Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Vanita Aggarwal

43 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Paver Blocks

Authors: Som Nath Sachdeva, Vanita Aggarwal, S. M. Gupta

Abstract:

Use of concrete paver blocks is becoming increasingly popular. They are used for paving of approaches, paths and parking areas including their application in pre-engineered buildings. This paper discusses the results of an experimental study conducted on Fly Ash Concrete with the aim to report its suitability for concrete paver blocks. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash, 20 % to 40 %, on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied are M-30, M-35, M-40 and M-50. It is observed that all the fly ash based mixes are able to achieve the required compressive and flexural strengths. In comparison to control mixes, the compressive and flexural strengths of the fly ash based mixes are found to be slightly less at 7 days and 28 days and a little more at 90 days.

Keywords: fly ash concrete, paver blocks, compressive, flexural strength

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42 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva

Abstract:

The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% at 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes have been designed, three as conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen as HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines i.e. IS: 10262. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave One Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: high performance concrete, fly ash, concrete mixes, compressive strength, strength prediction models, linear regression, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
41 Critical Analysis of Different Actuation Techniques for a Micro Cantilever

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, Prashant Hanasi, Vanita Abbigeri

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The objective of this work is to carry out a critical comparison of different actuation mechanisms like electrostatic, thermal, piezoelectric, and magnetic with reference to a microcantilever. The relevant parameters like force generated, displacement are compared in actuation methods. With these results, they help in choosing the best actuation method for a particular application. In this study, Comsol/Multiphysics software is used. Modeling and simulation are done by considering the microcantilever of same dimensions as an actuator using all the above-mentioned actuation techniques. In addition to their small size, micro actuators consume very little power and are capable of accurate results. In this work, a comparison of actuation mechanisms is done to decide the efficient system in the micro domain.

Keywords: actuation techniques, microswitch, micro actuator, microsystems

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
40 Language Ideology and Classroom Discursive Practices in ESL Classrooms

Authors: Hema Vanita Kesevan

Abstract:

This study investigated the impact of teacher’s language ideology on their classroom discursive practice in ESL / EFL classrooms. It examines teachers’ perceptions of the use of local variety of Malaysian English in the classroom. The investigation shows that although teachers and students are against its use in the classroom, it is widely employed. The participants of this study consist of two Malaysian non-native English teachers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This study employs a comparative case study approach which focuses on the teachers and their classroom discourse practice. There are two modes of inquiry used in this study: classroom observation and semi-guided interviews. The findings are of interest to ESL / EFL teachers, policy makers and language researchers in the Malaysian and other similar ESL / EFL contexts.

Keywords: language ideology, Malaysian English, native teachers, non-native teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
39 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted, and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M. L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted, and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von-Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, leaf spring, standard, casted, riveted eye

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
38 A Priority Based Imbalanced Time Minimization Assignment Problem: An Iterative Approach

Authors: Ekta Jain, Kalpana Dahiya, Vanita Verma

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This paper discusses a priority based imbalanced time minimization assignment problem dealing with the allocation of n jobs to m < n persons in which the project is carried out in two stages, viz. Stage-I and Stage-II. Stage-I consists of n1 ( < m) primary jobs and Stage-II consists of remaining (n-n1) secondary jobs which are commenced only after primary jobs are finished. Each job is to be allocated to exactly one person, and each person has to do at least one job. It is assumed that nature of the Stage-I jobs is such that one person can do exactly one primary job whereas a person can do more than one secondary job in Stage-II. In a particular stage, all persons start doing the jobs simultaneously, but if a person is doing more than one job, he does them one after the other in any order. The aim of the proposed study is to find the feasible assignment which minimizes the total time for the two stage execution of the project. For this, an iterative algorithm is proposed, which at each iteration, solves a constrained imbalanced time minimization assignment problem to generate a pair of Stage-I and Stage-II times. For solving this constrained problem, an algorithm is developed in the current paper. Later, alternate combinations based method to solve the priority based imbalanced problem is also discussed and a comparative study is carried out. Numerical illustrations are provided in support of the theory.

