Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 534

Search results for: Arabic linguistics

534 A Syntactic Approach to Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic Language in Modern Communications

Authors: Adeyemo Abduljeeel Taiwo

Abstract:

This research is an attempt that creates a conducive atmosphere of a phonological and morphological compendium of Arabic language in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) for modern day communications. The research is carried out with the chief aim of grammatical analysis of the two broad fields of Arabic linguistics namely: Applied and Socio-Linguistics. It draws a pictorial record of Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic phonology and morphology. Thematically, it postulates and contemplates to a large degree, the theory of concord in contemporary modern Arabic language acquisition. It utilizes an analytical method while it portrays Arabic as a Semitic language that promotes linguistics and syntax among the scholars of the fields.

Keywords: Arabic language, applied linguistics, socio-linguistics, modern communications

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533 Corpus Linguistic Methods in a Theoretical Study of Quran Verb Tense and Aspect in Translations from Arabic to English

Authors: Jawharah Alasmari

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In inflectional morphology of verb, tense and aspect indicate action’s time either past/present or future and their period whether completed or not. The usage and meaning of tense and aspect differ in Arabic and English, therefore is no simple one -to- one mapping from an Arabic verb inflected form an appropriate English translation depends on a range of features, including immediate and wider context of use. The Quranic Arabic Corpus includes seven alternative expertly crafted English translations of each Arabic verses, which provides a test dataset for the study of appropriate Arabic to English translations of verb tense and aspect. We applied Corpus Linguistics Methods in a theoretical study of exemplary verbs, to elicit candidate verbal contexts which influence the choice of English inflection for each verse.

Keywords: Corpus linguistics methods, Arabic verb, tense and aspect, English translations

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532 Current Trends in the Arabic Linguistics Development: Between National Tradition and Global Tendencies

Authors: Olga Bernikova, Oleg Redkin

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Globalization is a process of worldwide economic, political and cultural integration. Obviously, this phenomenon has both positive and negative issues. This article analyzes the impact of the modern process of globalization on the national traditions of language teaching and research. In this context, the problem of the ratio of local to global can be viewed from several sides. Firstly, since English is the language of over 80 percent of scientific and technical research worldwide, what should be the language of science in certain region? Secondly, language 'globality' is not always associated with English, because intercultural communications may have their regional peculiarities. For example, in the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabic can also be regarded as 'global' phenomenon, since the mother-tongue languages of the population are local Arabic dialects. In addition, the correlation 'local' versus 'global' is manifested not only in the linguistic sphere but also in the methodology used in language acquisition and research. Thus, the major principles of the Arabic philological tradition, which goes back to the 7th century, are still spread in the modern Arab world. At the same time, the terminology and methods of language research that are peculiar to this tradition are quite far from the issues of general linguistics that underlies the description of all the languages of the world. The present research relies on a comparative analysis of sources in Arabic linguistics, including original works in Arabic dating back to the 12th-13th centuries. As a case study, interaction of local and global is also considered on the example of the Arabic teaching and research in Russia. Speaking about the correlation between local and global it is possible to forecast development of two parallel tendencies: the spread of the phenomena of globalization on one hand, and local implementation of a language policy aimed at preserving native languages, including Arabic, on the other.

Keywords: Arabic, global, language, local, tradition

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531 Compilation and Statistical Analysis of an Arabic-English Legal Corpus in Sketch Engine

