Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: ablation

73 Applications of Nanoparticles via Laser Ablation in Liquids: A Review

Authors: Fawaz M. Abdullah, Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari, Madiha Rafaqat

Abstract:

Laser ablation of any solid target in the liquid leads to fabricate nanoparticles (NPs) with metal or different compositions of materials such as metals, alloys, oxides, carbides, hydroxides. The fabrication of NPs in liquids based on laser ablation has grown up rapidly in the last decades compared to other techniques. Nowadays, laser ablation has been improved to prepare different types of NPs with special morphologies, microstructures, phases, and sizes, which can be applied in various fields. The paper reviews and highlights the different sizes, shapes and application field of nanoparticles that are produced by laser ablation under different liquids and materials. Also, the paper provides a case study for producing a titanium NPs produced by laser ablation submerged in distilled water. The size of NPs is an important parameter, especially for their usage and applications. The size and shape have been analyzed by SEM, (EDAX) was applied to evaluate the oxidation and elements of titanium NPs and the XRD was used to evaluate the phase composition and the peaks of both titanium and some element. SEM technique showed that the synthesized NPs size ranges were between 15-35 nm which can be applied in various field such as annihilator for cancerous cell etc.

Keywords: nanoparticles, laser ablation, titanium NPs, applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
72 Spectroscopic Characterization Approach to Study Ablation Time on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesis by Laser Ablation Technique

Authors: Suha I. Al-Nassar, K. M. Adel, F. Zainab

Abstract:

This work was devoted for producing ZnO nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of Zn metal plate in the aqueous environment of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser with wavelength= 1064 nm, Rep. rate= 10 Hz, Pulse duration= 6 ns and laser energy 50 mJ. Solution of nanoparticles is found stable in the colloidal form for a long time. The effect of ablation time on the optical and structure of ZnO was studied is characterized by UV-visible absorption. UV-visible absorption spectrum has four peaks at 256, 259, 265, 322 nm for ablation time (5, 10, 15, and 20 sec) respectively, our results show that UV–vis spectra show a blue shift in the presence of CTAB with decrease the ablation time and blue shift indicated to get smaller size of nanoparticles. The blue shift in the absorption edge indicates the quantum confinement property of nanoparticles. Also, FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared in these states show a characteristic ZnO absorption at 435–445cm^−1.

Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticles, CTAB solution, pulsed laser ablation technique, spectroscopic characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
71 Coaxial Helix Antenna for Microwave Coagulation Therapy in Liver Tissue Simulations

Authors: M. Chaichanyut, S. Tungjitkusolmun

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with microwave (MW) ablation for a liver cancer tissue by using helix antenna. The antenna structure supports the propagation of microwave energy at 2.45 GHz. A 1½ turn spiral catheter-based microwave antenna applicator has been developed. We utilize the three-dimensional finite element method (3D FEM) simulation to analyze where the tissue heat flux, lesion pattern and volume destruction during MW ablation. The configurations of helix antenna where Helix air-core antenna and Helix Dielectric-core antenna. The 3D FEMs solutions were based on Maxwell and bio-heat equations. The simulation protocol was power control (10 W, 300s). Our simulation result, both helix antennas have heat flux occurred around the helix antenna and that can be induced the temperature distribution similar (teardrop). The region where the temperature exceeds 50°C the microwave ablation was successful (i.e. complete destruction). The Helix air-core antenna and Helix Dielectric-core antenna, ablation zone or axial ratios (Widest/length) were respectively 0.82 and 0.85; the complete destructions were respectively 4.18 cm³ and 5.64 cm³.

Keywords: liver cancer, Helix antenna, finite element, microwave ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
70 Numerical Simulation of Heating Characteristics in a Microwave T-Prong Antenna for Cancer Therapy

Authors: M. Chaichanyut, S. Tungjitkusolmun

Abstract:

This research is presented with microwave (MW) ablation by using the T-Prong monopole antennas. In the study, three-dimensional (3D) finite-element methods (FEM) were utilized to analyse: the tissue heat flux, temperature distributions (heating pattern) and volume destruction during MW ablation in liver cancer tissue. The configurations of T-Prong monopole antennas were considered: Three T-prong antenna, Expand T-Prong antenna and Arrow T-Prong antenna. The 3D FEMs solutions were based on Maxwell and bio-heat equations. The microwave power deliveries were 10 W; the duration of ablation in all cases was 300s. Our numerical result, heat flux and the hotspot occurred at the tip of the T-prong antenna for all cases. The temperature distribution pattern of all antennas was teardrop. The Arrow T-Prong antenna can induce the highest temperature within cancer tissue. The microwave ablation was successful when the region where the temperatures exceed 50°C (i.e. complete destruction). The Expand T-Prong antenna could complete destruction the liver cancer tissue was maximized (6.05 cm³). The ablation pattern or axial ratio (Widest/length) of Expand T-Prong antenna and Arrow T-Prong antenna was 1, but the axial ratio of Three T-prong antenna of about 1.15.

Keywords: liver cancer, T-Prong antenna, finite element, microwave ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
69 3D-printing for Ablation Planning in Patients Undergoing Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: 3D-GALA Trial

Authors: Terentes Printzios Dimitrios, Loanna Gourgouli, Vlachopoulos Charalambos

Abstract:

Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains one of the major causes of stroke, heart failure, sudden death and cardiovascular morbidity. Ablation techniques are becoming more appealing after the latest results of randomized trials showing the overall clinical benefit. On the other hand, imaging techniques and the frontier application of 3D printing are emerging as a valuable ally for cardiac procedures. However, no randomized trial has directly assessed the impact of preprocedural imaging and especially 3D printing guidance for AF ablation. The present study is designed to investigate for the first time the effect of 3D printing of the heart on the safety and effectiveness of the ablation procedure. Methods and design: The 3D-GALA trial is a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre clinical trial of 2 parallel groups designed to enroll a total of 100 patients undergoing ablation using cryo-balloon for paroxysmal and persistent AF. Patients will be randomized with a patient allocation ratio of 1: 1 to preprocedural MRI scan of the heart and 3D printing of left atrium and pulmonary veins and cryoablation versus standard cryoablation without imaging. Patients will be followed up to 6 months after the index procedure. The primary outcome measure is the reduction of radiation dose and contrast amount during pulmonary veins isolation. Secondary endpoints will include the percentage of atrial fibrillation relapse at 24h-Holter electrocardiogram monitoring at 6 months after initial treatment. Discussion: To our knowledge, the 3D-GALA trial will be the first study to provide evidence about the clinical impact of preprocedural imaging and 3D printing before cryoablation.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, cardiac MRI, cryoablation, 3-d printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
68 Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections

Authors: Lucian Mocan, Teodora Mocan, Matea Cristian, Cornel Iancu

Abstract:

We present method of nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, using gold nanoparticles combined with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy. Ab (antibody solution) bound to GNPs (gold nanoparticles) was administered in vitro and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the microorganism. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy, and at the same time, normal cells were not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the infected tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into bacteria following perfusion. These results may represent a major step in antibiotherapy treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Klebsiella pneumoniae, nanoparticle functionalization, laser irradiation, antibody

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
67 Study on Fabrication of Surface Functional Micro and Nanostructures by Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Shengzhu Cao, Hui Zhou, Gan Wu, Lanxi Wanhg, Kaifeng Zhang, Rui Wang, Hu Wang

Abstract:

The functional micro and nanostructures, which can endow material surface with unique properties such as super-absorptance, hydrophobic and drag reduction. Recently, femtosecond laser ablation has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for surface functional micro and nanostructures fabrication. In this paper, using femtosecond laser ablation processing technique, we fabricated functional micro and nanostructures on Ti and Al alloy surfaces, test results showed that processed surfaces have 82%~96% absorptance over a broad wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared. The surface function properties, which determined by micro and nanostructures, could be modulated by variation laser parameters. These functional surfaces may find applications in such areas as photonics, plasmonics, spaceborne devices, thermal radiation sources, solar energy absorbers and biomedicine.

Keywords: surface functional, micro and nanostructures, femtosecond laser, ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
66 The Effect of Choke on the Efficiency of Coaxial Antenna for Percutaneous Microwave Coagulation Therapy for Hepatic Tumor

Authors: Surita Maini

Abstract:

There are many perceived advantages of microwave ablation have driven researchers to develop innovative antennas to effectively treat deep-seated, non-resectable hepatic tumors. In this paper a coaxial antenna with a miniaturized sleeve choke has been discussed for microwave interstitial ablation therapy, in order to reduce backward heating effects irrespective of the insertion depth into the tissue. Two dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate and measure the results of miniaturized sleeve choke antenna. This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include mesh resolution, surface heating and reflection coefficient. Quarter wavelength choke effectiveness has been discussed by comparing it with the unchoked antenna with same dimensions.

Keywords: microwave ablation, tumor, finite element method, coaxial slot antenna, coaxial dipole antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
65 Labyrinthine Venous Vasculature Ablation for the Treatment of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Two Case Reports

Authors: Kritin K. Verma, Bailey Duhon, Patrick W. Slater

Abstract:

Objective: To introduce the possible etiological role that the Labyrinthine Venous Vasculature (LVV) has in venous congestion of the cochlear system in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL) patients. Patients: Two patients (62-year-old female, 50-year-old male) presented within twenty-four hours of onset of SSNHL. Intervention: Following failed conservative and salvage techniques, the patients underwent ablation of the labyrinthine venous vasculature ipsilateral to the side of the loss. Main Outcome Measures: Improvement of sudden SSNHL based on an improvement of pure-tone audiometric (PTA) low-tone scoring averages at 250, 500, and 1000 Hz. Word recognition scoring using the NU-6 word list was used to assess quality of life. Results: Case 1 experienced a 51.7 dB increase in low-tone PTA and an increased word recognition scoring of 90%. Case 2 experienced a 33.4 dB increase in low-tone PTA and 60% increase in word recognition score. No major complications noted. Conclusion: Two patients experienced significant improvement in their low-tone PTA and word recognition scoring following the labyrinthine venous vasculature ablation.

Keywords: case report, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, venous congestion, vascular ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
64 Infra Red Laser Induced Ablation of Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites

Authors: Jadranka Blazhevska Gilev

Abstract:

IR laser-induced ablation of poly(butylacrylate-methylmethacrylate/hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate)/reduced graphene oxide (p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO) was examined with 0.5, 0.75 and 1 wt% reduced graphene oxide content in relation to polymer. The irradiation was performed with TEA (transversely excited atmosphere) CO₂ laser using incident fluence of 15-20 J/cm², repetition frequency of 1 Hz, in an evacuated (10-3 Pa) Pyrex spherical vessel. Thin deposited nanocomposites films with large specific area were obtained using different substrates. The properties of the films deposited on these substrates were evaluated by TGA, FTIR, (Thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transformation Infrared) Raman spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. Homogeneous distribution of graphene sheets was observed from the SEM images, making polymer/rGO deposit an ideal candidate for SERS application. SERS measurements were performed using Rhodamine 6G as probe molecule on the substrate Ag/p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO.