Keywords: assignment, imbalanced, priority, time minimization

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37 Modern Pedagogy Techniques for DC Motor Speed Control

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

Based on a survey conducted for second and third year students of the electrical engineering department at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India, it was found that around 92% of students felt that it would be better to introduce a virtual environment for laboratory experiments. Hence, a need was felt to perform modern pedagogy techniques for students which consist of a virtual environment using MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper, a virtual environment for the speed control of a DC motor is performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The various speed control methods for the DC motor include the field resistance control method and armature voltage control method. The performance analysis of the DC motor is hence analyzed.

Keywords: DC Motor, field control, pedagogy techniques, speed control, virtual environment, voltage control

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
36 Methodology of Geometry Simplification for Conjugate Heat Transfer of Electrical Rotating Machines Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sachin Aggarwal, Sarah Kassinger, Nicholas Hoffman

Abstract:

Geometry simplification is a key step in performing conjugate heat transfer analysis using CFD. This paper proposes a standard methodology for the geometry simplification of rotating machines, such as electrical generators and electrical motors (both air and liquid-cooled). These machines are extensively deployed throughout the aerospace and automotive industries, where optimization of weight, volume, and performance is paramount -especially given the current global transition to renewable energy sources and vehicle hybridization and electrification. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is an essential step in optimizing their complex design. This methodology will help in reducing convergence issues due to poor mesh quality, thus decreasing computational cost and overall analysis time.

Keywords: CFD, electrical machines, Geometry simplification, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
35 Spectrum of Acute Kidney Injury in Obstetrics

Authors: Seema Chopra, Amandeep Kaur, Vanita Suri, Shalini Gainder, Minakshi Rohilla

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Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with pregnancy is a serious medical complication which can lead to significant maternal as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department and dialysis unit of Nephrology department of PGIMER, Chandigarh from July 2013 to June 2014. Forty antenatal/postnatal/postabortal patients who fulfilled the AKIN criteria were enrolled in the study. All patients were followed up till 3 months postpartum. Results: Majority of the patients 23/40 (57.5%) with AKI presented in postpartum period, 14/40 (35%) developed AKI in antenatal period, and 3/40 (7.5%) were postabortal. AKI was attributable mostly to sepsis in 11/40 (27.5%) and PPH in 5/40 (12.5%). Hypertension and its complications causing AKI included eclampsia in 5/40 (12.5%) followed by 3/40 (7.5%) as HELLP syndrome and abruption placentae in 2/40(5%) patients. Three patients each (7.5%) had AFLP, TMA, and HEV as the cause of AKI. Renal replacement therapy in the form of hemodialysis was the treatment in majority of them (28 (70%)). After the acute event, 25 (62.5%) had complete recovery of their renal functions at 3 months follow up. Maternal mortality was seen in 25% (n=10) of the study patients. Conclusion: Timely initiation of RRT in patients with AKI associated with pregnancy has a good maternal outcome in the form of complete recovery of renal functions in 62.5% (25/40) of patients.

Keywords: AKI, dialysis, hypertension, sepsis, renal parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
34 Biometric Recognition Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Shabir Ahmad Sofi, Shubham Aggarwal, Sanyam Singhal, Roohie Naaz

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Biometric recognition refers to an automatic recognition of individuals based on a feature vector(s) derived from their physiological and/or behavioral characteristic. Biometric recognition systems should provide a reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual. These features are used to provide an authentication for computer based security systems. Applications of such a system include computer systems security, secure electronic banking, mobile phones, credit cards, secure access to buildings, health and social services. By using biometrics a person could be identified based on 'who she/he is' rather than 'what she/he has' (card, token, key) or 'what she/he knows' (password, PIN). In this paper, a brief overview of biometric methods, both unimodal and multimodal and their advantages and disadvantages, will be presented.

