village life is and has been shaping into. We need to emphasize a microcosmic study of Indian rural life. Furthermore, caste integration is an acute problem country faces today. To resolve this we are required to know the dynamics of behavior of the people of different castes and for the study of the caste dynamics a study of caste relations are needed. The present study is an attempt in this direction.

Keywords: hierarchial groups, jajmani system, functional dependence, commensalities

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5276 3D Microbubble Dynamics in a Weakly Viscous Fluid Near a Rigid Boundary Subject to Ultrasound

Authors: K. Manmi, Q. X. Wang


This paper investigates microbubble dynamics subject to ultrasound in a weakly viscous fluid near a rigid boundary. The phenomenon is simulated using a boundary integral method. The weak viscous effects are incorporated into the model through the normal stress balance across the bubble surface. The model agrees well with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a spherical bubble for several cycles. The effects of the fluid viscosity in the bubble dynamics are analyzed, including jet development, centroid movement and bubble volume.

Keywords: microbubble dynamics, bubble jetting, viscous effect, boundary integral method

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5275 Exact and Approximate Controllability of Nuclear Dynamics Using Bilinear Controls

Authors: Ramdas Sonawane, Mahaveer Gadiya


The control problem associated with nuclear dynamics is represented by nonlinear integro-differential equation with additive controls. To control chain reaction, certain amount of neutrons is added into (or withdrawn out of) chamber as and when required. It is not realistic. So, we can think of controlling the reactor dynamics by bilinear control, which enters the system as coefficient of state. In this paper, we study the approximate and exact controllability of parabolic integro-differential equation controlled by bilinear control with non-homogeneous boundary conditions in bounded domain. We prove the existence of control and propose an explicit control strategy.

Keywords: approximate control, exact control, bilinear control, nuclear dynamics, integro-differential equations

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5274 Time-Domain Simulations of the Coupled Dynamics of Surface Riding Wave Energy Converter

Authors: Chungkuk Jin, Moo-Hyun Kim, HeonYong Kang


A surface riding (SR) wave energy converter (WEC) is designed and its feasibility and performance are numerically simulated by the author-developed floater-mooring-magnet-electromagnetics fully-coupled dynamic analysis computer program. The biggest advantage of the SR-WEC is that the performance is equally effective even in low sea states and its structural robustness is greatly improved by simply riding along the wave surface compared to other existing WECs. By the numerical simulations and actuator testing, it is clearly demonstrated that the concept works and through the optimization process, its efficiency can be improved.

Keywords: computer simulation, electromagnetics fully-coupled dynamics, floater-mooring-magnet, optimization, performance evaluation, surface riding, WEC

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5273 Extracting the Coupled Dynamics in Thin-Walled Beams from Numerical Data Bases

Authors: Mohammad A. Bani-Khaled


In this work we use the Discrete Proper Orthogonal Decomposition transform to characterize the properties of coupled dynamics in thin-walled beams by exploiting numerical simulations obtained from finite element simulations. The outcomes of the will improve our understanding of the linear and nonlinear coupled behavior of thin-walled beams structures. Thin-walled beams have widespread usage in modern engineering application in both large scale structures (aeronautical structures), as well as in nano-structures (nano-tubes). Therefore, detailed knowledge in regard to the properties of coupled vibrations and buckling in these structures are of great interest in the research community. Due to the geometric complexity in the overall structure and in particular in the cross-sections it is necessary to involve computational mechanics to numerically simulate the dynamics. In using numerical computational techniques, it is not necessary to over simplify a model in order to solve the equations of motions. Computational dynamics methods produce databases of controlled resolution in time and space. These numerical databases contain information on the properties of the coupled dynamics. In order to extract the system dynamic properties and strength of coupling among the various fields of the motion, processing techniques are required. Time- Proper Orthogonal Decomposition transform is a powerful tool for processing databases for the dynamics. It will be used to study the coupled dynamics of thin-walled basic structures. These structures are ideal to form a basis for a systematic study of coupled dynamics in structures of complex geometry.

Keywords: coupled dynamics, geometric complexity, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), thin walled beams

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5272 Numerical Investigation of Pressure and Velocity Field Contours of Dynamics of Drop Formation

Authors: Pardeep Bishnoi, Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha


This article represents the numerical investigation of the pressure and velocity field variation of the dynamics of pendant drop formation through a capillary tube. Numerical simulations are executed using volume of fluid (VOF) method in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this problem, Non Newtonian fluid is considered as dispersed fluid whereas air is considered as a continuous fluid. Pressure contours at various time steps expose that pressure varies nearly hydrostatically at each step of the dynamics of drop formation. A result also shows the pressure variation of the liquid droplet during free fall in the computational domain. The evacuation of the fluid from the necking region is also shown by the contour of the velocity field. The role of surface tension in the Pressure contour of the dynamics of drop formation is also studied.