Keywords: laser ablation, reduced graphene oxide, polymer/rGO nanocomposites, thin deposited film

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
63 Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Liver Cancer

Authors: Lucian Mocan

Abstract:

We present method of Nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (Human hepatocellular liver carcinomacell line), using gold nanoparticles combuned with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy usig ex vivo specimens. Ex vivo-perfused liver specimens were obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma patients similarly to the surgical technique of transplantation. Ab bound to GNPs was inoculated intra-arterially onto the resulting specimen and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the malignant tissue by means of the capillary bed. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy and at the same time surrounding parenchyma was not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the malignant liver tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into tumor cells following ex-vivo intravascular perfusion. These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: HepG2 cells, gold nanoparticles, nanoparticle functionalization, laser irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
62 Randomized, Controlled Blind Study Comparing Sacroiliac Intra-Articular Steroid Injection to Radiofrequency Denervation for Management of Sacroiliac Joint Pain

Authors: Ossama Salman

Abstract:

Background and objective: Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause for chronic axial low back pain, with up to 20% prevalence rate. To date, no effective long-term treatment intervention has been embarked on yet. The aim of our study was to compare steroid block to radiofrequency ablation for SIJ pain conditions. Methods: A randomized, blind, study was conducted in 30 patients with sacroiliac joint pain. Fifteen patients received radiofrequency denervation of L4-5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral sacral branch, and 15 patients received steroid under fluoroscopy. Those in the steroid group who did not respond to steroid injections were offered to cross over to get radiofrequency ablation. Results: At 1-, 3- and 6-months post-intervention, 73%, 60% and 53% of patients, respectively, gained ≥ 50 % pain relief in the radiofrequency (RF) ablation group. In the steroid group, at one month post intervention follow up, only 20% gained ≥ 50 % pain relief, but failed to show any improvement at 3 months and 6 months follow up. Conclusions: Radiofrequency ablation at L4 and L5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral sacral branch may provide effective and longer pain relief compared to the classic intra-articular steroid injection, in properly selected patients with suspected sacroiliac joint pain. Larger studies are called for to confirm our results and lay out the optimal patient selection and treatment parameters for this poorly comprehended disorder.

Keywords: lateral branch denervation, LBD, radio frequency, RF, sacroiliac joint, SIJ, visual analogue scale, VAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
61 Data Modeling and Calibration of In-Line Pultrusion and Laser Ablation Machine Processes

Authors: David F. Nettleton, Christian Wasiak, Jonas Dorissen, David Gillen, Alexandr Tretyak, Elodie Bugnicourt, Alejandro Rosales

Abstract:

In this work, preliminary results are given for the modeling and calibration of two inline processes, pultrusion, and laser ablation, using machine learning techniques. The end product of the processes is the core of a medical guidewire, manufactured to comply with a user specification of diameter and flexibility. An ensemble approach is followed which requires training several models. Two state of the art machine learning algorithms are benchmarked: Kernel Recursive Least Squares (KRLS) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The final objective is to build a precise digital model of the pultrusion and laser ablation process in order to calibrate the resulting diameter and flexibility of a medical guidewire, which is the end product while taking into account the friction on the forming die. The result is an ensemble of models, whose output is within a strict required tolerance and which covers the required range of diameter and flexibility of the guidewire end product. The modeling and automatic calibration of complex in-line industrial processes is a key aspect of the Industry 4.0 movement for cyber-physical systems.

Keywords: calibration, data modeling, industrial processes, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
60 Endometrial Ablation and Resection Versus Hysterectomy for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Complications

Authors: Iliana Georganta, Clare Deehan, Marysia Thomson, Miriam McDonald, Kerrie McNulty, Anna Strachan, Elizabeth Anderson, Alyaa Mostafa

Abstract:

Context: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hysterectomy versus endometrial ablation and resection in the management of heavy menstrual bleeding. Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy, satisfaction rates and adverse events of hysterectomy compared to more minimally invasive techniques in the treatment of HMB. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed for all RCTs and quasi-RCTs comparing hysterectomy with either endometrial ablation endometrial resection of both. The search had no language restrictions and was last updated in June 2020 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov and Clinical trials. EU. In addition, a manual search of the abstract databases of the European Haemophilia Conference on women's health was performed and further studies were identified from references of acquired papers. The primary outcomes were patient-reported and objective reduction in heavy menstrual bleeding up to 2 years and after 2 years. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction rates, pain, adverse events short and long term, quality of life and sexual function, further surgery, duration of surgery and hospital stay and time to return to work and normal activities. Data were analysed using RevMan software. Evidence synthesis: 12 studies and a total of 2028 women were included (hysterectomy: n = 977 women vs endometrial ablation or resection: n = 1051 women). Hysterectomy was compared with endometrial ablation only in five studies (Lin, Dickersin, Sesti, Jain, Cooper) and endometrial resection only in five studies (Gannon, Schulpher, O’Connor, Crosignani, Zupi) and a mixture of the Ablation and Resection in two studies (Elmantwe, Pinion). Of the 1² studies, 10 reported women’s perception of bleeding symptoms as improved. Meta-analysis showed that women in the hysterectomy group were more likely to show improvement in bleeding symptoms when compared with endometrial ablation or resection up to 2-year follow-up (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.79, I² = 95%). Objective outcomes of improvement in bleeding also favored hysterectomy. Patient satisfaction was higher after hysterectomy within the 2 years follow-up (RR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.86 to 0.94, I²:58%), however, there was no significant difference between the two groups at more than 2 years follow up. Sepsis (RR: 0.03, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.56; 1 study), wound infection (RR: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.28, I²: 0%, 3 studies) and Urinary tract infection (UTI) (RR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.42, I²: 0%, 4 studies) all favoured hysteroscopic techniques. Fluid overload (RR: 7.80, 95% CI: 2.16 to 28.16, I² :0%, 4 studies) and perforation (RR: 5.42, 95% CI: 1.25 to 23.45, I²: 0%, 4 studies) however favoured hysterectomy in the short term. Conclusions: This meta-analysis has demonstrated that endometrial ablation and endometrial resection are both viable options when compared with hysterectomy for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Hysteroscopic procedures had better outcomes in the short term with fewer adverse events including wound infection, UTI and sepsis. The hysterectomy performed better when measuring more long-term impacts such as recurrence of symptoms, overall satisfaction at two years and the need for further treatment or surgery.

