Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Minoo Tavakoli

27 An Investigation on the Energy Absorption of Sandwich Panels With Aluminium Foam Core under Perforation Test

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Mojtaba Zebarjad, Golestanipour

Abstract:

Metallic sandwich structures with aluminum foam core are good energy absorbers. In this paper, perforation test were carried out on different samples to study energy absorption. In the experiments, effect of several parameters, i.e. skin thickness and thickness of foam core, on the energy absorption, delamination zone of back faces and deformation strain(φ) are discussed. Results show that increasing plates thickness will results in more absorbed energy and delamination. Moreover, thickening foam core has the same effect.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, sandwich panel, aluminium foam, perforation

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
26 High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Aluminized Steel by Arc Spray and Cementation Techniques

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Alireza Kiani Rashid, Abbas Afrasiabi

Abstract:

An aluminum coating deposited on mild steel substrate by electric arc spray and diffused to the base steel material by diffusion treatment at 800 and 900°C for 1 and 3 hours in a static air. Alloy layers formed by diffusion at both temperatures were investigated, and their features were compared with those of pack cementation aluminized steel. High-temperature oxidation tests were carried out in air at 600 °C for 145 hours. Results indicated that the aluminide coatings obtained from this process have significantly improved the high-temperature oxidation resistance in both methods due to the Al2O3 scale formation. Furthermore, it showed that the isothermal oxidation resistance of arc spray technique is better than pack cementation method. This can be attributed to voids that formed at the intermetallic layer /Al layer interface which is increased in the pack cementation method.

Keywords: electric arc spray, pack cementation, oxidation resistance, aluminized steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
25 Pregnancy through the Lens of Iranian Women with HIV: A Qualitative

Authors: Zahra BehboodiI-Moghadam, Zohre Khalajinia, Ali Reza Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Minoo Mohraz

Abstract:

The purpose of our study was to explore and describe the experiences of pregnant women with HIV in Iran. A qualitative exploratory study with conventional content analysis was used. Twelve pregnant women with HIV who referred to perinatal care at the Imam Khomeini Hospital Behavioral Diseases Consultation: Center in Tehran were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews. The average age of the participants was 32.5 years. Four main themes were extracted from the data: “fear and hope, “stigma and discrimination, “marital life stability” and “trust”. The findings reveal the pregnant women living with HIV are vulnerable and need professional support. Improving the knowledge of healthcare professionals especially midwifes on pregnancy complications for women with HIV is crucial in order to provide high-quality care to pregnant women with HIV-positive.

Keywords: HIV, pregnancy, Content Analysis, Qualitative Research, Experiences, Iran

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24 Alumina Nanoparticles in One-Pot Synthesis of Pyrazolopyranopyrimidinones

Authors: Saeed Khodabakhshi, Alimorad Rashidi, Ziba Tavakoli, Sajad Kiani, Sadegh Dastkhoon

Abstract:

Alumina nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) were prepared via a new and simple synthetic route and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of prepared γ-Al2O3 NPs was investigated for the one-pot, four-component synthesis of fused tri-heterocyclic compounds containing pyrazole, pyran, and pyrimidine. This procedure has some advantages such as high efficiency, simplicity, high rate and environmental safety.

Keywords: alumina nanoparticles, one-pot, fused tri-heterocyclic compounds, pyran

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23 The Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Xbai Gg Genotype and Severe Preeclampsia

Authors: Saeedeh Salimi, Farzaneh Farajian- Mashhadi, Ehsan Tabatabaei, Mahnaz Shahrakipoor, Minoo Yaghmaei, Mojgan Mokhtari

Abstract:

Purpose: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays an essential role in the adaptation of increased uterine blood flow during gestation. Therefore ERα gene could be a possible candidate for preeclampsia(PE) susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the association of the ERα gene polymorphisms and PE in an Iranian population. Methods: One hundred ninety-two pregnant women with PE and 186 normotensive women were genotyped for ERα gene (PvuII and XbaI) polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Results: The frequency of alleles and genotypes of ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were not different between PE and normotensive control women. However, higher frequency of GG genotype was observed in women with severe PE compared to mild PE (OR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3]; P = 0.02) and in severe PE compared to normotensive women [OR= 1.8(1.1-3), P=0.02] after adjusting for age, ethnicity and primiparity. Conclusions: The GG genotype of ERα XbaI polymorphism could be a genetic risk factor for PE predisposition.