Keywords: biometric, DNA, fingerprint, ear, face, retina scan, gait, iris, voice recognition, unimodal biometric, multimodal biometric

Procedia PDF Downloads 596
33 Effect of Non-Ionic Surfactants on in vitro Release of Ketorolactromethamine

Authors: Ajay Aggarwal, Kamal Saroha, Sanju Nanda

Abstract:

Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Entrapment efficiency was found to be higher in case of niosome prepared with span60 than niosome prepared with tween. The amount of release was found to be in order of Span20>Tween60>Tween20>Span60. As the concentration of surfactant is increased in vitro release was increased due to high entrapment. The stability study of optimized batch revealed that particle size was increased after 3months on increasing the temperature. On the other hand entrapment efficiency was decreased on increasing the temperature.

Keywords: niosomes, vesicles, span, tween, in vitro release

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32 Generational Differences in Leadership and Motivation: A Multilevel Study of Federal Workers

Authors: Sally Selden, Jyoti Aggarwal

Abstract:

The research on generational expectations about leadership is developing, but little scholarship exists on this topic for public sector organizations. Given the size of the federal workforce, this research study fills an important gap in the knowledge base and will inform public organizations how to approach managing and leading a multigenerational workforce. The research objectives of this study are to explore leadership preferences and motivation within generations and to determine whether these qualities differ by type of federal agency (e.g., law enforcement, human services, etc.). This paper will review the research on generational differences, expectations, and leadership with a focus on studies of public organizations. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), this study will examine how leadership and motivation vary by generation in the federal government workforce, controlling for other demographic characteristics. The study will also examine whether generational differences impact satisfaction and performance. The study will utilize the 2019 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey.

Keywords: multigenerational workforce, leadership, generational differences, federal workforce

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
31 Rotor Side Speed Control Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink for Wound Induction Motor

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In recent advancements in electric machine and drives, wound rotor motor is extensively used. The merit of using wound rotor induction motor is to control speed/torque characteristics by inserting external resistance. Wound rotor induction motor can be used in the cases such as (a) low inrush current, (b) load requiring high starting torque, (c) lower starting current is required, (d) loads having high inertia, and (e) gradual built up of torque. Examples include conveyers, cranes, pumps, elevators, and compressors. This paper includes speed control of wound induction motor using MATLAB/Simulink for rotor resistance and slip power recovery method. The characteristics of these speed control methods are hence analyzed.

Keywords: MATLAB/Simulink, rotor resistance method, slip power recovery method, wound rotor induction motor

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30 Computer-Aided Teaching of Transformers for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In the era of technological advancement, use of computer technology has become inevitable. Hence it has become the need of the hour to integrate software methods in engineering curriculum as a part to boost pedagogy techniques. Simulations software is a great help to graduates of disciplines such as electrical engineering. Since electrical engineering deals with high voltages and heavy instruments, extra care must be taken while operating with them. The viable solution would be to have appropriate control. The appropriate control could be well designed if engineers have knowledge of kind of waveforms associated with the system. Though these waveforms can be plotted manually, but it consumes a lot of time. Hence aid of simulation helps to understand steady state of system and resulting in better performance. In this paper computer, aided teaching of transformer is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The test carried out on a transformer includes open circuit test and short circuit respectively. The respective parameters of transformer are then calculated using the values obtained from open circuit and short circuit test respectively using Simulink.

Keywords: computer aided teaching, open circuit test, short circuit test, simulink, transformer

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
29 Characteristics of Clayey Subgrade Soil Mixed with Cement Stabilizer

Authors: Manju, Praveen Aggarwal

Abstract:

Clayey soil is considered weakest subgrade soil from civil engineering point of view under moist condition. These swelling soils attract and absorb water and losses their strength. Certain inherent properties of these clayey soils need modification for their bulk use in the construction of highways/runways pavements and embankments, etc. In this paper, results of clayey subgrade modified with cement stabilizer is presented. Investigation includes evaluation of specific gravity, Atterberg’s limits, grain size distribution, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content and CBR value of the clayey soil and cement treated clayey soil. A series of proctor compaction and CBR tests (un-soaked and soaked) are carried out on clayey soil and clayey soil mixed with cement stabilizer in 2%, 4% & 6% percentages to the dry weight of soil. In CBR test, under soaked condition best results are obtained with 6% of cement. However, the difference between the CBR value by addition of 4% and 6% cement is not much. Therefore from economical consideration addition of 4% cement gives the best result after soaking period of 90 days.