Keywords: menorrhagia, hysterectomy, ablation, resection

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
59 Production, Quality Control and Biodistribution Assessment of 166 Ho-BPAMD as a New Bone Seeking Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, N. Amraee, M. Hosntalab, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani

Abstract:

The aim of this study was the preparation of a new agent for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma. 166Ho was produced at Tehran research reactor via 165Ho(n,γ)166Ho reaction. Complexion of Ho‐166 with BPAMD was carried out by the addition of about 200µg of BPAMD in absolute water to 1 mci of 166HoCl3 and warming up the mixture 90 0C for 1 h. 166Ho-BPAMD was prepared successfully with radio chemical purity of 95% which was measured by ITLC method. The final solution was injected to wild-type mice and bio distribution was determined up to 48 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 48 h post injection. Both the bio distribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake, while accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 166Ho-BPAMD has suitable characteristics and can be used as a new bone marrow ablative agent.

Keywords: bone marrow ablation, BPAMD, 166Ho, SPECT

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
58 Development of a Very High Sensitivity Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Planar Hall Effect

Authors: Arnab Roy, P. S. Anil Kumar

Abstract:

Hall bar magnetic field sensors based on planar hall effect were fabricated from permalloy (Ni¬80Fe20) thin films grown by pulsed laser ablation. As large as 400% planar Hall voltage change was observed for a magnetic field sweep within ±4 Oe, a value comparable with present day TMR sensors at room temperature. A very large planar Hall sensitivity of 1200 Ω/T was measured close to switching fields, which was not obtained so far apart from 2DEG Hall sensors. In summary, a highly sensitive low magnetic field sensor has been constructed which has the added advantage of simple architecture, good signal to noise ratio and robustness.

Keywords: planar hall effect, permalloy, NiFe, pulsed laser ablation, low magnetic field sensor, high sensitivity magnetic field sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
57 A Reduced Ablation Model for Laser Cutting and Laser Drilling

Authors: Torsten Hermanns, Thoufik Al Khawli, Wolfgang Schulz

Abstract:

In laser cutting as well as in long pulsed laser drilling of metals, it can be demonstrated that the ablation shape (the shape of cut faces respectively the hole shape) that is formed approaches a so-called asymptotic shape such that it changes only slightly or not at all with further irradiation. These findings are already known from the ultrashort pulse (USP) ablation of dielectric and semiconducting materials. The explanation for the occurrence of an asymptotic shape in laser cutting and long pulse drilling of metals is identified, its underlying mechanism numerically implemented, tested and clearly confirmed by comparison with experimental data. In detail, there now is a model that allows the simulation of the temporal (pulse-resolved) evolution of the hole shape in laser drilling as well as the final (asymptotic) shape of the cut faces in laser cutting. This simulation especially requires much less in the way of resources, such that it can even run on common desktop PCs or laptops. Individual parameters can be adjusted using sliders – the simulation result appears in an adjacent window and changes in real time. This is made possible by an application-specific reduction of the underlying ablation model. Because this reduction dramatically decreases the complexity of calculation, it produces a result much more quickly. This means that the simulation can be carried out directly at the laser machine. Time-intensive experiments can be reduced and set-up processes can be completed much faster. The high speed of simulation also opens up a range of entirely different options, such as metamodeling. Suitable for complex applications with many parameters, metamodeling involves generating high-dimensional data sets with the parameters and several evaluation criteria for process and product quality. These sets can then be used to create individual process maps that show the dependency of individual parameter pairs. This advanced simulation makes it possible to find global and local extreme values through mathematical manipulation. Such simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters is scarcely possible by experimental means. This means that new methods in manufacturing such as self-optimization can be executed much faster. However, the software’s potential does not stop there; time-intensive calculations exist in many areas of industry. In laser welding or laser additive manufacturing, for example, the simulation of thermal induced residual stresses still uses up considerable computing capacity or is even not possible. Transferring the principle of reduced models promises substantial savings there, too.

Keywords: asymptotic ablation shape, interactive process simulation, laser drilling, laser cutting, metamodeling, reduced modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
56 Thermodynamic and Immunochemical Studies of Antibody Biofunctionalized Gold Nanoparticles Mediated Photothermal Ablation in Human Liver Cancer Cells

Authors: Lucian Mocan, Flaviu Tabaran, Teodora Mocan, Cristian Matea, Cornel Iancu

Abstract:

We present method of Gold Nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (Human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line), based on a simple gold nanoparticle carrier system, such as serum albumin (BSA), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy. Hyperspectral, contrast phase, and confocal microscopy combined immunochemical staining were used to demonstrate the selective internalization of HSA-GNPs via Gp60 receptors and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inside HepG2 cells. We examined the ability of laser-activated carbon nanotubes to induce Hsp70 expression using confocal microscopy. Hep G2 cells heat-shocked (laser activated BSA-GNPs) to 42°C demonstrated an up-regulation of Hsp70 compared with control cells (BSA-GNPs treated cells without laser), which showed no detectable constitutive expression of Hsp70. We observed a time-dependent induction in Hsp70 expression in Hep G2 treated with BSA-GNPs and LASER irradiated. The post-irradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with HSA-GNPs ranged from 88.24% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 seconds, while at 30 minute the rate increased to 92.34% (50 mg/L). These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, liver cancer, albumin, laser irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
55 Creation of GaxCo1-xZnSe0.4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) Nanoparticles Using Pulse Laser Ablation Method

Authors: Yong Pan, Li Wang, Xue Qiong Su, Dong Wen Gao

Abstract:

To date, nanomaterials have received extensive attention over the years because of their wide application. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowire, nanoring, nanostars and other nanostructures have begun to be systematically studied. The preparation of these materials by chemical methods is not only costly, but also has a long cycle and high toxicity. At the same time, preparation of nanoparticles of multi-doped composites has been limited due to the special structure of the materials. In order to prepare multi-doped composites with the same structure as macro-materials and simplify the preparation method, the GaxCo1-xZnSe0.4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) nanoparticles are prepared by Pulse Laser Ablation (PLA) method. The particle component and structure are systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra, which show that the success of our preparation and the same concentration between nanoparticles (NPs) and target. Morphology of the NPs characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) indicates the circular-shaped particles in preparation. Fluorescence properties are reflected by PL spectra, which demonstrate the best performance in concentration of Ga0.3Co0.3ZnSe0.4. Therefore, all the results suggest that PLA is promising to prepare the multi-NPs since it can modulate performance of NPs.

