Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3976

Search results for: Genetic Algorithm

3976 A Review Paper on Data Mining and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sikander Singh Cheema, Jasmeen Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, the concept of data mining is summarized and its one of the important process i.e KDD is summarized. The data mining based on Genetic Algorithm is researched in and ways to achieve the data mining Genetic Algorithm are surveyed. This paper also conducts a formal review on the area of data mining tasks and genetic algorithm in various fields.

Keywords: data mining, KDD, genetic algorithm, descriptive mining, predictive mining

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3975 Hardware for Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Reza Tati

Abstract:

Genetic algorithm is a soft computing method that works on set of solutions. These solutions are called chromosome and the best one is the absolute solution of the problem. The main problem of this algorithm is that after passing through some generations, it may be produced some chromosomes that had been produced in some generations ago that causes reducing the convergence speed. From another respective, most of the genetic algorithms are implemented in software and less works have been done on hardware implementation. Our work implements genetic algorithm in hardware that doesn’t produce chromosome that have been produced in previous generations. In this work, most of genetic operators are implemented without producing iterative chromosomes and genetic diversity is preserved. Genetic diversity causes that not only do not this algorithm converge to local optimum but also reaching to global optimum. Without any doubts, proposed approach is so faster than software implementations. Evaluation results also show the proposed approach is faster than hardware ones.

Keywords: hardware, genetic algorithm, computer science, engineering

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3974 An Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Li Dan, Zhao Junsuo, Zhang Wenjun

Abstract:

Aiming at the shortcomings of the Quantum Genetic Algorithm such as the multimodal function optimization problems easily falling into the local optimum, and vulnerable to premature convergence due to no closely relationship between individuals, the paper presents an Improved Many Worlds Quantum Genetic Algorithm (IMWQGA). The paper using the concept of Many Worlds; using the derivative way of parallel worlds’ parallel evolution; putting forward the thought which updating the population according to the main body; adopting the transition methods such as parallel transition, backtracking, travel forth. In addition, the algorithm in the paper also proposes the quantum training operator and the combinatorial optimization operator as new operators of quantum genetic algorithm.

Keywords: quantum genetic algorithm, many worlds, quantum training operator, combinatorial optimization operator

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3973 Using Genetic Algorithms and Rough Set Based Fuzzy K-Modes to Improve Centroid Model Clustering Performance on Categorical Data

Authors: Rishabh Srivastav, Divyam Sharma

Abstract:

We propose an algorithm to cluster categorical data named as ‘Genetic algorithm initialized rough set based fuzzy K-Modes for categorical data’. We propose an amalgamation of the simple K-modes algorithm, the Rough and Fuzzy set based K-modes and the Genetic Algorithm to form a new algorithm,which we hypothesise, will provide better Centroid Model clustering results, than existing standard algorithms. In the proposed algorithm, the initialization and updation of modes is done by the use of genetic algorithms while the membership values are calculated using the rough set and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: categorical data, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, K modes clustering, rough sets

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3972 An Optimization Algorithm Based on Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarities and Similarities of Chromosomes

Authors: Radhwan Yousif Sedik Al-Jawadi

Abstract:

Optimization is necessary for finding appropriate solutions to a range of real-life problems. In particular, genetic (or more generally, evolutionary) algorithms have proved very useful in solving many problems for which analytical solutions are not available. In this paper, we present an optimization algorithm called Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarity and Similarity of Chromosomes (DSDSC) which is a variant of the classical genetic algorithm. This approach constructs new chromosomes from a schema and pairs of existing ones by exploring their dissimilarities and similarities. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested and compared with the classical GA, on 15 two-dimensional optimization problems taken from literature. We have found that, in most cases, our method is better than the classical genetic algorithm.

Keywords: chromosome injection, dynamic schema, genetic algorithm, similarity and dissimilarity

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3971 A Genetic Algorithm to Schedule the Flow Shop Problem under Preventive Maintenance Activities

Authors: J. Kaabi, Y. Harrath

Abstract:

This paper studied the flow shop scheduling problem under machine availability constraints. The machines are subject to flexible preventive maintenance activities. The nonresumable scenario for the jobs was considered. That is, when a job is interrupted by an unavailability period of a machine it should be restarted from the beginning. The objective is to minimize the total tardiness time for the jobs and the advance/tardiness for the maintenance activities. To solve the problem, a genetic algorithm was developed and successfully tested and validated on many problem instances. The computational results showed that the new genetic algorithm outperforms another earlier proposed algorithm.