Keywords: clayey soil, cement, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, California bearing ratio

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28 Analysis of Fault Tolerance on Grid Computing in Real Time Approach

Authors: Parampal Kaur, Deepak Aggarwal

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In the computational Grid, fault tolerance is an imperative issue to be considered during job scheduling. Due to the widespread use of resources, systems are highly prone to errors and failures. Hence, fault tolerance plays a key role in the grid to avoid the problem of unreliability. Scheduling the task to the appropriate resource is a vital requirement in computational Grid. The fittest resource scheduling algorithm searches for the appropriate resource based on the job requirements, in contrary to the general scheduling algorithms where jobs are scheduled to the resources with best performance factor. The proposed method is to improve the fault tolerance of the fittest resource scheduling algorithm by scheduling the job in coordination with job replication when the resource has low reliability. Based on the reliability index of the resource, the resource is identified as critical. The tasks are scheduled based on the criticality of the resources. Results show that the execution time of the tasks is comparatively reduced with the proposed algorithm using real-time approach rather than a simulator.

Keywords: computational grid, fault tolerance, task replication, job scheduling

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27 Rare Earth Doped Alkali Halide Crystals for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Application

Authors: Pooja Seth, Shruti Aggarwal

Abstract:

The Europium (Eu) doped (0.02-0.1 wt %) lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal in the form of multicrystalline sheet was gown by the edge defined film fed growth (EFG) technique. Crystals were grown in argon gas atmosphere using graphite crucible and stainless steel die. The systematic incorporation of Eu inside the host LiF lattice was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve was recorded on annealed (AN) crystals after irradiation with a gamma dose of 15 Gy. The effect of different concentration of Eu in enhancing the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of LiF was studied. The normalized peak height of the Eu-doped LiF crystal was nearly 12 times that of the LiF crystals. The optimized concentration of Eu in LiF was found to be 0.05wt% at which maximum TL intensity was observed with main TL peak positioned at 185 °C. At higher concentration TL intensity decreases due to the formation of precipitates in the form of clusters or aggregates. The nature of the energy traps in Eu doped LiF was analysed through glow curve deconvolution. The trap depth was found to be in the range of 0.2 – 0.5 eV. These results showed that doping with Eu enhances the TL intensity by creating more defect sites for capturing of electron and holes during irradiation which might be useful for dosimetry application.

Keywords: thermoluminescence, defects, gamma radiation, crystals

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
26 Morphological Study of Sesamoid Bones of Thumb in South Indians

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, R. Abisshek Balaji, Apoorva Aggarwal, Mangala M. Pai

Abstract:

Background: Since the literature is scarce from the South Indian population about the sesamoid bones of the thumb, the present study was undertaken. The objective of the present study was to figure out the muscle of the thumb which contain these sesamoid bones. Methods: The present study included 25 cadaveric thumbs, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory of our institution. Thumbs were studied for the prevalence of sesamoid bones at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The muscle which contain these sesamoid bones were identified. Results: The present study observed that, there were 2 sesamoid bones (92%) at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb each at its medial and lateral aspect. The medial sesamoid bone was found inside the adductor pollicis muscle and lateral one was found either in the flexor pollicis brevis muscle or abductor pollicis brevis muscle. However, among the 25 thumbs being studied, 2 thumbs (8%) had solitary sesamoid bone. The interphalangeal joint of the thumb exhibited only one sesamoid bone at the median plane. Conclusion: The morphological data of the present study from the South Indians can be used as a database, which is enlightening to the operating hand surgeon and radiologist.