Keywords: PLA, physics, nanoparticles, multi-doped

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
54 Fabrication of Carbon Nanoparticles and Graphene Using Pulsed Laser Ablation

Authors: Davoud Dorranian, Hajar Sadeghi, Elmira Solati

Abstract:

Carbon nanostructures in various forms were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in different liquid environment. The beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength at 7-ns pulse width is employed to irradiate the solid target in water, acetone, alcohol, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Then the effect of the liquid environment on the characteristic of carbon nanostructures produced by laser ablation was investigated. The optical properties of the carbon nanostructures were examined at room temperature by UV–Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystalline structure of the carbon nanostructures was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of samples was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was employed to investigate the form of carbon nanostructures. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the quality of carbon nanostructures. Results show that different carbon nanostructures such as nanoparticles and few-layer graphene were formed in various liquid environments. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of samples reveal that the intensity of absorption peak of nanoparticles in alcohol is higher than the other liquid environments due to the larger number of nanoparticles in this environment. The red shift of the absorption peak of the sample in acetone confirms that produced carbon nanoparticles in this liquid are averagely larger than the other medium. The difference in the intensity and shape of the absorption peak indicated the effect of the liquid environment in producing the nanoparticles. The XRD pattern of the sample in water indicates an amorphous structure due to existence the graphene sheets. X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the degree of crystallinity of sample produced in CTAB is higher than the other liquid environments. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the generated carbon materials in water are graphene sheet and in the other liquid environments are graphene sheet and spherical nanostructures. According to the TEM images, we have the larger amount of carbon nanoparticles in the alcohol environment. FE-SEM micrographs indicate that in this liquids sheet like structures are formed however in acetone, produced sheets are adhered and these layers overlap with each other. According to the FE-SEM micrographs, the surface morphology of the sample in CTAB was coarser than that without surfactant. From Raman spectra, it can be concluded the distinct shape, width, and position of the graphene peaks and corresponding graphite source.

Keywords: carbon nanostructures, graphene, pulsed laser ablation, graphite

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
53 Interaction between Unsteady Supersonic Jet and Vortex Rings

Authors: Kazumasa Kitazono, Hiroshi Fukuoka, Nao Kuniyoshi, Minoru Yaga, Eri Ueno, Naoaki Fukuda, Toshio Takiya

Abstract:

The unsteady supersonic jet formed by a shock tube with a small high-pressure chamber was used as a simple alternative model for pulsed laser ablation. Understanding the vortex ring formed by the shock wave is crucial in clarifying the behavior of unsteady supersonic jet discharged from an elliptical cell. Therefore, this study investigated the behavior of vortex rings and a jet. The experiment and numerical calculation were conducted using the schlieren method and by solving the axisymmetric two-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations, respectively. In both, the calculation and the experiment, laser ablation is conducted for a certain duration, followed by discharge through the exit. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to demonstrate the effect of pressure ratio on the interaction among vortex rings and the supersonic jet. The interaction between the supersonic jet and the vortex rings increased the velocity of the supersonic jet up to the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the vortex rings. The interaction between the vortex rings increased the velocity at the center of the vortex ring.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, shock-wave, unsteady jet, vortex ring

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
52 Radiofrequency Ablation: A Technique in the Management of Low Anal Fistula

Authors: R. Suresh, C. B. Singh, A. K. Sarda

Abstract:

Background: Over the decades, several surgical techniques have been developed to treat anal fistulas with variable success rates and complications. Large amount of work has been done in radiofrequency excision of the fistula for several years but no work has been done for ablating the tract. Therefore one can consider for obliteration ofanal fistula by Radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Material and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at Lok Nayak Hospital, where a total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study and they were randomly assigned to Group I (fistulectomy)(n=20) and Group II (RFA) (n=20). Aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of RFA of fistula versus fistulectomy in the treatment of a low anal fistula and to evaluate RFA as an effective alternative to fistulectomy with respect to time taken for wound healing as primary outcome and post-operative pain, time taken to return to work as secondary outcomes. Patients with simple low anal fistulas, single internal and external opening, not more than two secondary tracts were included. Patients with high complex fistula, fistulas communicating with cavity, fistula due to condition like tuberculosis, Crohn's, malignancy were excluded from the study. Results: Both groups were comparable with respect to age, sex ratio, type of fistula. Themean healing time was significantly shorter in group II (41.02 days) than in group I(62.68 days).The mean operative time was significantly shorter in groupII (21.40 min) than in group I(28.50 min). The mean time taken to return to work was significantly shorter in group II(8.30 days)than in group I(12.01 days).There was no significant difference in the post operative hospital stay, mean postoperative pain score, wound infection and recurrence between the two groups. Conclusion: The patients who underwent RFA of fistula had shorter wound healing time, operative time and time taken to return to work when compared to those who underwent fistulectomy and therefore RFA shows outcome comparable to fistulectomy in the treatment of low anal fistula.

Keywords: fistulectomy, low anal fistula, radio frequency ablation, wound healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
51 Volatile Organic Compounds Detection by Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors with Nanoparticles Embedded in Polymer Sensitive Layers

Authors: Cristian Viespe, Dana Miu

Abstract:

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors with nanoparticles (NPs) of various dimensions and concentrations embedded in different types of polymer sensing films for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied. The sensors were ‘delay line’ type with a center frequency of 69.4 MHz on ST-X quartz substrates. NPs with different diameters of 7 nm or 13 nm were obtained by laser ablation with lasers having 5 ns or 10 ps pulse durations, respectively. The influence of NPs dimensions and concentrations on sensor properties such as frequency shift, sensitivity, noise and response time were investigated. To the best of our knowledge, the influence of NP dimensions on SAW sensor properties with has not been investigated. The frequency shift and sensitivity increased with increasing NP concentration in the polymer for a given NP dimension and with decreasing NP diameter for a given concentration. The best performances were obtained for the smallest NPs used. The SAW sensor with NPs of 7 nm had a limit of detection (LOD) of 65 ppm (almost five times better than the sensor with polymer alone), and a response time of about 9 s for ethanol.