Keywords: gene, Polymorphism, preeclampsia, estrogen receptor-α

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
22 Effect of Swelling Pressure on Drug Release from Polyelectrolyte Micro-Hydrogel Particles

Authors: Javad Tavakoli, Mina Boroujerdi

Abstract:

Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of drugs. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. In this contribution, an electronic device for swelling pressure measurement during drug release from hydrogel network was developed. Also, poly acrylic acid micro particles were prepared for prolonged and sustained controlled acetaminophen release. Effect of swelling pressure on drug release from micro particles studied under different environment pH in order to predict release profile in gastro-intestine medium. Swelling ratio and swelling pressure were measured in different pH.

Keywords: drug delivery, Hydrogel, polyelectrolyte, swelling pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
21 Numerical Analysis of Water Hammer in a Viscoelastic Pipe System Considering Fluid Structure Interaction

Authors: N. Tavakoli Shirazi

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of pipe-wall viscoelasticity on water hammer pressures. Tests have been conducted in a reservoir-pipe-valve system configured of a main viscoelastic pipeline and two short steel pipes placed upstream and downstream of the main pipe. Rapid closure of a manually operated valve at the downstream end generates water hammer. Experimental measurements at several positions along the pipeline have been collected from the papers. Computer simulations of the experiment have been performed and the results of runs with various options affecting the water hammer are provided and discussed. It is shown that the incorporation of viscoelastic pipe wall mechanical behavior in the hydraulic transient model contributes to a favorable fitting between numerical results and observed data.

Keywords: Viscoelasticity, water hammer, pipe system, PVC pipe

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20 How Geant4 Hadronic Models Handle Tracking of Pion Particles Resulting from Antiproton Annihilation

Authors: M. M. Mohammadi, M. B. Tavakoli, R. Reiazi, K. Jabbari

Abstract:

From 2003, AD4/ACE experiment in CERN tried to investigate different aspects of antiproton as a new modality in particle therapy. Because of lack of reliable absolute dose measurements attempts to find out the radiobiological characteristics of antiproton have not reached to a reasonable result yet. From the other side, application of Geant4 in medical approaches is increased followed by Geant4-DNA project which focuses on using this code to predict radiation effects in the cellular scale. This way we can exploit Geant4-DNA results for antiproton. Unfortunately, previous studies showed there are serious problem in simulating an antiproton beam using Geant4. Since most of the problem was in the Bragg peak region which antiproton annihilates there, in this work we tried to understand if the problem came from the way in which Geant4 handles annihilation products especially pion particles. This way, we can predict the source of the dose discrepancies between Geant4 simulations and dose measurements done in CERN.

Keywords: Geant4, antiproton, annihilation, pion plus, pion minus

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19 The Law of Treaties and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

Authors: S. M. Tavakoli Sani, M. Sabbet Moghadam, Y. Khorram Farhadi, Iraj Rezayi Nejad

Abstract:

The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.

Keywords: National Security, Treaties, Iran, Islamic Revolution

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18 The Relationship between Knowledge Management Processes and Strategic Thinking at the Organization Level

Authors: Bahman Ghaderi, Hedayat Hosseini, Parviz Kafche

Abstract:

The role of knowledge management processes in achieving the strategic goals of organizations is crucial. To this end, understanding the relationship between knowledge management processes and different aspects of strategic thinking (followed by long-term organizational planning) should be considered. This research examines the relationship between each of the five knowledge management processes (creation, storage, transfer, audit, and deployment) with each dimension of strategic thinking (vision, creativity, thinking, communication and analysis) in one of the major sectors of the food industry in Iran. In this research, knowledge management and its dimensions (knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge transfer, knowledge auditing, and finally knowledge utilization) as independent variables and strategic thinking and its dimensions (creativity, systematic thinking, vision, strategic analysis, and strategic communication) are considered as the dependent variable. The statistical population of this study consisted of 245 managers and employees of Minoo Food Industrial Group in Tehran. In this study, a simple random sampling method was used, and data were collected by a questionnaire designed by the research team. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. LISERL software is also used for calculating and drawing models and graphs. Among the factors investigated in the present study, knowledge storage with 0.78 had the most effect, and knowledge transfer with 0.62 had the least effect on knowledge management and thus on strategic thinking.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Food industry, Knowledge Management Processes, strategic thinking

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17 A Framework for Review Spam Detection Research

Authors: Naomie Salim, Mohammadali Tavakoli, Atefeh Heydari, Zuriati Ismail

Abstract:

With the increasing number of people reviewing products online in recent years, opinion sharing websites has become the most important source of customers’ opinions. Unfortunately, spammers generate and post fake reviews in order to promote or demote brands and mislead potential customers. These are notably destructive not only for potential customers but also for business holders and manufacturers. However, research in this area is not adequate, and many critical problems related to spam detection have not been solved to date. To provide green researchers in the domain with a great aid, in this paper, we have attempted to create a high-quality framework to make a clear vision on review spam-detection methods. In addition, this report contains a comprehensive collection of detection metrics used in proposed spam-detection approaches. These metrics are extremely applicable for developing novel detection methods.