Keywords: morphology, muscles, sesamoid bones, thumb

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
25 A Novel Design of Inset Feed Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application

Authors: Priyanka Aggarwal, Priyanka Mangla

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This work has focused on the aspect of UWB antenna design, which is very suitable for portable UWB applications. The design of new UWB antenna faces some challenges. The antenna should be compact, preferably conformal, and low cost for manufacture, and have good electrical performance, such as good matching, directional radiation performance over a wide band, good time response, etc. Keeping these goals in mind a compact and directional compact open-slot antenna was built. The antenna radiating structure is in the form of two exponentially tapered arms that lie on the opposite sides of the substrate. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 2.95 GHz to more than 12.1 GHz. It exhibits a directive radiation performance with a peak gain which is between 5.4 dBi and 8.3 dBi in the specified band. The antenna has linear phase response over the entire UWB frequency range and hence constant group delay which is vital for transmission and reception of sub-nanosecond pulses. Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: inset feed patch antenna, ultra wide band, radiation performance, geometry, antenna

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24 Non-Invasive Imaging of Tissue Using Near Infrared Radiations

Authors: Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal

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NIR Light is non-ionizing and can pass easily through living tissues such as breast without any harmful effects. Therefore, use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function. This blurred reconstructed image has been enhanced using a digital filter which is optimal in mean square sense.

Keywords: least-squares optimization, filtering, tomography, laser interaction, light scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
23 The Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Properties of Bisamide Organogels

Authors: Elmira Ghanbari, Jan Van Esch, Stephen J. Picken, Sahil Aggarwal

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Organogels are formed by the assembly of low molecular weight gelators (LMWG) into fibrous structures. The assembly of these molecules into crystalline fibrous structures occurs as a result of reversible interactions such as π-stacking, hydrogen-bonding, and van der Waals interactions. Bisamide organogelators with two amide groups have been used as one of LMWGs which show efficient assembly behavior via hydrogen bonding for network formation, the formation of a crystalline network for solvent entrapment. In this study, different bisamide gelators with different lengths of alkyl chains have been added to the bisamide parent gels. The effect of the addition of bisamide additives on the gelation of bisamide gels is described. Investigation of the thermal properties of the gels by differential scanning calorimetry and dropping ball techniques indicated that the bisamide gels can be formed by the addition of a high concentration of the second bisamide components. The microstructure of the gels with different gelator components has been visualized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which has shown systematic woven, platelet-like, and a combination of those morphologies for different gels. Examining the addition of a range of bisamide additives with different structural characteristics than the parent bisamide gels has confirmed the effect of the molecular structure on the morphology of the bisamide gels and their final properties.

Keywords: bisamide organogelator additives, gel morphology, gel properties, self-assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
22 Emerging Research Trends in Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Subhra Prosun Paul, Shruti Aggarwal

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Now a days Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network has become a promising technique in the different fields of the latest computer technology. Routing in Wireless Sensor Network is a demanding task due to the different design issues of all sensor nodes. Network architecture, no of nodes, traffic of routing, the capacity of each sensor node, network consistency, service value are the important factor for the design and analysis of Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network. Additionally, internal energy, the distance between nodes, the load of sensor nodes play a significant role in the efficient routing protocol. In this paper, our intention is to analyze the research trends in different routing protocols of Wireless Sensor Network in terms of different parameters. In order to explain the research trends on Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network, different data related to this research topic are analyzed with the help of Web of Science and Scopus databases. The data analysis is performed from global perspective-taking different parameters like author, source, document, country, organization, keyword, year, and a number of the publication. Different types of experiments are also performed, which help us to evaluate the recent research tendency in the Routing Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network. In order to do this, we have used Web of Science and Scopus databases separately for data analysis. We have observed that there has been a tremendous development of research on this topic in the last few years as it has become a very popular topic day by day.

Keywords: analysis, routing protocol, research trends, wireless sensor network

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21 Comparison of Susceptibility to Measles in Preterm Infants versus Term Infants

Authors: Joseph L. Mathew, Shourjendra N. Banerjee, R. K. Ratho, Sourabh Dutta, Vanita Suri

Abstract:

Background: In India and many other developing countries, a single dose of measles vaccine is administered to infants at 9 months of age. This is based on the assumption that maternal transplacentally transferred antibodies will protect infants until that age. However, our previous data showed that most infants lose maternal anti-measles antibodies before 6 months of age, making them susceptible to measles before vaccination at 9 months. Objective: This prospective study was designed to compare susceptibility in pre-term vs term infants, at different time points. Material and Methods: Following Institutional Ethics Committee approval and a formal informed consent process, venous blood was drawn from a cohort of 45 consecutive term infants and 45 consecutive pre-term infants (both groups delivered by the vaginal route); at birth, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months (prior to measles vaccination). Serum was separated and anti-measles IgG antibody levels were measured by quantitative ELISA kits (with sensitivity and specificity > 95%). Susceptibility to measles was defined as antibody titre < 200mIU/ml. The mean antibody levels were compared between the two groups at the four time points. Results: The mean gestation of term babies was 38.5±1.2 weeks; and pre-term babies 34.7±2.8 weeks. The respective mean birth weights were 2655±215g and 1985±175g. Reliable maternal vaccination record was available in only 7 of the 90 mothers. Mean anti-measles IgG antibody (±SD) in terms babies was 3165±533 IU/ml at birth, 1074±272 IU/ml at 3 months, 314±153 IU/ml at 6 months, and 68±21 IU/ml at 9 months. The corresponding levels in pre-term babies were 2875±612 IU/ml, 948±377 IU/ml, 265±98 IU/ml, and 72±33 IU/ml at 9 months (p > 0.05 for all inter-group comparisons). The proportion of susceptible term infants at birth, 3months, 6months and 9months was 0%, 16%, 67% and 96%. The corresponding proportions in the pre-term infants were 0%, 29%, 82%, and 100% (p > 0.05 for all inter-group comparisons). Conclusion: Majority of infants are susceptible to measles before 9 months of age suggesting the need to anticipate measles vaccination, but there was no statistically significant difference between the proportion of susceptible term and pre-term infants, at any of the four-time points. A larger study is required to confirm these findings and compare sero-protection if vaccination is anticipated to be administered between 6 and 9 months.

Keywords: measles, preterm, susceptibility, term infant

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20 Correlation of Depression and Anxiety with Glycemic Control in Children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Sujata Sethi, Pawan Kumar, Sameer Aggarwal

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Depression and anxiety are of significant concern in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and these are correlated with glycemic control in multiple ways. The extent of depression and anxiety in children with T1DM remains poorly studied in India. The index study aimed to find the prevalence of depression and anxiety and their correlation with HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) levels in children with T1DM. Material and methods: This study was a cross-sectional study carried out on a purposive sample of 45 children with T1DM. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of all the participants were recorded. Results: 43 out of 45 children were analyzed as HbA1c status for two was not known. 48.8% were females. Mean age was 12.95+2.04. The average duration of diabetes was 3.63+1.82. Mean CDRS-R score was 41.6+12.25 and mean SCAS score was 33.07+12.29. Mean recording of HbA1c level was 7.90+1.51. 27 (62.8%) out of 43 participants had abnormal scores on CDRS-R and 24 (55.8%) out of 43 had abnormal scores on SCAS. The correlation coefficient between HbA1c levels and the CDRS-R score came out to be 0.57 and between HbA1c and SCAS, it was 0.53. Both correlations were significant with the p-value of < 0.02. Conclusion: Children with T1DM have high co-morbidity of depression and anxiety which is significantly correlated with the HbA1c levels. Thus, it becomes important to screen the patients for depression and anxiety for better outcomes.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, HbA1c, T1DM

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19 Remote Learning During Pandemic: Malaysian Classroom

Authors: Hema Vanita Kesevan

Abstract:

The global spread of Covid-19 virus in early 2020 has led to major changes in many walks of life, including the education system. Traditional face to face lessons that were carried out for years has been replaced by online learning. Although online learning has been used before the pandemic, it has not been the only source of teaching and learning. This drastic change has brought significant impact to the process of teaching and learning in many classrooms around the world. Likewise, in country like Malaysia that that has been promoting online learning but has not utilize it fully due to many restrictions in terms of technology, accessibility, and online literacy, the sudden change to full online platform learning in all educational sector has definitely caused Issues in terms of its adaptation and usage. Although many studies have been conducted to explore the efficiency and impact of online learning during the pandemic, studies focusing on the same are limited in Malaysian classroom context, especially in English language classrooms. Thus, this study seeks to explore on the efficacy and effectiveness of online learning tools in ESL classroom contexts during the pandemic. The aim of this study is to understand the educator's and student's perceptions on the implementation of online learning tools in the teaching and learning process and the types of online learning tools that were used to assist the teaching and learning process during the pandemic. Particularly, this study focused to explore the types of online learning tools used in Malaysian schools and university during the online teaching and learning process and further explores how the various types of tools used impacted the students' participation in the lessons conducted. The participants of this study are secondary school students, teachers, and university students. Data will be collected in terms of survey questionnaire and interviews. The survey data intends to obtain information on the types of online learning used in ESL teaching and learning practices during the pandemic, how the various types of online tools influence students' participation during lessons. The interview data from the teachers serves to provide information about the selection of online learning tools, challenges of using it to conduct online lessons, and other arising issues. A mixed method design will be used to analysed the data obtained. The questionnaire will be analysed quantitatively using descriptive analysis meanwhile, the interview data will be analysed qualitatively.