Keywords: surface acoustic wave sensor, nanoparticles, volatile organic compounds, laser ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
50 Retrospective Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in the Management of Hepatic Lesions

Authors: Suang K. Lau, Ismail Goolam, Rafid Al-Asady

Abstract:

Background: The majority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not suitable for curative treatment, in the form of surgical resection or transplantation, due to tumour extent and underlying liver dysfunction. In these non-resectable cases, a variety of non-surgical therapies are available, including microwave ablation (MWA), which has shown increasing popularity due to its low morbidity, low reported complication rate, and the ability to perform multiple ablations simultaneously. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of MWA as a viable treatment option in the management of HCC and hepatic metastatic disease, by assessing its efficacy and complication rate at a tertiary hospital situated in Westmead (Australia). Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed evaluating patients that underwent MWA between 1/1/2017–31/12/2018 at Westmead Hospital, NSW, Australia. Outcome measures, including residual disease, recurrence rates, as well as major and minor complication rates, were retrospectively analysed over a 12-months period following MWA treatment. Excluded patients included those whose lesions were treated on the basis of residual or recurrent disease from previous treatment, which occurred prior to the study window (11 patients) and those who were lost to follow up (2 patients). Results: Following treatment of 106 new hepatic lesions, the complete response rate (CR) was 86% (91/106) at 12 months follow up. 10 patients had the residual disease at post-treatment follow up imaging, corresponding to an incomplete response (ICR) rate of 9.4% (10/106). The local recurrence rate (LRR) was 4.6% (5/106) with follow-up period up to 12 months. The minor complication rate was 9.4% (10/106) including asymptomatic pneumothorax (n=2), asymptomatic pleural effusions (n=2), right lower lobe pneumonia (n=3), pain requiring admission (n=1), hypotension (n=1), cellulitis (n=1) and intraparenchymal hematoma (n=1). There was 1 major complication reported, with pleuro-peritoneal fistula causing recurrent large pleural effusion necessitating repeated thoracocentesis (n=1). There was no statistically significant association between tumour size, location or ablation factors, and risk of recurrence or residual disease. A subset analysis identified 6 segment VIII lesions, which were treated via a trans-pleural approach. This cohort demonstrated an overall complication rate of 33% (2/6), including 1 minor complication of asymptomatic pneumothorax and 1 major complication of pleuro-peritoneal fistula. Conclusions: Microwave ablation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option in cases of non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases, with good local tumour control and low complication rates. A trans-pleural approach for high segment VIII lesions is associated with a higher complication rate and warrants greater caution.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, liver metastases, microwave ablation, trans-pleural approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
49 The Improvement in Clinical Outcomes with the Histological Presence of Nidus Following Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) for Osteoid Osteoma (OO)

Authors: Amirul Adlan, Motaz AlAqeel, Scott Evans, Vaiyapuri sumathi, Mark Davies, Rajesh Botchu

Abstract:

Background & Objectives: Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign tumor of the bone commonly found in childhood and adolescence, causing bone pain, especially during the night. CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is currently the mainstay treatment for OO. There is currently no literature reporting the outcomes of OO following RFA based on the histological presence of a nidus seen on a biopsy taken at the time of RFA. The primary aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of OO between the group of patients with the presence of nidus on biopsy samples from RFA with those without nidus. Secondly, we aimed to examine other factors that may affect the outcomes of OO, reflecting our experience as a tertiary orthopedic oncology center. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 88 consecutive patients diagnosed with osteoid osteoma treated with RFA between November 2005 and March 2015, consisting of 63 males (72%) and 25 females (28%). Sixty-six patients (75%) had nidus present in their biopsy samples. Patients’ mean age was 17.6 years (4-53). The median duration of follow-up was 12.5 months (6-20.8). Lesions were located in the appendicular skeleton in seventy-nine patients (90%), while nine patients (10%) had an OO in the axial skeleton. Outcomes assessed were based on patients’ pain alleviation (partial, complete, or no pain improvement) and the need for further interventions. Results: Pain improvement in the patient group with nidus in the histology sample was significantly better than in the group without nidus (OR 7.4, CI 1.35-41.4, p=0.021). The patient group with nidus on biopsy demonstrated less likelihood of having a repeat procedure compared to the group without nidus(OR 0.092, CI 0.016-0.542, p=0.008). Our study showed significantly better outcomes in pain improvement in appendicular lesions compared to the axially located lesions (p = 0.005). Patients with spinal lesions tend to have relatively poor pain relief than those with appendicular or pelvic lesions (p=0.007). Conclusions: Patients with nidus on histology had better pain alleviation compared to patients without nidus. The histological presence of nidus significantly reduces the chance of repeat interventions. The pain alleviation of osteoid osteoma following RFA is better in patients with appendicular lesions than spinal or axially located lesions.