Authors: C. Brierley, H. El-Farahaty, A. Farhan

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The Leeds Parallel Corpus of Arabic-English Constitutions is a parallel corpus for the Arabic legal domain. Analysis of legal language via Corpus Linguistics techniques is an important development. In legal proceedings, a corpus-based approach to disambiguating meaning is set to replace the dictionary as an interpretative tool, and legal scholarship in the States is now attuned to the potential for Text Analytics over vast quantities of text-based legal material, following the business and medical industries. This trend is reflected in Europe: the interdisciplinary research group in Computer Assisted Legal Linguistics mines big data collections of legal and non-legal texts to analyse: legal interpretations; legal discourse; the comprehensibility of legal texts; conflict resolution; and linguistic human rights. This paper focuses on ‘dignity’ as an important aspect of the overarching concept of human rights in current constitutions across the Arab world. We have compiled a parallel, Arabic-English raw text corpus (169,861 Arabic words and 205,893 English words) from reputable websites such as the World Intellectual Property Organisation and CONSTITUTE, and uploaded and queried our corpus in Sketch Engine. Our most challenging task was sentence-level alignment of Arabic-English data. This entailed manual intervention to ensure correspondence on a one-to-many basis since Arabic sentences differ from English in length and punctuation. We have searched for morphological variants of ‘dignity’ (رامة ك, karāma) in the Arabic data and inspected their English translation equivalents. The term occurs most frequently in the Sudanese constitution (10 instances), and not at all in the constitution of Palestine. Its most frequent collocate, determined via the logDice statistic in Sketch Engine, is ‘human’ as in ‘human dignity’.

Keywords: Arabic constitution, corpus-based legal linguistics, human rights, parallel Arabic-English legal corpora

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530 The Diglossia and the Bilingualism: Concept, Problems, and Solutions

Authors: Abdou Mahmoud Abdou Hussein

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We attempt, in this paper, to spot the light on the difference between the two concepts (diglossia and bilingualism). Thus, we will show the definition of these two concepts among various perspectives. On the other hand, we will emphasize and highlight 'diglossa' in The Arabic language historically. Furthermore, we will illustrate the factors of the diglossia, the impact of diglossia on the learners of Arabic (native and non native speakers) and finally the suggested solutions for this issue.

Keywords: Arabic linguistics, diglossia, bilingualism, native and non-native speakers

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529 The Nature of Borrowings into Arabic during Different Historical Periods

Authors: Maria L. Swanson

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Language is a system which constantly changes and reflects social and cultural transformations of a speech community. If it is phonetic system, morphological patterns and syntactic arrangements undergo little charge and are not easily transferable from one language to another, the lexicon has a high degree of flexibility. Borrowings in Arabic have always been an interesting and important subject of study to various fields of linguistics, history and culturology, and there is quite number of works devoted to this subject (al-Khalīl, Sībawīḥ, Jeffery, Belkin, al-Maghribii, Holes, Stetkevich, el-Mawlūdī, between many others). At the same time, the history of borrowing has never been described as a process starting from its originating and up to the present time. Most of the researches study lexical and morphological adaptation of borrowed words for specific or several historical periods or delineate this process on the whole. Meanwhile, we have described the whole history of borrowings in Arabic with the brief depicting of lexical and morphological specifics for each historical period using quantitative method through dividing Arabic borrowings into several groups, basing on the specific of their adaptation of new vocabulary which is tightly related to the global transformations in the Arabic history. We explain reasons for borrowings of specific lexical layers for each historical period together with the description of its morphological specifics. We also use qualitative approach through performing statistics about the share of loan vocabulary in Arabic during different periods and the percentage of borrowings from donor languages. The history of a character and amount of borrowings is a good resource for theoretical and practical lexicography and morphology studies. It is also beneficial for researchers in the field of global and specific national, political and social developments, and different types of contacts.

Keywords: anthropological linguistics, borrowings, historical linguistics, sociolinguistics

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528 The Syllable Structure and Syllable Processes in Suhwa Arabic: An Autosegmental Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Yaqub Olatunde

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Arabic linguistic science is redirecting its focus towards the analysis and description of social, regional, and temporal varieties of social, regional, and temporal varieties in order to show how they vary in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. This is not to say that the traditional Arabic linguists did not mention scores of dialectical variations but such works focused on the geographical boundaries of the Arabic speaking countries. There is need for a comprehensive survey of various Arabic dialects within the boundary of Arabic speaking countries and outside showing both the similarities and differences of linguistic and extra linguistic elements. This study therefore examines the syllable structure and process in noun and verb in the shuwa Arabic dialect speaking in North East Nigeria [mainly in Borno state]. The work seeks to establish the facts about this phenomenon, using auto- segmental analysis. These facts are compared, where necessary; using possible alternative analysis, with what operate in other related dialects within and outside Arabic speaking countries. The interaction between epenthesis and germination in the language also generate an interesting issue. The paper then conclude that syllable structure and process in the language need to recognize the existence of complex onset and a complex rhyme producing a consonant cluster in the former and a closed syllable in the letter. This emerges as result of resyllabification, which is motivated by these processes.