Keywords: Spam Detection, fake reviews, feature collection, opinion spam

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16 Test and Evaluation of Patient Tracking Platform in an Earthquake Simulation

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Nahid Tavakoli, Ali Samimi

Abstract:

In earthquake situation, medical response communities such as field and referral hospitals are challenged with injured victims’ identification and tracking. In our project, it was developed a patient tracking platform (PTP) where first responders triage the patients with an electronic tag which report the location and some information of each patient during his/her movement. This platform includes: 1) near field communication (NFC) tags (ISO 14443), 2) smart mobile phones (Android-base version 4.2.2), 3) Base station laptops (Windows), 4) server software, 5) Android software to use by first responders, 5) disaster command software, and 6) system architecture. Our model has been completed through literature review, Delphi technique, focus group, design the platform, and implement in an earthquake exercise. This paper presents consideration for content, function, and technologies that must apply for patient tracking in medical emergencies situations. It is demonstrated the robustness of the patient tracking platform (PTP) in tracking 6 patients in a simulated earthquake situation in the yard of the relief and rescue department of Isfahan’s Red Crescent.

Keywords: Simulation, Earthquake, Test and Evaluation, patient tracking platform

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15 The Study of the Concept of Aesthetics in Architecture Derived from the Ideas of Jörg Kurt Greuther

Authors: Mana Pirhadi, Maryam Pirhadi, Fatemeh Tavakoli

Abstract:

As there are several styles and attitudes among the practitioners of the present time, it is difficult to achieve a definition of beauty for contemporary architecture and aesthetic concepts has different frameworks in various disciplines. Beauty can be regarded as one of the most important elements of architecture; therefore, having a clear understanding of beauty can help architects and audiences to create or analyze an architectural work. This paper investigates the assumption that we can have a clearer understanding of the concept of aesthetics in architecture by analyzing the ideas of the contemporary analyst of architectural aesthetics, Jörg Greuther. Thus, the question is how the concept of aesthetics in architecture will be analyzed in their thoughts. In general, the paper aims to examine aesthetic concepts in the contemporary era that are expressed relying on Greuther's views. The paper adopts a descriptive-analytic approach in terms of methodology. Finally, through the study of the viewpoints of various scholars and specifically considering Greuther's definition that focuses on the effect of psychological-social factors on human perception and formation of the schema, it could be said that aesthetics means to have a good knowledge of truth and understand it.

Keywords: Aesthetics, Contemporary Architecture, beauty perception, Jörg Greuther

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14 Leveraging Quality Metrics in Voting Model Based Thread Retrieval

Authors: Naomie Salim, Mohammadali Tavakoli, Atefeh Heydari, Zuriati Ismail

Abstract:

Seeking and sharing knowledge on online forums have made them popular in recent years. Although online forums are valuable sources of information, due to variety of sources of messages, retrieving reliable threads with high quality content is an issue. Majority of the existing information retrieval systems ignore the quality of retrieved documents, particularly, in the field of thread retrieval. In this research, we present an approach that employs various quality features in order to investigate the quality of retrieved threads. Different aspects of content quality, including completeness, comprehensiveness, and politeness, are assessed using these features, which lead to finding not only textual, but also conceptual relevant threads for a user query within a forum. To analyse the influence of the features, we used an adopted version of voting model thread search as a retrieval system. We equipped it with each feature solely and also various combinations of features in turn during multiple runs. The results show that incorporating the quality features enhances the effectiveness of the utilised retrieval system significantly.