Keywords: flow shop scheduling, genetic algorithm, maintenance, priority rules

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3970 Robotic Arm Control with Neural Networks Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization Approach

Authors: Arbnor Pajaziti, Hasan Cana

Abstract:

In this paper, the structural genetic algorithm is used to optimize the neural network to control the joint movements of robotic arm. The robotic arm has also been modeled in 3D and simulated in real-time in MATLAB. It is found that Neural Networks provide a simple and effective way to control the robot tasks. Computer simulation examples are given to illustrate the significance of this method. By combining Genetic Algorithm optimization method and Neural Networks for the given robotic arm with 5 D.O.F. the obtained the results shown that the base joint movements overshooting time without controller was about 0.5 seconds, while with Neural Network controller (optimized with Genetic Algorithm) was about 0.2 seconds, and the population size of 150 gave best results.

Keywords: robotic arm, neural network, genetic algorithm, optimization

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3969 Genetic Algorithm to Construct and Enumerate 4×4 Pan-Magic Squares

Authors: Younis R. Elhaddad, Mohamed A. Alshaari

Abstract:

Since 2700 B.C the problem of constructing magic squares attracts many researchers. Magic squares one of most difficult challenges for mathematicians. In this work, we describe how to construct and enumerate Pan- magic squares using genetic algorithm, using new chromosome encoding technique. The results were promising within reasonable time.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, magic square, pan-magic square, computational intelligence

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3968 A Preliminary Study for Design of Automatic Block Reallocation Algorithm with Genetic Algorithm Method in the Land Consolidation Projects

Authors: Tayfun Çay, Yasar İnceyol, Abdurrahman Özbeyaz

Abstract:

Land reallocation is one of the most important steps in land consolidation projects. Many different models were proposed for land reallocation in the literature such as Fuzzy Logic, block priority based land reallocation and Spatial Decision Support Systems. A model including four parts is considered for automatic block reallocation with genetic algorithm method in land consolidation projects. These stages are preparing data tables for a project land, determining conditions and constraints of land reallocation, designing command steps and logical flow chart of reallocation algorithm and finally writing program codes of Genetic Algorithm respectively. In this study, we designed the first three steps of the considered model comprising four steps.

Keywords: land consolidation, landholding, land reallocation, optimization, genetic algorithm

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3967 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Microcantilever Based Resonator

Authors: Manjula Sutagundar, B. G. Sheeparamatti, D. S. Jangamshetti

Abstract:

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) resonators have shown the potential of replacing quartz crystal technology for sensing and high frequency signal processing applications because of inherent advantages like small size, high quality factor, low cost, compatibility with integrated circuit chips. This paper presents the optimization and modelling and simulation of the optimized micro cantilever resonator. The objective of the work is to optimize the dimensions of a micro cantilever resonator for a specified range of resonant frequency and specific quality factor. Optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm is implemented using MATLAB. The micro cantilever resonator is modelled in CoventorWare using the optimized dimensions obtained from genetic algorithm. The modeled cantilever is analysed for resonance frequency.

Keywords: MEMS resonator, genetic algorithm, modelling and simulation, optimization

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3966 A Genetic Based Algorithm to Generate Random Simple Polygons Using a New Polygon Merge Algorithm

Authors: Ali Nourollah, Mohsen Movahedinejad

Abstract:

In this paper a new algorithm to generate random simple polygons from a given set of points in a two dimensional plane is designed. The proposed algorithm uses a genetic algorithm to generate polygons with few vertices. A new merge algorithm is presented which converts any two polygons into a simple polygon. This algorithm at first changes two polygons into a polygonal chain and then the polygonal chain is converted into a simple polygon. The process of converting a polygonal chain into a simple polygon is based on the removal of intersecting edges. The merge algorithm has the time complexity of O ((r+s) *l) where r and s are the size of merging polygons and l shows the number of intersecting edges removed from the polygonal chain. It will be shown that 1 < l < r+s. The experiments results show that the proposed algorithm has the ability to generate a great number of different simple polygons and has better performance in comparison to celebrated algorithms such as space partitioning and steady growth.

Keywords: Divide and conquer, genetic algorithm, merge polygons, Random simple polygon generation.

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3965 Approximately Similarity Measurement of Web Sites Using Genetic Algorithms and Binary Trees

Authors: Doru Anastasiu Popescu, Dan Rădulescu

Abstract:

In this paper, we determine the similarity of two HTML web applications. We are going to use a genetic algorithm in order to determine the most significant web pages of each application (we are not going to use every web page of a site). Using these significant web pages, we will find the similarity value between the two applications. The algorithm is going to be efficient because we are going to use a reduced number of web pages for comparisons but it will return an approximate value of the similarity. The binary trees are used to keep the tags from the significant pages. The algorithm was implemented in Java language.