Keywords: Arabic, dialect, linguistics, processes, resyllabification

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527 Validating the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory for Assessing the Development of Language in Arabic-Speaking Children

Authors: Alshaimaa Abdelwahab, Allegra Cattani, Caroline Floccia

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Assessing children’s language is fundamental for changing their developmental outcome as it gives a chance for a quick and early intervention with the suitable planning and monitoring program. The importance of language assessment lies in helping to find the right test fit for purpose, in addition to achievement and proficiency. This study examines the validity of a new Arabic assessment tool, the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory ‘Arabic CDI’. It assesses the development of language in Arabic children in different Arabic countries, allowing to detect children with language delay. A concurrent validity is set to compare the Arabic CDI to the Arabic Language test. Twenty-three typically developing Egyptian healthy children and their mothers participated in this study. Their age is 24 months (+ or -) two weeks. The sample included 13 males and 10 females. Mothers completed the Arabic CDI either before or after the Arabic Language Test was conducted with the child. The score for comprehension in the Arabic CDI (M= 52.7, SD= 9.7) and words understood in the Arabic Language Test (M= 59.6, SD= 12.5) were strongly and positively correlated (r= .62, p= .002). At the same time, the scores for production in the Arabic CDI (M= 38.4, SD= 14.8) and words expressed in the Arabic Language Test (M= 52.1, SD= 16.3) were also strongly and positively correlated (r= .82, p= .000). The new Arabic CDI is an adequate tool for assessing the development of comprehension and production at Arabic children. In addition, it could be used for detecting children with language impairment. Standardization of the Arabic CDI across 18 different Arabic dialects in children aged 8 to 30 months is underway.

Keywords: Arabic CDI, assessing children, language development, language impairment

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526 Linguistics and Islamic Studies in Historical Perspective: The Case of Interdisciplinary Communication

Authors: Olga Bernikova, Oleg Redkin

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Islamic Studies and the Arabic language are indivisible from each other starting from the appearance of Islam and formation of the Classical language. The present paper demonstrates correlation among linguistics and religion in historical perspective with regard to peculiarities of the Arabic language which distinguish it from the other prophetic languages. Islamic Studies and Linguistics are indivisible from each other starting from the invent of Islam and formation of the Classical language. In historical perspective, the Arabic language has been and remains a tool for the expression of Islamic rhetoric being a prophetic language. No other language in the world has preserved its stability for more than 14 centuries. Islam is considered to be one of the most important factors which secure this stability. The analysis and study of the text of Qurʾān are of special importance for those who study Islamic civilization, its role in the destinies of the mankind, its values and virtues. Without understanding of the polyphony of this sacred text, indivisible unity of its form and content it is impossible to understand social developments both in the present and the past. Since the first years of Islam Qurʾān had been in the center of attention of Muslim scholars, and in the center of attention of theologians, historians, philologists, jurists, mathematicians. Only quite recently it has become an object of analysis of the specialists of computer technologies. In Arabic and Islamic studies mediaeval texts i.e. textual documents are considered the main source of information. Hence the analysis of the multiplicity of various texts and finding of interconnections between them help to set scattered fragments of the riddle into a common and eloquent picture of the past, which reflects the state of the society on certain stages of its development. The text of the Qurʾān like any other phenomenon is a multifaceted object that should be studied from different points of view. As a result, this complex study will allow obtaining a three-dimensional image rather than a flat picture alone.

Keywords: Arabic, Islamic studies, linguistics, religion

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525 Arabic Text Representation and Classification Methods: Current State of the Art

Authors: Rami Ayadi, Mohsen Maraoui, Mounir Zrigui

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In this paper, we have presented a brief current state of the art for Arabic text representation and classification methods. We decomposed Arabic Task Classification into four categories. First we describe some algorithms applied to classification on Arabic text. Secondly, we cite all major works when comparing classification algorithms applied on Arabic text, after this, we mention some authors who proposing new classification methods and finally we investigate the impact of preprocessing on Arabic TC.