Keywords: content quality, forum search, thread retrieval, voting techniques

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13 Investigation of Information Security Incident Management Based on International Standard ISO/IEC 27002 in Educational Hospitals in 2014

Authors: Nahid Tavakoli, Asghar Ehteshami, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Amini

Abstract:

Introduction: The Information security incident management guidelines was been developed to help hospitals to meet their information security event and incident management requirements. The purpose of this Study was to investigate on Information Security Incident Management in Isfahan’s educational hospitals in accordance to ISO/IEC 27002 standards. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to investigate on Information Security Incident Management of educational hospitals in 2014. Based on ISO/IEC 27002 standards, two checklists were applied to check the compliance with standards on Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements. One inspector was trained to carry out the assessments in the hospitals. The data was analyzed by SPSS. Findings: In general the score of compliance Information Security Incident Management requirements in two steps; Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements was %60. There was the significant difference in various compliance levels among the hospitals (p-valueKeywords: Standards, hospitals, Information Security Management, information security incident management

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12 Study of a Lean Premixed Combustor: A Thermo Acoustic Analysis

Authors: Shidvash Vakilipour, Rouzbeh Riazi, Minoo Ghasemzadeh, Alireza Ramezani

Abstract:

In this study, thermo acoustic oscillations of a lean premixed combustor has been investigated, and a mono-dimensional code was developed in this regard. The linearized equations of motion are solved for perturbations with time dependence〖 e〗^iwt. Two flame models were considered in this paper and the effect of mean flow and boundary conditions were also investigated. After manipulation of flame heat release equation together with the equations of flow perturbation within the main components of the combustor model (i.e., plenum/ premixed duct/ and combustion chamber) and by considering proper boundary conditions between the components of model, a system of eight homogeneous equations can be obtained. This simplification, for the main components of the combustor model, is convenient since low frequency acoustic waves are not affected by bends. Moreover, some elements in the combustor are smaller than the wavelength of propagated acoustic perturbations. A convection time is also assumed to characterize the required time for the acoustic velocity fluctuations to travel from the point of injection to the location of flame front in the combustion chamber. The influence of an extended flame model on the acoustic frequencies of combustor was also investigated, assuming the effect of flame speed as a function of equivalence ratio perturbation, on the rate of flame heat release. The abovementioned system of equations has a related eigenvalue equation which has complex roots. The sign of imaginary part of these roots determines whether the disturbances grow or decay and the real part of these roots would give the frequency of the modes. The results show a reasonable agreement between the predicted values of dominant frequencies in the present model and those calculated in previous related studies.

Keywords: Combustion Instability, dominant frequencies, flame speed, premixed combustor

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11 Role of mHealth in Effective Response to Disaster

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohamadian, Reza Safdari, Nahid Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years, many countries have suffered various natural disasters. Disaster response continues to face the challenges in health care sector in all countries. Information and communication management is a significant challenge in disaster scene. During the last decades, rapid advances in information technology have led to manage information effectively and improve communication in health care setting. Information technology is a vital solution for effective response to disasters and emergencies so that if an efficient ICT-based health information system is available, it will be highly valuable in such situation. Of that, mobile technology represents a nearly computing technology infrastructure that is accessible, convenient, inexpensive and easy to use. Most projects have not yet reached the deployment stage, but evaluation exercises show that mHealth should allow faster processing and transport of patients, improved accuracy of triage and better monitoring of unattended patients at a disaster scene. Since there is a high prevalence of cell phones among world population, it is expected the health care providers and managers to take measures for applying this technology for improvement patient safety and public health in disasters. At present there are challenges in the utilization of mhealth in disasters such as lack of structural and financial issues in our country. In this paper we will discuss about benefits and challenges of mhealth technology in disaster setting considering connectivity, usability, intelligibility, communication and teaching for implementing this technology for disaster response.

Keywords: Information Technology, Disaster, mHealth, effective response

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10 A Supervised Approach for Detection of Singleton Spam Reviews

Authors: Naomie Salim, Mohammadali Tavakoli, Atefeh Heydari

Abstract:

In recent years, we have witnessed that online reviews are the most important source of customers’ opinion. They are progressively more used by individuals and organisations to make purchase and business decisions. Unfortunately, for the reason of profit or fame, frauds produce deceptive reviews to hoodwink potential customers. Their activities mislead not only potential customers to make appropriate purchasing decisions and organisations to reshape their business, but also opinion mining techniques by preventing them from reaching accurate results. Spam reviews could be divided into two main groups, i.e. multiple and singleton spam reviews. Detecting a singleton spam review that is the only review written by a user ID is extremely challenging due to lack of clue for detection purposes. Singleton spam reviews are very harmful and various features and proofs used in multiple spam reviews detection are not applicable in this case. Current research aims to propose a novel supervised technique to detect singleton spam reviews. To achieve this, various features are proposed in this study and are to be combined with the most appropriate features extracted from literature and employed in a classifier. In order to compare the performance of different classifiers, SVM and naive Bayes classification algorithms were used for model building. The results revealed that SVM was more accurate than naive Bayes and our proposed technique is capable to detect singleton spam reviews effectively.