Keywords: pressure contour, surface tension, volume of fluid, velocity field

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5271 Temperature and Substrate Orientation Effects on the Thermal Stability of Graphene Sheet Attached on the Si Surface

Authors: Wen-Jay Lee, Kuo-Ning Chiang


The graphene binding with silicon substrate has apparently Schottky barriers property, which can be used in the application of solar cell and light source. Because graphene has only one atom layer, the atomistic structure of graphene binding with the silicon surface plays an important role to affect the properties of graphene. In this work, temperature effect on the morphology of graphene sheet attached on different crystal planes of silicon substrates are investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) (LAMMPS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories). The results show that the covered graphene sheet would cause the structural deformation of the surface Si atoms of stubtrate. To achieve a stable state in the binding process, the surface Si atoms would adjust their position and fit the honeycomb structure of graphene after the graphene attaches to the Si surface. The height contour of graphene on different plane of silicon surfaces presents different pattern, leading the local residual stress at the interface. Due to the high density of dangling bond on the Si (111)7x7 surface, the surface of Si(111)7x7 is not matching with the graphene so well in contrast with Si(100)2x1and Si(111)2x1. Si(111)7x7 is found that only partial silicon adatoms are rearranged on surface after the attachment when the temperature is lower than 200K, As the temperature gradually increases, the deformation of surface structure becomes significant, as well as the residue stress. With increasing temperature till the 815K, the graphene sheet begins to destroy and mixes with the silicon atoms. For the Si(100)2x1 and Si(111)2x1, the silicon surface structure keep its structural arrangement with a higher temperature. With increasing temperature, the residual stress gradually decrease till a critical temperatures. When the temperature is higher than the critical temperature, the residual stress gradually increases and the structural deformation is found on the surface of the Si substrates.

Keywords: molecular dynamics, graphene, silicon, Schottky barriers, interface

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5270 On Deterministic Chaos: Disclosing the Missing Mathematics from the Lorenz-Haken Equations

Authors: Meziane Belkacem


We aim at converting the original 3D Lorenz-Haken equations, which describe laser dynamics –in terms of self-pulsing and chaos- into 2-second-order differential equations, out of which we extract the so far missing mathematics and corroborations with respect to nonlinear interactions. Leaning on basic trigonometry, we pull out important outcomes; a fundamental result attributes chaos to forbidden periodic solutions inside some precisely delimited region of the control parameter space that governs the bewildering dynamics.

Keywords: Physics, optics, nonlinear dynamics, chaos

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5269 Fast-Forward Problem in Asymmetric Double-Well Potential

Authors: Iwan Setiawan, Bobby Eka Gunara, Katshuhiro Nakamura


The theory to accelerate system on quantum dynamics has been constructed to get the desired wave function on shorter time. This theory is developed on adiabatic quantum dynamics which any regulation is done on wave function that satisfies Schrödinger equation. We show accelerated manipulation of WFs with the use of a parameter-dependent in asymmetric double-well potential and also when it’s influenced by electromagnetic fields.

Keywords: driving potential, Adiabatic Quantum Dynamics, regulation, electromagnetic field

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5268 An Application of Meta-Modeling Methods for Surrogating Lateral Dynamics Simulation in Layout-Optimization for Electric Drivetrains

Authors: Christian Angerer, Markus Lienkamp


Electric vehicles offer a high variety of possible drivetrain topologies with up to 4 motors. Multi-motor-designs can have several advantages regarding traction, vehicle dynamics, safety and even efficiency. With a rising number of motors, the whole drivetrain becomes more complex. All permutations of gearings, drivetrain-layouts, motor-types and –sizes lead up in a very large solution space. Single elements of this solution space can be analyzed by simulation methods. In addition to longitudinal vehicle behavior, which most optimization-approaches are restricted to, also lateral dynamics are important for vehicle dynamics, stability and efficiency. In order to compete large solution spaces and to find an optimal result, genetic algorithm based optimization is state-of-the-art. As lateral dynamics simulation is way more CPU-intensive, optimization takes much more time than in case of longitudinal-only simulation. Therefore, this paper shows an approach how to create meta-models from a 14-degree of freedom vehicle model in order to enable a numerically efficient drivetrain-layout optimization process under consideration of lateral dynamics. Different meta-modelling approaches such as neural networks or DoE are implemented and comparatively discussed.

Keywords: driving dynamics, drivetrain layout, genetic optimization, meta-modeling, lateral dynamicx

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