Keywords: text classification, Arabic, impact of preprocessing, classification algorithms

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524 Arabic Light Stemmer for Better Search Accuracy

Authors: Sahar Khedr, Dina Sayed, Ayman Hanafy

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Arabic is one of the most ancient and critical languages in the world. It has over than 250 million Arabic native speakers and more than twenty countries having Arabic as one of its official languages. In the past decade, we have witnessed a rapid evolution in smart devices, social network and technology sector which led to the need to provide tools and libraries that properly tackle the Arabic language in different domains. Stemming is one of the most crucial linguistic fundamentals. It is used in many applications especially in information extraction and text mining fields. The motivation behind this work is to enhance the Arabic light stemmer to serve the data mining industry and leverage it in an open source community. The presented implementation works on enhancing the Arabic light stemmer by utilizing and enhancing an algorithm that provides an extension for a new set of rules and patterns accompanied by adjusted procedure. This study has proven a significant enhancement for better search accuracy with an average 10% improvement in comparison with previous works.

Keywords: Arabic data mining, Arabic Information extraction, Arabic Light stemmer, Arabic stemmer

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523 Aspects of Diglossia in Arabic Language Learning

Authors: Adil Ishag

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Diglossia emerges in a situation where two distinctive varieties of a language are used alongside within a certain community. In this case, one is considered as a high or standard variety and the second one as a low or colloquial variety. Arabic is an extreme example of a highly diglossic language. This diglossity is due to the fact that Arabic is one of the most spoken languages and spread over 22 Countries in two continents as a mother tongue, and it is also widely spoken in many other Islamic countries as a second language or simply the language of Quran. The geographical variation between the countries where the language is spoken and the duality of the classical Arabic and daily spoken dialects in the Arab world on the other hand; makes the Arabic language one of the most diglossic languages. This paper tries to investigate this phenomena and its relation to learning Arabic as a first and second language.

Keywords: Arabic language, diglossia, first and second language, language learning

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522 Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language

Authors: Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal, Kamran Malik

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"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.

Keywords: NLP, Quran, Computational Linguistics, E Learning

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521 The Current Use of Computer Technology in Arabic Language

Authors: Saad Alkahtani

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This study aims to identify the extent to which the faculty members who teach Arabic to speakers of other languages in Arabic language institutes at Saudi universities use computer technologies such as language laboratories, websites, software programs, and learning management system (LMS). It also seeks to identify critical difficulties that hinder the use of these technologies by faculty members. The population of the study consisted of 103 faculty members in four Arabic language institutes at Saudi universities. The results of the study showed a disparity in the use of computer technologies in teaching Arabic to non-native speakers. The means of degree of use ranged from 1.20 through 2.83. The study also identified difficulties limiting the use of computer technology in teaching Arabic. And the means of averages of difficulty of use ranged from 1.50 to 2.89. The differences were not statistically significant among the institutes (at 0.05).

Keywords: Arabic language programs, computer technology, using technology in teaching Arabic language, Arabic as a second language, computer skills

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520 An Enhanced Support Vector Machine Based Approach for Sentiment Classification of Arabic Tweets of Different Dialects

Authors: Gehad S. Kaseb, Mona F. Ahmed

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Arabic Sentiment Analysis (SA) is one of the most common research fields with many open areas. Few studies apply SA to Arabic dialects. This paper proposes different pre-processing steps and a modified methodology to improve the accuracy using normal Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. The paper works on two datasets, Arabic Sentiment Tweets Dataset (ASTD) and Extended Arabic Tweets Sentiment Dataset (Extended-AATSD), which are publicly available for academic use. The results show that the classification accuracy approaches 86%.