Keywords: Classification Algorithms, naive Bayes, support vector machine, opinion review spam detection, singleton review spam detection

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9 Effect of Fat Percentage and Prebiotic Composition on Proteolysis, ACE-Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activity of Probiotic Yogurt

Authors: Mohammad B. HabibiNajafi, Saeideh Sadat Fatemizadeh, Maryam Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years, the consumption of functional foods, including foods containing probiotic bacteria, has come to notice. Milk proteins have been identified as a source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme )ACE( inhibitory peptides and are currently the best-known class of bioactive peptides. In this study, the effects of adding prebiotic ingredients (inulin and wheat fiber) and fat percentage (0%, 2% and 3.5%) in yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei on physicochemical properties, degree of proteolysis, antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity within 21 days of storage at 5 ± 1 °C were evaluated. The results of statistical analysis showed that the application of prebiotic compounds led to a significant increase in water holding capacity, proteolysis and ACE-inhibitory of samples. The degree of proteolysis in yogurt increases as storage time elapses (P < 0.05) but when proteolysis exceeds a certain threshold, this trend begins to decline. Also, during storage time, water holding capacity reduced initially but increased thereafter. Moreover, based on our findings, the survival of Lactobacillus casei in samples treated with inulin and wheat fiber increased significantly in comparison to the control sample (P < 0.05) whereas the effect of fat percentage on the survival of probiotic bacteria was not significant (P = 0.095). Furthermore, the effect of prebiotic ingredients and the presence of probiotic cultures on the antioxidant activity of samples was significant (P < 0.05).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, proteolysis, probiotic yogurt, ACE-inhibitory

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
8 Optimality Conditions for Weak Efficient Solutions Generated by a Set Q in Vector Spaces

Authors: Javad Tavakoli, Elham Kiyani, S. Mansour Vaezpour

Abstract:

In this paper, we first introduce a new distance function in a linear space not necessarily endowed with a topology. The algebraic concepts of interior and closure are useful to study optimization problems without topology. So, we define Q-weak efficient solutions generated by the algebraic interior of a set Q, where Q is not necessarily convex. Studying nonconvex vector optimization is valuable since, for a convex cone K in topological spaces, we have int(K)=cor(K), which means that topological interior of a convex cone K is equal to the algebraic interior of K. Moreover, we used the scalarization technique including the distance function generated by the vectorial closure of a set to characterize these Q-weak efficient solutions. Scalarization is a useful approach for solving vector optimization problems. This technique reduces the optimization problem to a scalar problem which tends to be an optimization problem with a real-valued objective function. For instance, Q-weak efficient solutions of vector optimization problems can be characterized and computed as solutions of appropriate scalar optimization problems. In the convex case, linear functionals can be used as objective functionals of the scalar problems. But in the nonconvex case, we should present a suitable objective function. It is the aim of this paper to present a new distance function that be useful to obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for Q-weak efficient solutions of general optimization problems via scalarization.

Keywords: algebraic interior, vector closure, weak efficient, linear space

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7 Patient Tracking Challenges During Disasters and Emergencies

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Reza Safdari, Nahid Tavakoli, Mahmoud Keyvanara

Abstract:

One of the greatest challenges in disaster and emergencies is patient tracking. The concept of tracking has different denotations. One of the meanings refers to tracking patients’ physical locations and the other meaning refers to tracking patients ‘medical needs during emergency services. The main goal of patient tracking is to provide patient safety during disaster and emergencies and manage the flow of patient and information in different locations. In most of cases, there are not sufficient and accurate data regarding the number of injuries, medical conditions and their accommodation and transference. The objective of the present study is to survey on patient tracking issue in natural disaster and emergencies. Methods: This was a narrative study in which the population was E-Journals and the electronic database such as PubMed, Proquest, Science direct, Elsevier, etc. Data was gathered by Extraction Form. All data were analyzed via content analysis. Results: In many countries there is no appropriate and rapid method for tracking patients and transferring victims after the occurrence of incidents. The absence of reliable data of patients’ transference and accommodation, even in the initial hours and days after the occurrence of disasters, and coordination for appropriate resource allocation, have faced challenges for evaluating needs and services challenges. Currently, most of emergency services are based on paper systems, while these systems do not act appropriately in great disasters and incidents and this issue causes information loss. Conclusion: Patient tracking system should update the location of patients or evacuees and information related to their states. Patients’ information should be accessible for authorized users to continue their treatment, accommodation and transference. Also it should include timely information of patients’ location as soon as they arrive somewhere and leave therein such a way that health care professionals can be able to provide patients’ proper medical treatment.