Keywords: osteoid osteoma, benign tumour, radiofrequency ablation, oncology

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
48 Magnetic Bio-Nano-Fluids for Hyperthermia

Authors: Z. Kolacinski, L. Szymanski. G. Raniszewski, D. Koza, L. Pietrzak

Abstract:

Magnetic Bio-Nano-Fluid (BNF) can be composed of a buffer fluid such as plasma and magnetic nanoparticles such as iron, nickel, cobalt and their oxides. However iron is one of the best elements for magnetization by electromagnetic radiation. It can be used as a tool for medical diagnosis and treatment. Radio frequency (RF) radiation is able to heat iron nanoparticles due to magnetic hysteresis. Electromagnetic heating of iron nanoparticles and ferro-fluids BNF can be successfully used for non-invasive thermal ablation of cancer cells. Moreover iron atoms can be carried by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) if iron is used as catalyst for CNTs synthesis. Then CNTs became the iron containers and they screen the iron content against oxidation. We will present a method of CNTs addressing to the required cells. For thermal ablation of cancer cells we use radio frequencies for which the interaction with human body should be limited to minimum. Generally, the application of RF energy fields for medical treatment is justified by deep tissue penetration. The highly iron doped CNTs as the carriers creating magnetic fluid will be presented. An excessive catalyst injection method using electrical furnace and microwave plasma reactor will be presented. This way it is possible to grow the Fe filled CNTs on a moving surface in continuous synthesis process. This also allows producing uniform carpet of the Fe filled CNTs carriers. For the experimental work targeted to cell ablation we used RF generator to measure the increase in temperature for some samples like: solution of Fe2O3 in BNF which can be plasma-like buffer, solutions of pure iron of different concentrations in plasma-like buffer and in buffer used for a cell culture, solutions of carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of different concentrations in plasma-like buffer and in buffer used for a cell culture. Then the targeted therapies which can be effective if the carriers are able to distinguish the difference between cancerous and healthy cell’s physiology are considered. We have developed an approach based on ligand-receptor or antibody-antigen interactions for the case of colon cancer.

Keywords: cancer treatment, carbon nano tubes, drag delivery, hyperthermia, iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
47 The Asymptotic Hole Shape in Long Pulse Laser Drilling: The Influence of Multiple Reflections

Authors: Torsten Hermanns, You Wang, Stefan Janssen, Markus Niessen, Christoph Schoeler, Ulrich Thombansen, Wolfgang Schulz

Abstract:

In long pulse laser drilling of metals, it can be demonstrated that the ablation shape approaches a so-called asymptotic shape such that it changes only slightly or not at all with further irradiation. These findings are already known from ultra short pulse (USP) ablation of dielectric and semiconducting materials. The explanation for the occurrence of an asymptotic shape in long pulse drilling of metals is identified, a model for the description of the asymptotic hole shape numerically implemented, tested and clearly confirmed by comparison with experimental data. The model assumes a robust process in that way that the characteristics of the melt flow inside the arising melt film does not change qualitatively by changing the laser or processing parameters. Only robust processes are technically controllable and thus of industrial interest. The condition for a robust process is identified by a threshold for the mass flow density of the assist gas at the hole entrance which has to be exceeded. Within a robust process regime the melt flow characteristics can be captured by only one model parameter, namely the intensity threshold. In analogy to USP ablation (where it is already known for a long time that the resulting hole shape results from a threshold for the absorbed laser fluency) it is demonstrated that in the case of robust long pulse ablation the asymptotic shape forms in that way that along the whole contour the absorbed heat flux density is equal to the intensity threshold. The intensity threshold depends on the special material and radiation properties and has to be calibrated be one reference experiment. The model is implemented in a numerical simulation which is called AsymptoticDrill and requires such a few amount of resources that it can run on common desktop PCs, laptops or even smart devices. Resulting hole shapes can be calculated within seconds what depicts a clear advantage over other simulations presented in literature in the context of industrial every day usage. Against this background the software additionally is equipped with a user-friendly GUI which allows an intuitive usage. Individual parameters can be adjusted using sliders while the simulation result appears immediately in an adjacent window. A platform independent development allow a flexible usage: the operator can use the tool to adjust the process in a very convenient manner on a tablet during the developer can execute the tool in his office in order to design new processes. Furthermore, at the best knowledge of the authors AsymptoticDrill is the first simulation which allows the import of measured real beam distributions and thus calculates the asymptotic hole shape on the basis of the real state of the specific manufacturing system. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the investigation of the effect of multiple reflections on the asymptotic hole shape which gain in importance when drilling holes with large aspect ratios.

Keywords: asymptotic hole shape, intensity threshold, long pulse laser drilling, robust process

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
46 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films on the Storability of Endive and Pak Choi by Baby Vegetables in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: In-Lee Choi, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

As the consumption trends of vegetables become different from the past, it is increased using vegetable more convenience such as fresh-cut vegetables, sprouts, baby vegetables rather than an existing hole piece of vegetables. Selected baby vegetables have various functional materials but they have short shelf life. This study was conducted to improve storability by using suitable laser ablation OTR (oxygen transmission rate) films. Baby vegetable of endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and pak choi (Brassica rapa chinensis) for this research, around 10 cm height, cultivated in glass greenhouse during 3 weeks. Harvested endive and pak choi were stored at 8 ℃ for 5 days and were packed by PP (Polypropylene) container and covered different types of laser ablation OTR film (DaeRyung Co., Ltd.) such as 1,300 cc, 10,000 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc /m2•day•atm, and control (perforated film) with heat sealing machine (SC200-IP, Kumkang, Korea). All the samples conducted 5 times replication. Statistical analysis was carried out using a Microsoft Excel 2010 program and results were expressed as standard deviations. The fresh weight loss rate of both baby vegetables were less than 0.3 % in treated films as maximum weight loss rate. On the other hands, control in the final storage day had around 3.0 % weight loss rate and it followed decreasing quantity. Endive had less 2.0 % carbon dioxide contents as maximum contents in 20,000 cc and 40,000 cc. Oxygen contents was maintained between 17 and 20 % in endive, 19 and 20 % in pak choi. Ethylene concentration of both vegetables maintained little lower contents in 20,000 cc treatments than others at final storage day without statistical significance. In the case of hardness, 40,000 cc film was shown little higher value at both baby vegetables without statistical significance. Visual quality was good at 10,000 cc and 20,000 cc in endive and pak choi, and off-flavor was not appeard any off-flavor in both vegetables. Chlorophyll (SPAD-502, Minolta, Japan) value of endive was shown as similar result with initial in all treatments except 20,000 cc as little lower. And chlorophyll value of pak choi decreased in all treatments compared with initial value but was not shown significantly difference each other. Color of leaves (CR-400, Minolta, Japan) changed significantly in 40,000 cc at endive. In an event of pak choi, all the treatments started yellowing by increasing hunter b value, among them control increased substantially. As above the result, 10,000 cc film was most reasonable packaging film for storing at endive and 20,000 cc at pak choi with good quality.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, shelf-life, visual quality, pak choi