Keywords: Arabic, classification, sentiment analysis, tweets

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519 Arabic Text Classification: Review Study

Authors: M. Hijazi, A. Zeki, A. Ismail

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An enormous amount of valuable human knowledge is preserved in documents. The rapid growth in the number of machine-readable documents for public or private access requires the use of automatic text classification. Text classification can be defined as assigning or structuring documents into a defined set of classes known in advance. Arabic text classification methods have emerged as a natural result of the existence of a massive amount of varied textual information written in the Arabic language on the web. This paper presents a review on the published researches of Arabic Text Classification using classical data representation, Bag of words (BoW), and using conceptual data representation based on semantic resources such as Arabic WordNet and Wikipedia.

Keywords: Arabic text classification, Arabic WordNet, bag of words, conceptual representation, semantic relations

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518 The Cognitive Perspective on Arabic Spatial Preposition ‘Ala

Authors: Zaqiatul Mardiah, Afdol Tharik Wastono, Abdul Muta'ali

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In general, the Arabic preposition ‘ala encodes the sense of UP-DOWN schema. However, the use of the preposition ‘ala can has many extended schemas that still have relation to its primary sense. In this paper, we show how the framework of cognitive linguistics (CL) based on image schemas can be applied to analyze the spatial semantic of the use of preposition ‘ala in the horizontal and vertical axes. The preposition ‘ala is usually used in the locative sense in which one physical entity is UP-DOWN relation to another physical entity. In spite of that, the cognitive analysis of ‘ala justifies the use of this preposition in many situations to seemingly encode non-up down-related spatial relations, and non-physical relation. This uncovers some of the unsolved issues concerning prepositions in general and the Arabic prepositions in particular the use of ‘ala as a sample. Using the Arabic corpus data, we reveal that in many cases and situations, the use of ‘ala is extended to depict relations other than the ones where the Trajector (TR) is actually in up-down relation to the Landmark (LM). The instances analyzed in this paper show that ‘ala encodes not only the spatial relations in which the TR and the LM are horizontally or vertically related to each other, but also non-spatial relations.

Keywords: image schema, preposition, spatial semantic, up-down relation

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517 Challenges Being Faced by Students of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Tetiary Institutions in Nigeria: Case Study of Some Selected Tetiary Instutions of Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Alhaji Maidugu

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The role played by Arabic and Islamic Studies in the history of Nigeria - particularly Northern part of the country - cannot be overemphasized. Before the British colonialism, Arabic language was the official language in some of the great empires in Nigeria such as the Kanem Borno Empire. Islam, on the other hand, is the state religion. Both the rulers and the ruled were deeply involved in the pursuit of Arabic and Islamic knowledge traveling as far as Egypt, Saudia Arabia for scholarship. Their homes are like a modern library where Islamic books are kept and used to teach the community the different fields of Arabic and Islamic Studies. Scholars of Arabic and Islamic Studies were highly regarded and well respected in the society as they were the decision makers, diplomats and advisers to the authorities. Unfortunately, the colonizers used their influence and force to replace this language with a foreign language. In fact, they tried to exterminate it. Arabic became less important in the country. Arabic and Islamic Students became less significant and anybody studying Arabic or Islamic Studies is looked down at with disdain, and the course is considered unprofessional. This paper aims at casting a glance in the position of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Yobe State, Nigeria and social, political, economical and moral challenges faced by the students at institutions of learning.

Keywords: challenges, students of Arabic and Islamic studies, tertiary, institutions, Yobe

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516 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman

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Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

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515 Gesture in the Arabic and Malay Languages a Comparative Study

Authors: Siti Sara binti Hj Ahmad, Adil Elshiekh Abdalla

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The Arabic and Malay languages belong to different language’s families; while the Arabic language descends from the Semitic language, Malay belongs to the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) family. Hence, the grammatical systems of the two languages differ from each other. Arabic, being a language found in the heart of the dessert, and Malay is the language found in the heart of thick equatorial forests, is another source of vital cultural differences. Consequently, it is expected that this situation will create differences in the ways of how speakers of the two languages perceive the world around them, convey and understand their messages. On the other hand, as the majority of the speakers of Malay language are Muslims, Arabic language found its way in this region; currently, Arabic is widely taught in school, some terms of it found their way in the Malay language. Accordingly, the Arabic language and culture have widely penetrated into the Malay language. This study is proposed with the aim to find out the differences and similarities between the two languages, in the term of the nonverbal communication. The result of this study will be of high significance, as it will help in enhancing the mutual understanding between the speakers of these languages. The comparative analysis approach will be utilized in this study.