Keywords: Challenges, Emergency, Disaster, patient tracking

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6 Synthesis of PVA/γ-Fe2O3 Used in Cancer Treatment by Hyperthermia

Authors: Sajjad Seifi Mofarah, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, Shokooh Moghadam, Javad Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years a new method of combination treatment for cancer has been developed and studied that has led to significant advancements in the field of cancer therapy. Hyperthermia is a traditional therapy that, along with a creation of a medically approved level of heat with the help of an alternating magnetic AC current, results in the destruction of cancer cells by heat. This paper gives details regarding the production of the spherical nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in order to be used for medical purposes such as tumor treatment by hyperthermia. To reach a suitable and evenly distributed temperature, the nanocomposite with core-shell morphology and spherical form within a 100 to 200 nanometer size was created using phase separation emulsion, in which the magnetic nano-particles γ-Fe2O3 with an average particle size of 20 nano-meters and with different percentages of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 were covered by polyvinyl alcohol. The main concern in hyperthermia and heat treatment is achieving desirable specific absorption rate (SAR) and one of the most critical factors in SAR is particle size. In this project all attempts has been done to reach minimal size and consequently maximum SAR. The morphological analysis of the spherical structure of the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 was achieved by SEM analyses and the study of the chemical bonds created was made possible by FTIR analysis. To investigate the manner of magnetic nanocomposite particle size distribution a DLS experiment was conducted. Moreover, to determine the magnetic behavior of the γ-Fe2O3 particle and the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in different concentrations a VSM test was conducted. To sum up, creating magnetic nanocomposites with a spherical morphology that would be employed for drug loading opens doors to new approaches in developing nanocomposites that provide efficient heat and a controlled release of drug simultaneously inside the magnetic field, which are among their positive characteristics that could significantly improve the recovery process in patients.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Cancer Therapy, hyperthermia, drug releasing

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5 Reduction of Plants Biodiversity in Hyrcanian Forest by Coal Mining Activities

Authors: Yahya Kooch, Mahsa Tavakoli, Seyed Mohammad Hojjati

Abstract:

Considering that coal mining is one of the important industrial activities, it may cause damages to environment. According to the author’s best knowledge, the effect of traditional coal mining activities on plant biodiversity has not been investigated in the Hyrcanian forests. Therefore, in this study, the effect of coal mining activities on vegetation and tree diversity was investigated in Hyrcanian forest, North Iran. After filed visiting and determining the mine, 16 plots (20×20 m2) were established by systematic-randomly (60×60 m2) in an area of 4 ha (200×200 m2-mine entrance placed at center). An area adjacent to the mine was not affected by the mining activity, and it is considered as the control area. In each plot, the data about trees such as number and type of species were recorded. The biodiversity of vegetation cover was considered 5 square sub-plots (1 m2) in each plot. PAST software and Ecological Methodology were used to calculate Biodiversity indices. The value of Shannon Wiener and Simpson diversity indices for tree cover in control area (1.04±0.34 and 0.62±0.20) was significantly higher than mining area (0.78±0.27 and 0.45±0.14). The value of evenness indices for tree cover in the mining area was significantly lower than that of the control area. The value of Shannon Wiener and Simpson diversity indices for vegetation cover in the control area (1.37±0.06 and 0.69±0.02) was significantly higher than the mining area (1.02±0.13 and 0.50±0.07). The value of evenness index in the control area was significantly higher than the mining area. Plant communities are a good indicator of the changes in the site. Study about changes in vegetation biodiversity and plant dynamics in the degraded land can provide necessary information for forest management and reforestation of these areas.

Keywords: Species Composition, traditional coal mining, Caspian forest, vegetation biodiversity

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4 Lead and Cadmium Spatial Pattern and Risk Assessment around Coal Mine in Hyrcanian Forest, North Iran