Procedia PDF Downloads 651
45 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films and High Concentration Carbon Dioxide for Maintaining the Freshness of Strawberry ‘Maehyang’ for Export in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

This study was conducted to improve storability by using suitable laser ablation oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films and effectiveness of high carbon dioxide at strawberry 'Maehyang' for export. Strawberries were grown by hydroponic system in Gyeongsangnam-do province. These strawberries were packed by different laser ablation OTR films (Daeryung Co., Ltd.) such as 1,300 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc, 80,000 cc, and 100,000 cc•m-2•day•atm. And CO2 injection (30%) treatment was used 20,000 cc•m-2•day•atm OTR film and perforated film was as a control. Temperature conditions were applied simulated shipping and distribution conditions from Korea to Singapore, there were stored at 3 ℃ (13 days), 10 ℃ (an hour), and 8 ℃ (7 days) for 20 days. Fresh weight loss rate was under 1% as maximum permissible weight loss in treated OTR films except perforated film as a control during storage. Carbon dioxide concentration within a package for the storage period showed a lower value than the maximum CO2 concentration tolerated range (15 %) in treated OTR films and even the concentration of high OTR film treatment; from 20,000cc to 100,000cc were less than 3%. 1,300 cc had a suitable carbon dioxide range as over 5 % under 15 % at 5 days after storage until finished experiments and CO2 injection treatment was quickly drop the 15 % at storage after 1 day, but it kept around 15 % during storage. Oxygen concentration was maintained between 10 to 15 % in 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments, but other treatments were kept in 19 to 21 %. Ethylene concentration was showed very higher concentration at the CO2 injection treatment than OTR treatments. In the OTR treatments, 1,300 cc showed the highest concentration in ethylene and 20,000 cc film had lowest. Firmness was maintained highest in 1,300cc, but there was not shown any significant differences among other OTR treatments. Visual quality had shown the best result in 20,000 cc that showed marketable quality until 20 days after storage. 20,000 cc and perforated film had better than other treatments in off-odor and the 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments have occurred strong off-odor even after 10 minutes. As a result of the difference between Hunter ‘L’ and ‘a’ values of chroma meter, the 1,300cc and CO2 injection treatments were delayed color developments and other treatments did not shown any significant differences. The results indicate that effectiveness for maintaining the freshness was best achieved at 20,000 cc•m-2•day•atm. Although 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments were in appropriate MA condition, it showed darkening of strawberry calyx and excessive reduction of coloring due to high carbon dioxide concentration during storage. While 1,300cc and CO2 injection treatments were considered as appropriate treatments for exports to Singapore, but the result was shown different. These results are based on cultivar characteristics of strawberry 'Maehyang'.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, firmness, shelf-life, visual quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
44 A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of Radiofrequency Ablation in Patients with Spinal Metastases

Authors: Pascale Brasseur, Binu Gurung, Nicholas Halfpenny, James Eaton

Abstract:

Development of minimally invasive treatments in recent years provides a potential alternative to invasive surgical interventions which are of limited value to patients with spinal metastases due to short life expectancy. A systematic review was conducted to explore the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a minimally invasive treatment in patients with spinal metastases. EMBASE, Medline and CENTRAL were searched from database inception to March 2017 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies. Conference proceedings for ASCO and ESMO published in 2015 and 2016 were also searched. Fourteen studies were included: three prospective interventional studies, four prospective case series and seven retrospective case series. No RCTs or studies comparing RFA with another treatment were identified. RFA was followed by cement augmentation in all patients in seven studies and some patients (40-96%) in the remaining seven studies. Efficacy was assessed as pain relief in 13/14 studies with the use of a numerical rating scale (NRS) or a visual analogue scale (VAS) at various time points. Ten of the 13 studies reported a significant decrease in pain outcome, post-RFA compared to baseline. NRS scores improved significantly at 1 week (5.9 to 3.5, p < 0.0001; 8 to 4.3, p < 0.02 and 8 to 3.9, p < 0.0001) and this improvement was maintained at 1 month post-RFA compared to baseline (5.9 to 2.6, p < 0.0001; 8 to 2.9, p < 0.0003; 8 to 2.9, p < 0.0001). Similarly, VAS scores decreased significantly at 1 week (7.5 to 2.7, p=0.00005; 7.51 to 1.73, p < 0.0001; 7.82 to 2.82, p < 0.001) and this pattern was maintained at 1 month post-RFA compared to baseline (7.51 to 2.25, p < 0.0001; 7.82 to 3.3; p < 0.001). A significant pain relief was achieved regardless of whether patients had cement augmentation in two studies assessing the impact of RFA with or without cement augmentation on VAS pain scores. In these two studies, a significant decrease in pain scores was reported for patients receiving RFA alone and RFA+cement at 1 week (4.3 to 1.7. p=0.0004 and 6.6 to 1.7, p=0.003 respectively) and 15-36 months (7.9 to 4, p=0.008 and 7.6 to 3.5, p=0.005 respectively) after therapy. Few minor complications were reported and these included neural damage, radicular pain, vertebroplasty leakage and lower limb pain/numbness. In conclusion, the efficacy and safety of RFA were consistently positive between prospective and retrospective studies with reductions in pain and few procedural complications. However, the lack of control groups in the identified studies indicates the possibility of selection bias inherent in single arm studies. Controlled trials exploring efficacy and safety of RFA in patients with spinal metastases are warranted to provide robust evidence. The identified studies provide an initial foundation for such future trials.

Keywords: pain relief, radiofrequency ablation, spinal metastases, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 98