Keywords: gesture, Arabic language, Malay language, comparative analysis

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514 Spoken Rhetoric in Arabic Heritage

Authors: Ihab Al-Mokrani

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The Arabic heritage has two types of spoken rhetoric: the first type which al-Jaahiz calls “the rhetoric of the sign,” which means body language, and the rhetoric of silence which is of no less importance than the rhetoric of the sign, the speaker’s appearance and movements, etc. The second type is the spoken performance of utterances which bears written rhetoric arts like metaphor, simile, metonymy, etc. Rationale of the study: First: in spite of the factual existence of rhetorical phenomena in the Arabic heritage, there has been no contemporary study handling the spoken rhetoric in the Arabic heritage. Second: Arabic Civilization is originally a spoken one. Comparing the Arabic culture and civilization, from one side, to the Greek, roman or Pharaonic cultures and civilizations, from the other side, shows that the latter cultures and civilizations started and flourished written while the former started among illiterate people who had no interest in writing until recently. That sort of difference on the part of the Arabic culture and civilization created a rhetoric different from rhetoric in the other cultures and civilizations. Third: the spoken nature of the Arabic civilization influenced the Arabic rhetoric in the sense that specific rhetorical arts have been introduced matching that spoken nature. One of these arts is the art of concision which compensates for the absence of writing’s means of preserving the text. In addition, this interprets why many of the definitions of the Arabic rhetoric were defining rhetoric as the art of concision. Also, this interprets the fact that the literary genres known in the Arabic culture were limited by the available narrow space like poetry, anecdotes, and stories, while the literary genres in the Greek culture were of wide space as epics and drama. This is not of any contrast to the fact that some Arabic poetry would exceed 100 lines of poetry as Arabic poetry was based on the line organic unity, which means that every line could stand alone with a full meaning that is not dependent on the rest of the poem; and that last aspect has never happened in any culture other than the Arabic culture.

Keywords: Arabic rhetoric, spoken rhetoric, Arabic heritage, culture

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513 Contemporary Arabic Novel Probing the Self and the Other: A Contrapuntal Study of Identity, Sexuality, and Fundamentalism

Authors: Jihan Mahmoud

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This paper examines the role played by Arabic novelists in revolutionary change in the Arab world, discussing themes of identity, sexuality and fundamentalism as portrayed in a selection of modern and contemporary Arabic novels that are either written in English or translated from Arabic into English. It particularly focuses on the post-Naguib Mahfouz era. Taking my cue from the current political changes in the Arab world, starting with 9/11/ terrorist attacks in the USA and the UK, the ‘Arab Spring’ revolutions, the rise of political Islam and the emergence of Isis, the Islamic state in Iraq and the Levant, the study analyses the differences in the ways contemporary Arab novelists from different Arabic countries represent the interaction between identity, sexual politics and fundamentalist ideas in the Arab world, with a specific focus on the overlap between literature, religion and international politics in the region. It argues that the post-Mahfouz era marked a new phase in the development of the political Arabic novel not only as a force of resistance against political-religious oppression, but as a call for revolution as well. Thus, the Arabic novel reshapes values and prompts future action.

Keywords: Arabic novel, Islam, politics, sexuality

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512 Language Literacy Attrition: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Ahmad Al-Issa

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Our world is now operating under the auspices of globalization with its attendant language of ‘global English.' In many parts of the world, the need for English is often accepted without much thought given to native languages. Indeed, this is the current situation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with English encroaching into all areas of society, and especially forcefully into the education sector, where English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is on the rise. At the same time, Arabic literacy (i.e., the ability to read and write in Arabic) is declining among the UAE youth. Using a mixed-methods design, a study was conducted to gain insights into the use of Arabic by Emirati University students. The study examines how often Emiratis, males and females, use their native language (Arabic) in their daily lives, how they view their reading and writing skills in Arabic vis-à-vis their English literacy skills, and the extent to which they can demonstrate their literacy skills in Arabic. Clear evidence emerged showing that while Arabic as a dialect continues to be spoken on a daily basis, Arabic literacy is unquestionably losing ground. This was found to be motivated by educational, political, societal, and personal forces. These findings and their implications to language policy and existing bilingualism programs will be discussed. Suggestions for further research will also be made.