Keywords: Tag, HTML, web page, genetic algorithm, similarity value, binary tree

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3964 A Hybrid ICA-GA Algorithm for Solving Multiobjective Optimization of Production Planning Problems

Authors: Omar Ramzi Jasim, Jalal Sultan Ashour

Abstract:

Production Planning or Master Production Schedule (MPS) is a key interface between marketing and manufacturing, since it links customer service directly to efficient use of production resources. Mismanagement of the MPS is considered as one of fundamental problems in operation and it can potentially lead to poor customer satisfaction. In this paper, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm (ICA-GA) is presented, which integrates the merits of both imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and genetic algorithm (GA) for solving multi-objective MPS problems. In the presented algorithm, the colonies in each empire has be represented a small population and communicate with each other using genetic operators. By testing on 5 production scenarios, the numerical results of ICA-GA algorithm show the efficiency and capabilities of the hybrid algorithm in finding the optimum solutions. The ICA-GA solutions yield the lower inventory level and keep customer satisfaction high and the required overtime is also lower, compared with results of GA and SA in all production scenarios.

Keywords: master production scheduling, genetic algorithm, imperialist competitive algorithm, hybrid algorithm

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3963 A Novel Algorithm for Production Scheduling

Authors: Ali Mohammadi Bolban Abad, Fariborz Ahmadi

Abstract:

Optimization in manufacture is a method to use limited resources to obtain the best performance and reduce waste. In this paper a new algorithm based on eurygaster life is introduced to obtain a plane in which task order and completion time of resources are defined. Evaluation results show our approach has less make span when the resources are allocated with some products in comparison to genetic algorithm.

Keywords: evolutionary computation, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, NP-Hard problems, production scheduling

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3962 A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm of Neural Network for Medical Diseases Problems

Authors: Sultan Noman Qasem

Abstract:

This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm for solving multi-objective optimization problems-based artificial neural network (ANN). The multi-objective evolutionary algorithm used in this study is genetic algorithm while ANN used is radial basis function network (RBFN). The proposed algorithm named memetic elitist Pareto non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-based RBFNN (MEPGAN). The proposed algorithm is implemented on medical diseases problems. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is viable, and provides an effective means to design multi-objective RBFNs with good generalization capability and compact network structure. This study shows that MEPGAN generates RBFNs coming with an appropriate balance between accuracy and simplicity, comparing to the other algorithms found in literature.

Keywords: radial basis function network, hybrid learning, multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithm

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3961 An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Precedence Constraint

Authors: M. F. F. Ab Rashid, A. N. Mohd Rose, N. M. Z. Nik Mohamed, W. S. Wan Harun, S. A. Che Ghani

Abstract:

Traveling salesman problem with precedence constraint (TSPPC) is one of the most complex problems in combinatorial optimization. The existing algorithms to solve TSPPC cost large computational time to find the optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient genetic algorithm that guarantees optimal solution with less number of generations and iterations time. Unlike the existing algorithm that generates priority factor as chromosome, the proposed algorithm directly generates sequence of solution as chromosome. As a result, the proposed algorithm is capable of generating optimal solution with smaller number of generations and iteration time compare to existing algorithm.

Keywords: traveling salesman problem, sequencing, genetic algorithm, precedence constraint

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3960 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour

Abstract:

This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dual-band E, dual-band L, WLAN, compact radiator

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3959 Multi-Subpopulation Genetic Algorithm with Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Textile Batch Dyeing Scheduling Problem

Authors: Nhat-To Huynh, Chen-Fu Chien

Abstract:

Textile batch dyeing scheduling problem is complicated which includes batch formation, batch assignment on machines, batch sequencing with sequence-dependent setup time. Most manufacturers schedule their orders manually that are time consuming and inefficient. More power methods are needed to improve the solution. Motivated by the real needs, this study aims to propose approaches in which genetic algorithm is developed with multi-subpopulation and hybridised with estimation of distribution algorithm to solve the constructed problem for minimising the makespan. A heuristic algorithm is designed and embedded into the proposed algorithms to improve the ability to get out of the local optima. In addition, an empirical study is conducted in a textile company in Taiwan to validate the proposed approaches. The results have showed that proposed approaches are more efficient than simulated annealing algorithm.

Keywords: estimation of distribution algorithm, genetic algorithm, multi-subpopulation, scheduling, textile dyeing

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3958 Reliability Improvement of Power System Networks Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Alireza Alesaadi

Abstract:

Reliability analysis is a powerful method for determining the weak points of the electrical networks. In designing of electrical network, it is tried to design the most reliable network with minimal system shutting down, but it is usually associated with increasing the cost. In this paper, using adaptive genetic algorithm, a method was presented that provides the most reliable system with a certain economical cost. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a sample network and results will be analyzed.