Keywords: Covid 19, online learning tools, ESL classroom, effectiveness, efficacy

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18 Role of Special Training Centers (STC) in Right to Education Act Challenges And Remedies

Authors: Anshu Radha Aggarwal

Abstract:

As per the Right to Education Act (RTE), 2009, every child in the age group of 6-14 years shall be admitted in a neighborhood school. All the Out of School Children identified have to be enrolled / mainstreamed in to age appropriate class and there-after be provided special training. This paper addresses issues emerging from provisions in the RTE Act that specifically refer to the enrolment of out-of school children into age appropriate classes and the requirement to provide special trainings that will enable this to take place. In the context of RTE Act, the Out-of-School Children are first enrolled in the formal school and then they are provided with Special Training through NRSTCs (Long Term / Short term basis). These centers are functioning in formal school campus itself. This paper specifies the role of special training centers (STC). It presents a re-envisioning of assessment that recognizes two principal functions of assessment, assessment for learning and assessment of learning, instead of the more familiar categories of formative, diagnostic, summative, and evaluative assessment. The use of these two functions of assessment highlights and emphasizes the role of special training centers (STC) to assess their level for giving them appropriate special training and to evaluate their improvement in learning level. Challenge of problem faced by teachers to do diagnostic assessment, including its place in the sequence of assessment procedures appropriate in identifying and addressing individual children’s learning difficulties are solved by special training centers (STC). It is important that assessment is used to identify children with learning difficulties at the earliest possible stage so that appropriate support and intervention can be put in place. So appropriate challenges with tools are presented here for their assessment at entry level and at completion level of primary children by special training centers (STC).

Keywords: right to education, assessment, challenges, out of school children

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17 Integration of Virtual Learning of Induction Machines for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In context of understanding problems faced by undergraduate students while carrying out laboratory experiments dealing with high voltages, it was found that most of the students are hesitant to work directly on machine. The reason is that error in the circuitry might lead to deterioration of machine and laboratory instruments. So, it has become inevitable to include modern pedagogic techniques for undergraduate students, which would help them to first carry out experiment in virtual system and then to work on live circuit. Further advantages include that students can try out their intuitive ideas and perform in virtual environment, hence leading to new research and innovations. In this paper, virtual environment used is of MATLAB/Simulink for three-phase induction machines. The performance analysis of three-phase induction machine is carried out using virtual environment which includes Direct Current (DC) Test, No-Load Test, and Block Rotor Test along with speed torque characteristics for different rotor resistances and input voltage, respectively. Further, this paper carries out computer aided teaching of basic Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) drive circuitry. Hence, this paper gave undergraduates a clearer view of experiments performed on virtual machine (No-Load test, Block Rotor test and DC test, respectively). After successful implementation of basic tests, VSI circuitry is implemented, and related harmonic distortion (THD) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of current and voltage waveform are studied.