Keywords: Arabic, globalization, global English, literacy attrition, United Arab Emirates

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511 Hybrid SVM/DBN Model for Arabic Isolated Words Recognition

Authors: Elyes Zarrouk, Yassine Benayed, Faiez Gargouri

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This paper presents a new hybrid model for isolated Arabic words recognition. To do this, we apply Support Vectors Machine (SVM) as an estimator of posterior probabilities within the Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN). This paper deals a comparative study between DBN and SVM/DBN systems for multi-dialect isolated Arabic words. Performance using SVM/DBN is found to exceed that of DBNs trained on an identical task, giving higher recognition accuracy for four different Arabic dialects. In fact, the average of recognition rates for the four dialects with SVM/DBN was 87.67% while 83.01% with DBN.

Keywords: dynamic Bayesian networks, hybrid models, supports vectors machine, Arabic isolated words

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510 Poem and Novel Translations from Arabic to Turkish Done between the Years of 1980-2015

Authors: Gürkan Dağbaşı

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Translation is a vitally important activity like as the expression the thought and emotions of humanbeing, providing reciprocal cultural transfer, shaping future by establishing a connection with the past, and like as being exist in an other language. Translation is also an important instrument providing cross-cultural coalescence between nations. Although the first translations from Arabic to Turkish was restricted to only religious texts, over time, the importance of translation was found out via translations of works about literature. Later on, some literature genres like novel and poems were also translated from Arabic to Turkish. Works of many men of Arabic literature were translated to Turkish, including Nejib Mahfuz, owner of Nobel Prize, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Adonis, Gibran Khalil Gibran and etc. In this study, novels and poems translated from Arabic to Turkish between 1980-2015 years are examined.

Keywords: poem, novel, Arabic, translation

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509 An Analytic Comparison between Arabic and English Prosodies: Poetical Feet and Meters

Authors: Jamil Jafari, Sharafat Karimi

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The Arabic Language has a complicated system of prosody invented by the great grammarian Khalil Ibn Ahmad Farahidi. He could extract 15 meters out of his innovative five circles, which were used in Arabic poetry of the 7th and 8th centuries. Then after a while, his student Akhfash added or compensated another meter to his tutor's meters, so overall, we now have 16 different meters in Arabic poetry. These meters have been formed by various combinations of 8 different feet and each foot is combined of rudimentary units called Sabab and Wated which are combinations of movement (/) and silent (ʘ) letters. On the other hand in English, we are dealing with another system of metrical prosody. In this language, feet are consisted of stressed and unstressed syllables and are of six types: iamb, trochee, dactyl, anapest, spondee, and pyrrhic. Using the descriptive-analytic method, in this research we aim at making a comparison between Arabic and English systems of metrical prosody to investigate their similarities and differences. The results show that both of them are quantitative and both of them rely on syllables in afoot. But unlike Arabic, English is utilizing another rhyme system and the number of feet in a line differs from Arabic; also, its feet are combined of stressed and unstressed syllables, while those of Arabic is a combination of movement and silent letters.

Keywords: Arabic prosody, English prosody, foot, meter, poetry

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508 Arabic Language in Modern Era: Some Challenges

Authors: Tajudeen Yusuf

Abstract:

Arabic language and its instruction occupy a prominent status in the contemporary world, especially in academic and research institutions. Arabic, like other international languages, consolidates understanding among people of different nations and societies. It is a promising medium of sharing thoughts and feelings. As a means of communication and interaction, the language has gained its outstanding status since ancient times, especially because of the relationship it maintains with Islam and its heritage. Adding to its importance is the rapid growth and advancement of Science and Technology in the contemporary Era which has eventually made communication between human societies all over the world inevitable. Despite, the Arabic language still experiences many challenges especially in some area such as irrelevant textbooks and other teaching materials, old versions of teaching methods and inadequate teachers who professionally trained. Eventually, these have resulted in difficulties in the teaching and learning of the language. Therefore, urgent and necessary measures to enhance the teaching and learning of Arabic language within and outside Arab countries are therefore needed to be taken.