Keywords: reliability, adaptive genetic algorithm, electrical network, communication engineering

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3957 Evolutionary Methods in Cryptography

Authors: Wafa Slaibi Alsharafat

Abstract:

Genetic algorithms (GA) are random algorithms as random numbers that are generated during the operation of the algorithm determine what happens. This means that if GA is applied twice to optimize exactly the same problem it might produces two different answers. In this project, we propose an evolutionary algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to be implemented in symmetric encryption and decryption. Here, user's message and user secret information (key) which represent plain text to be transferred into cipher text.

Keywords: GA, encryption, decryption, crossover

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3956 Assessment of Memetic and Genetic Algorithm for a Flexible Integrated Logistics Network

Authors: E. Behmanesh, J. Pannek

Abstract:

The distribution-allocation problem is known as one of the most comprehensive strategic decision. In real-world cases, it is impossible to solve a distribution-allocation problem in traditional ways with acceptable time. Hence researchers develop efficient non-traditional techniques for the large-term operation of the whole supply chain. These techniques provide near-optimal solutions particularly for large scales test problems. This paper, presents an integrated supply chain model which is flexible in the delivery path. As the solution methodology, we apply a memetic algorithm with a novelty in population presentation. To illustrate the performance of the proposed memetic algorithm, LINGO optimization software serves as a comparison basis for small size problems. In large size cases that we are dealing with in the real world, the Genetic algorithm as the second metaheuristic algorithm is considered to compare the results and show the efficiency of the memetic algorithm.

Keywords: integrated logistics network, flexible path, memetic algorithm, genetic algorithm

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3955 Seismic Retrofitting of Structures Using Steel Plate Slit Dampers Based on Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mohamed Noureldin, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimum locations of the slit dampers satisfying a target displacement. A seismic retrofit scheme for a building structure was presented using steel plate slit dampers. A cyclic loading test was used to verify the energy dissipation capacity of the slit damper. The seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was compared with the retrofit with enlarging shear walls. The capacity spectrum method was used to propose a simple damper distribution scheme proportional to the inter-story drifts. The validity of the simple story-wise damper distribution procedure was verified by comparing the results of the genetic algorithm. It was observed that the proposed simple damper distribution pattern was in a good agreement with the optimum distribution obtained from the genetic algorithm. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03032809).

Keywords: slit dampers, seismic retrofit, genetic algorithm, optimum design

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3954 Inverse Mapping of Weld Bead Geometry in Shielded Metal Arc-Welding: Genetic Algorithm Approach

Authors: D. S. Nagesh, G. L. Datta

Abstract:

In the field of welding, various studies had been made by some of the previous investigators to predict as well as optimize weld bead geometric descriptors. Modeling of weld bead shape is important for predicting the quality of welds. In most of the cases, design of experiments technique to postulate multiple linear regression equations have been used. Nowadays, Genetic Algorithm (GA) an intelligent information treatment system with the characteristics of treating complex relationships as seen in welding processes used as a tool for inverse mapping/optimization of the process is attempted.

Keywords: smaw, genetic algorithm, bead geometry, optimization/inverse mapping

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3953 Genetic Algorithm Approach for Inverse Mapping of Weld Bead Geometry in Shielded Metal Arc-Welding

Authors: D. S. Nagesh, G. L. Datta

Abstract:

In the field of welding, various studies had been made by some of the previous investigators to predict as well as optimize weld bead geometric descriptors. Modeling of weld bead shape is important for predicting the quality of welds. In most of the cases design of experiments technique to postulate multiple linear regression equations have been used. Nowadays Genetic Algorithm (GA) an intelligent information treatment system with the characteristics of treating complex relationships as seen in welding processes used as a tool for inverse mapping/optimization of the process is attempted.

Keywords: SMAW, genetic algorithm, bead geometry, optimization/inverse mapping

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3952 Maximum Efficiency of the Photovoltaic Cells Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Latifa Sabri, Mohammed Benzirar, Mimoun Zazoui

Abstract:

The installation of photovoltaic systems is one of future sources to generate electricity without emitting pollutants. The photovoltaic cells used in these systems have demonstrated enormous efficiencies and advantages. Several researches have discussed the maximum efficiency of these technologies, but only a few experiences have succeeded to right weather conditions to get these results. In this paper, two types of cells were selected: crystalline and amorphous silicon. Using the method of genetic algorithm, the results show that for an ambient temperature of 25°C and direct irradiation of 625 W/m², the efficiency of crystalline silicon is 12% and 5% for amorphous silicon.