Keywords: block rotor test, DC test, no load test, virtual environment, voltage source inverter

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16 MiRNA Regulation of CXCL12β during Inflammation

Authors: Raju Ranjha, Surbhi Aggarwal

Abstract:

Background: Inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious diseases. MiRNA is also reported to play role in inflammation and associated cancers. Chemokine CXCL12 is also known to play role in inflammation and various cancers. CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis was involved in pathogenesis of IBD specially UC. Supplementation of CXCL12 induces homing of dendritic cells to spleen and enhances control of plasmodium parasite in BALB/c mice. We looked at the regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in UC colitis. Prolonged inflammation of colon in UC patient increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We looked at the expression differences of CXCl12β and its targeting miRNA in cancer susceptible area of colon of UC patients. Aim: Aim of this study was to find out the expression regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in inflammation. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples and blood samples were collected from UC patients and non-IBD controls. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarray and real-time PCR. CXCL12β targeting miRNA were looked by using online target prediction tools. Expression of CXCL12β in blood samples and cell line supernatant was analyzed using ELISA. miRNA target was validated using dual luciferase assay. Results and conclusion: We found miR-200a regulate the expression of CXCL12β in UC. Expression of CXCL12β was increased in cancer susceptible part of colon and expression of its targeting miRNA was decreased in the same part of colon. miR-200a regulate CXCL12β expression in inflammation and may be an important therapeutic target in inflammation associated cancer.

Keywords: inflammation, miRNA, regulation, CXCL12

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15 Impact of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Respiratory Parameters in Interstitial Lung Disease Patients: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study

Authors: Vivek Ku, A. K. Janmeja, D. Aggarwal, R. Gupta

Abstract:

Purpose: Pulmonary rehabilitation plays a key role in management of chronic lung diseases. However, pulmonary rehabilitation is an underused modality in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). This is because limited information is available in literature and no data is available from India on this issue so far. The study was carried out to evaluate the role of pulmonary rehabilitation on respiratory parameters in ILD patients. Methods: The present study was a prospective randomized non-blind case control study. Total of 40 ILD patients were randomized into 2 groups of 20 patients each viz ‘pulmonary rehabilitation group’ and ‘control group’. Pulmonary rehabilitation group underwent 8 weeks pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) along with medical management as per guidelines and the control group was advised only medical management. Results: Mean age in case group was 59.15 ± 10.39 years and in control group was 62.10 ± 14.54 years. The case and the control groups were matched for age and sex. Mean MRC grading at the end of 8 weeks showed significant improvement in the case group as compared to control group (p= 0.011 vs p = 0.655). Similarly, mean St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score also showed significant improvement in pulmonary rehabilitation group at the end of the study (p= 0.001 vs p= 0.492). However, FEV1 and FVC had no significant change in the case and control group. Similarly, blood gases also did not show any significant difference in the group. Conclusion: Pulmonary rehabilitation improves breathlessness and thereby improves quality of life in the patients suffering from ILD. However, the pulmonary function values and blood gases are unaffected by pulmonary rehabilitation. Clinical Implications: Further large scale multicentre study is needed to ascertain the association.

Keywords: ILD, pulmonary rehabilitation, quality of life, pulmonary functions

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14 Differential Expression of GABA and Its Signaling Components in Ulcerative Colitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pathogenesis

Authors: Surbhi Aggarwal, Jaishree Paul

Abstract:

Background: Role of GABA has been implicated in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, type1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis where they modulate the immune response but role in gut inflammation has not been defined. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and diarrhoeal predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) both involve inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. UC is a chronic, relapsing and idiopathic inflammation of gut. IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort and alternating bowel habits. Mild inflammation is known to occur in IBS-D. Aim: Aim of this study was to investigate the role of GABA in UC as well as in IBS-D. Materials and methods: Blood and biopsy samples from UC, IBS-D and controls were collected. ELISA was used for measuring level of GABA in serum of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR analysis was done to determine GABAergic signal system in colon biopsy of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR was done to check the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CurveExpert 1.4, Graphpad prism-6 software were used for data analysis. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired, two-way student`s t-test. All sets of data were represented as mean± SEM. A probability level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and conclusion: Significantly decreased level of GABA and altered GABAergic signal system was detected in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Significantly increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines was also determined in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Hence we conclude that insufficient level of GABA in UC and IBS-D leads to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines which further contributes to inflammation. GABA may be used as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of gut inflammation or other inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: diarrheal predominant irritable bowel syndrome, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), inflammation, ulcerative colitis

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