Keywords: Arabic, language, challenges, modern era

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507 Arabic Literature as a Tool for Educational Transformation in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulfatah A Raji

Abstract:

This paper started with the definitions of literature, Arabic literature, transformation and went further to highlight the components of educational transformation. The general history of Arabic literature was discussed with focus on how it undergoes some transformations from pre-Islamic period through Quranic era, Abbasid literature to renaissance period in which the modernization of Arabic literature started in Egypt. It also traces the spread of Arabic literature in Nigeria from the pre-colonial era during the Kanuri rulers to Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio and the development of literature which manifested to the Teacher’s Colleges and Bayero University in Northern Nigeria. Also, the establishment of primary and post-primary schools by Muslim organizations in many cities and towns of the Western part of Nigeria. Literary criticism was also discussed in line with Arabic literature. Poetry work of eminent poets were cited to show its importance in line with educational transformation in Nigerian literature and lessons from the cited Arabic poetry works were also highlighted to include: motivation to behave well and to tolerate others, better spirits of interaction, love and co-existence among different sexes, religion etc. All these can help in developing a better educational transformation in Nigeria which can in turn help in how to conduct researches for national development. The paper recommended compulsory Arabic literature at all levels of the nations’ educational system as well as publication of Arabic books and journals to encourage peace in this era of conflicts and further transform Nigeria’s educational system for better.

Keywords: Arabic, literature, peace, development, Nigeria

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506 Neural Correlates of Arabic Digits Naming

Authors: Fernando Ojedo, Alejandro Alvarez, Pedro Macizo

Abstract:

In the present study, we explored electrophysiological correlates of Arabic digits naming to determine semantic processing of numbers. Participants named Arabic digits grouped by category or intermixed with exemplars of other semantic categories while the N400 event-related potential was examined. Around 350-450 ms after the presentation of Arabic digits, brain waves were more positive in anterior regions and more negative in posterior regions when stimuli were grouped by category relative to the mixed condition. Contrary to what was found in other studies, electrophysiological results suggested that the production of numerals involved semantic mediation.

Keywords: Arabic digit naming, event-related potentials, semantic processing, number production

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505 Translating Silence: An Analysis of Dhofar University Student Translations of Elliptical Structures from English into Arabic

Authors: Ali Algryani

Abstract:

Ellipsis involves the omission of an item or items that can be recovered from the preceding clause. Ellipsis is used as a cohesion marker; it enhances the cohesiveness of a text/discourse as a clause is interpretable only through making reference to an antecedent clause. The present study attempts to investigate the linguistic phenomenon of ellipsis from a translation perspective. It is mainly concerned with how ellipsis is translated from English into Arabic. The study covers different forms of ellipsis, such as noun phrase ellipsis, verb phrase ellipsis, gapping, pseudo-gapping, stripping, and sluicing. The primary aim of the study, apart from discussing the use and function of ellipsis, is to find out how such ellipsis phenomena are dealt with in English-Arabic translation and determine the implications of the translations of elliptical structures into Arabic. The study is based on the analysis of Dhofar University (DU) students' translations of sentences containing different forms of ellipsis. The initial findings of the study indicate that due to differences in syntactic structures and stylistic preferences between English and Arabic, Arabic tends to use lexical repetition in the translation of some elliptical structures, thus achieving a higher level of explicitness. This implies that Arabic tends to prefer lexical repetition to create cohesion more than English does. Furthermore, the study also reveals that the improper translation of ellipsis leads to interpretations different from those understood from the source text. Such mistranslations can be attributed to student translators’ lack of awareness of the use and function of ellipsis as well as the stylistic preferences of both languages. This has pedagogical implications on the teaching and training of translation students at DU. Students' linguistic competence needs to be enhanced through teaching linguistics-related issues with reference to translation and both languages, .i.e. source and target languages and with special emphasis on their use, function and stylistic preferences.

Keywords: cohesion, ellipsis, explicitness, lexical repetition

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