Keywords: PV, maximum efficiency, solar cell, genetic algorithm

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3951 Genetic Algorithm for Solving the Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Guilherme Baldo Carlos

Abstract:

The flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP) is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, which can be applied to model several applications in a wide array of industries. This problem will have its importance increase due to the shift in the production mode that modern society is going through. The demands are increasing and for products personalized and customized. This work aims to apply a meta-heuristic called a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve this problem. A GA is a meta-heuristic inspired by the natural selection of Charles Darwin; it produces a population of individuals (solutions) and selects, mutates, and mates the individuals through generations in order to find a good solution for the problem. The results found indicate that the GA is suitable for FJSP solving.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm, scheduling, flexible job-shop scheduling

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3950 Modeling and Optimization of Micro-Grid Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mehrdad Rezaei, Reza Haghmaram, Nima Amjadi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an operating and cost optimization model for micro-grid (MG). This model takes into account emission costs of NOx, SO2, and CO2, together with the operation and maintenance costs. Wind turbines (WT), photovoltaic (PV) arrays, micro turbines (MT), fuel cells (FC), diesel engine generators (DEG) with different capacities are considered in this model. The aim of the optimization is minimizing operation cost according to constraints, supply demand and safety of the system. The proposed genetic algorithm (GA), with the ability to fine-tune its own settings, is used to optimize the micro-grid operation.

Keywords: micro-grid, optimization, genetic algorithm, MG

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3949 Identification of the Parameters of a AC Servomotor Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: J. G. Batista, K. N. Sousa, ¬J. L. Nunes, R. L. S. Sousa, G. A. P. Thé

Abstract:

This work deals with parameter identification of permanent magnet motors, a class of ac motor which is particularly important in industrial automation due to characteristics like applications high performance, are very attractive for applications with limited space and reducing the need to eliminate because they have reduced size and volume and can operate in a wide speed range, without independent ventilation. By using experimental data and genetic algorithm we have been able to extract values for both the motor inductance and the electromechanical coupling constant, which are then compared to measured and/or expected values.

Keywords: modeling, AC servomotor, permanent magnet synchronous motor-PMSM, genetic algorithm, vector control, robotic manipulator, control

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3948 Comparison of Crossover Types to Obtain Optimal Queries Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Wafa’ Alma'Aitah, Khaled Almakadmeh

Abstract:

this study presents an information retrieval system of using genetic algorithm to increase information retrieval efficiency. Using vector space model, information retrieval is based on the similarity measurement between query and documents. Documents with high similarity to query are judge more relevant to the query and should be retrieved first. Using genetic algorithms, each query is represented by a chromosome; these chromosomes are fed into genetic operator process: selection, crossover, and mutation until an optimized query chromosome is obtained for document retrieval. Results show that information retrieval with adaptive crossover probability and single point type crossover and roulette wheel as selection type give the highest recall. The proposed approach is verified using (242) proceedings abstracts collected from the Saudi Arabian national conference.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, information retrieval, optimal queries, crossover

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3947 A Multidimensional Genetic Algorithm Applicable for Our VRP Variant Dealing with the Problems of Infrastructure Defaults SVRDP-CMTW: “Safety Vehicle Routing Diagnosis Problem with Control and Modified Time Windows”

Authors: Ben Mansour Mouin, Elloumi Abdelkarim

Abstract:

We will discuss the problem of routing a fleet of different vehicles from a central depot to different types of infrastructure-defaults with dynamic maintenance requests, modified time windows, and control of default maintained. For this reason, we propose a modified metaheuristicto to solve our mathematical model. SVRDP-CMTW is a variant VRP of an optimal vehicle plan that facilitates the maintenance task of different types of infrastructure-defaults. This task will be monitored after the maintenance, based on its priorities, the degree of danger associated with each default, and the neighborhood at the black-spots. We will present, in this paper, a multidimensional genetic algorithm “MGA” by detailing its characteristics, proposed mechanisms, and roles in our work. The coding of this algorithm represents the necessary parameters that characterize each infrastructure-default with the objective of minimizing a combination of cost, distance and maintenance times while satisfying the priority levels of the most urgent defaults. The developed algorithm will allow the dynamic integration of newly detected defaults at the execution time. This result will be displayed in our programmed interactive system at the routing time. This multidimensional genetic algorithm replaces N genetic algorithm to solve P different type problems of infrastructure defaults (instead of N algorithm for P problem we can solve in one multidimensional algorithm simultaneously who can solve all these problemsatonce).

Keywords: mathematical model, VRP, multidimensional genetic algorithm, metaheuristics

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