Authors: Yahya Kooch, Mahsa Tavakoli, Seyed Mohammad Hojjati

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of coal mining activities on lead and cadmium concentrations and distribution in soil was investigated in Hyrcanian forest, North Iran. 16 plots (20×20 m2) were established by systematic-randomly (60×60 m2) in an area of 4 ha (200×200 m2-mine entrance placed at center). An area adjacent to the mine was not affected by the mining activity; considered as the controlled area. In order to investigate soil lead and cadmium concentration, one sample was taken from the 0-10 cm in each plot. To study the spatial pattern of soil properties and lead and cadmium concentrations in the mining area, an area of 80×80m2 (the mine as the center) was considered and 80 soil samples were systematic-randomly taken (10 m intervals). Geostatistical analysis was performed via Kriging method and GS+ software (version 5.1). In order to estimate the impact of coal mining activities on soil quality, pollution index was measured. Lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in mine area (Pb: 10.97±0.30, Cd: 184.47±6.26 mg.kg-1) in comparison to control area (Pb: 9.42±0.17, Cd: 131.71±15.77 mg.kg-1). The mean values of the PI index indicate that Pb (1.16) and Cd (1.77) presented slightly polluted. Results of the NIPI index showed that Pb (1.44) and Cd (2.52) presented slight pollution and moderate pollution respectively. Results of variography and kriging method showed that it is possible to prepare interpolation maps of lead and cadmium around the mining areas in Hyrcanian forest. According to results of pollution and risk assessments, forest soil was contaminated by heavy metals (lead and cadmium); therefore, using reclamation and remediation techniques in these areas is necessary.

Keywords: Geostatistics, Heavy Metals, pollution indicators, traditional coal mining, Caspian forest

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3 Interference of Mild Drought Stress on Estimation of Nitrogen Status in Winter Wheat by Some Vegetation Indices

Authors: H. Tavakoli, S. S. Mohtasebi, R. Alimardani, R. Gebbers

Abstract:

Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important agricultural inputs affecting crop growth, yield and quality in rain-fed cereal production. N demand of crops varies spatially across fields due to spatial differences in soil conditions. In addition, the response of a crop to the fertilizer applications is heavily reliant on plant available water. Matching N supply to water availability is thus essential to achieve an optimal crop response. The objective of this study was to determine effect of drought stress on estimation of nitrogen status of winter wheat by some vegetation indices. During the 2012 growing season, a field experiment was conducted at the Bundessortenamt (German Plant Variety Office) Marquardt experimental station which is located in the village of Marquardt about 5 km northwest of Potsdam, Germany (52°27' N, 12°57' E). The experiment was designed as a randomized split block design with two replications. Treatments consisted of four N fertilization rates (0, 60, 120 and 240 kg N ha-1, in total) and two water regimes (irrigated (Irr) and non-irrigated (NIrr)) in total of 16 plots with dimension of 4.5 × 9.0 m. The indices were calculated using readings of a spectroradiometer made of tec5 components. The main parts were two “Zeiss MMS1 nir enh” diode-array sensors with a nominal rage of 300 to 1150 nm with less than 10 nm resolutions and an effective range of 400 to 1000 nm. The following vegetation indices were calculated: NDVI, GNDVI, SR, MSR, NDRE, RDVI, REIP, SAVI, OSAVI, MSAVI, and PRI. All the experiments were conducted during the growing season in different plant growth stages including: stem elongation (BBCH=32-41), booting stage (BBCH=43), inflorescence emergence, heading (BBCH=56-58), flowering (BBCH=65-69), and development of fruit (BBCH=71). According to the results obtained, among the indices, NDRE and REIP were less affected by drought stress and can provide reliable wheat nitrogen status information, regardless of water status of the plant. They also showed strong relations with nitrogen status of winter wheat.

Keywords: Precision Agriculture, drought stress, nitrogen status, vegetation indices

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2 Development of an Automatic Control System for ex vivo Heart Perfusion

Authors: Pengzhou Lu, Liming Xin, Payam Tavakoli, Zhonghua Lin, Roberto V. P. Ribeiro, Mitesh V. Badiwala

Abstract:

Ex vivo Heart Perfusion (EVHP) has been developed as an alternative strategy to expand cardiac donation by enabling resuscitation and functional assessment of hearts donated from marginal donors, which were previously not accepted. EVHP parameters, such as perfusion flow (PF) and perfusion pressure (PP) are crucial for optimal organ preservation. However, with the heart’s constant physiological changes during EVHP, such as coronary vascular resistance, manual control of these parameters is rendered imprecise and cumbersome for the operator. Additionally, low control precision and the long adjusting time may lead to irreversible damage to the myocardial tissue. To solve this problem, an automatic heart perfusion system was developed by applying a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and a Programmable-Logic-Controller (PLC)-based circuit to control PF and PP. The PLC-based control system collects the data of PF and PP through flow probes and pressure transducers. It has two control modes: the RPM-flow mode and the pressure mode. The RPM-flow control mode is an open-loop system. It influences PF through providing and maintaining the desired speed inputted through the HMI to the centrifugal pump with a maximum error of 20 rpm. The pressure control mode is a closed-loop system where the operator selects a target Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) to control PP. The inputs of the pressure control mode are the target MAP, received through the HMI, and the real MAP, received from the pressure transducer. A PID algorithm is applied to maintain the real MAP at the target value with a maximum error of 1mmHg. The precision and control speed of the RPM-flow control mode were examined by comparing the PLC-based system to an experienced operator (EO) across seven RPM adjustment ranges (500, 1000, 2000 and random RPM changes; 8 trials per range) tested in a random order. System’s PID algorithm performance in pressure control was assessed during 10 EVHP experiments using porcine hearts. Precision was examined through monitoring the steady-state pressure error throughout perfusion period, and stabilizing speed was tested by performing two MAP adjustment changes (4 trials per change) of 15 and 20mmHg. A total of 56 trials were performed to validate the RPM-flow control mode. Overall, the PLC-based system demonstrated the significantly faster speed than the EO in all trials (PLC 1.21±0.03, EO 3.69±0.23 seconds; p < 0.001) and greater precision to reach the desired RPM (PLC 10±0.7, EO 33±2.7 mean RPM error; p < 0.001). Regarding pressure control, the PLC-based system has the median precision of ±1mmHg error and the median stabilizing times in changing 15 and 20mmHg of MAP are 15 and 19.5 seconds respectively. The novel PLC-based control system was 3 times faster with 60% less error than the EO for RPM-flow control. In pressure control mode, it demonstrates a high precision and fast stabilizing speed. In summary, this novel system successfully controlled perfusion flow and pressure with high precision, stability and a fast response time through a user-friendly interface. This design may provide a viable technique for future development of novel heart preservation and assessment strategies during EVHP.

Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, Human-Machine Interface, Programmable Logic Controller, Automatic Control System, ex-vivo heart perfusion

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1 An Economic Way to Toughen Poly Acrylic Acid Superabsorbent Polymer Using Hyper Branched Polymer

Authors: Javad Tavakoli, Nazila Dehbari, Yakani Kambu, Youhong Tang

Abstract:

Superabsorbent hydrogels (SAP), as an enviro-sensitive material have been widely used for industrial and biomedical applications due to their unique structure and capabilities. Poor mechanical properties of SAPs - which is extremely related to their large volume change – count as a great weakness in adopting for high-tech applications. Therefore, improving SAPs’ mechanical properties via toughening methods by mixing different types of cross-linked polymer or introducing energy-dissipating mechanisms is highly focused. In this work, in order to change the intrinsic brittle character of commercialized Poly Acrylic Acid (here as SAP) to be semi-ductile, a commercial available highly branched tree-like dendritic polymers with numerous –OH end groups known as hyper-branched polymer (HB) has been added to PAA-SAP system in a single step, cost effective and environment friendly solvent casting method. Samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM and TEM and their physico-chemical characterization including swelling capabilities, hydraulic permeability, surface tension and thermal properties had been performed. Toughness energy, stiffness, elongation at breaking point, viscoelastic properties and samples extensibility were mechanical properties that had been performed and characterized as a function of samples lateral cracks’ length in different HB concentration. Addition of HB to PAA-SAP significantly improved mechanical and surface properties. Increasing equilibrium swelling ratio by about 25% had been experienced by the SAP-HB samples in comparison with SAPs; however, samples swelling kinetics remained without changes as initial rate of water uptake and equilibrium time haven’t been subjected to any changes. Thermal stability analysis showed that HB is participating in hybrid network formation while improving mechanical properties. Samples characterization by TEM showed that, the aggregated HB polymer binders into nano-spheres with diameter in range of 10–200 nm. So well dispersion in the SAP matrix occurred as it was predictable due to the hydrophilic character of the numerous hydroxyl groups at the end of HB which enhance the compatibility of HB with PAA-SAP. As the profused -OH groups in HB could react with -COOH groups in the PAA-SAP during the curing process, the formation of a 2D structure in the SAP-HB could be attributed to the strong interfacial adhesion between HB and the PAA-SAP matrix which hinders the activity of PAA chains (SEM analysis). FTIR spectra introduced new peaks at 1041 and 1121 cm-1 that attributed to the C–O(–OH) stretching hydroxyl and O–C stretching ester groups of HB polymer binder indicating the incorporation of HB polymer into the SAP structure. SAP-HB polymer has significant effects on the final mechanical properties. The brittleness of PAA hydrogels are decreased by introducing HB as the fracture energies of hydrogels increased from 8.67 to 26.67. PAA-HBs’ stretch ability enhanced about 10 folds while reduced as a function of different notches depth.

Keywords: toughening, viscoelastic properties, superabsorbent polymer, hydrogel network

Procedia PDF Downloads 223