Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 519

Search results for: paver blocks

519 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Paver Blocks

Authors: Som Nath Sachdeva, Vanita Aggarwal, S. M. Gupta

Abstract:

Use of concrete paver blocks is becoming increasingly popular. They are used for paving of approaches, paths and parking areas including their application in pre-engineered buildings. This paper discusses the results of an experimental study conducted on Fly Ash Concrete with the aim to report its suitability for concrete paver blocks. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash, 20 % to 40 %, on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied are M-30, M-35, M-40 and M-50. It is observed that all the fly ash based mixes are able to achieve the required compressive and flexural strengths. In comparison to control mixes, the compressive and flexural strengths of the fly ash based mixes are found to be slightly less at 7 days and 28 days and a little more at 90 days.

Keywords: fly ash concrete, paver blocks, compressive, flexural strength

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518 A Prospective Study on Alkali Activated Bottom Ash-GGBS Blend in Paver Blocks

Authors: V. Revathi, J. Thaarrini, M. Venkob Rao

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This paper presents a study on use of alkali activated bottom ash (BA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) blend in paver blocks. A preliminary effort on alkali-activated bottom ash, blast furnace slag based geopolymer (BA-GGBS-GP) mortar with river sand was carried out to identify the suitable mix for paver block. Several mixes were proposed based on the combination of BA-GGBS. The percentage ratio of BA:GGBS was selected as 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 for the source material. Sodium based alkaline activators were used for activation. The molarity of NaOH was considered as 8M. The molar ratio of SiO2 to Na2O was varied from 1 to 4. Two curing mode such as ambient and steam curing 60°C for 24 hours were selected. The properties of paver block such as compressive strength split tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption were evaluated as per IS15658:2006. Based on the preliminary study on BA-GGBS-GP mortar, the combinations of 25% BA with 75% GGBS mix for M30 and 75% BA with 25% GGBS mix for M35 grade were identified for paver block. Test results shows that the combination of BA-GGBS geopolymer paver blocks attained remarkable compressive strength under steam curing as well as in ambient mode at 3 days. It is noteworthy to know BA-GGBS-GP has promising future in the construction industry.

Keywords: bottom ash, GGBS, alkali activation, paver block

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517 Properties of Compressed Earth Blocks Enhanced with Clay Pozzolana

Authors: Humphrey Danso, Seth Adu

Abstract:

The high cost of cement and its greenhouse effect on the environment have led to the use of alternative building materials in the production of block and bricks. This study seeks to investigate the properties of compressed earth blocks (CEBs) enhanced with clay pozzolana. CEBs of size 290 × 140 × 100 mm were prepared with 10, 20 and 30 % weight of clay pozzolana. The CEBs were compressed at a constant pressure of 5 MPa and cured for 28 days. The blocks, after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of curing were tested for density, water absorption, compressive strength and erosion. It was found that amount of pozzolana content did not have much influence on blocks’ density. There was a decline in water absorption of the stabilised blocks ranged between 32.8% and 252.2% over the unstabilised blocks. The highest compressive strength (3.75MPa) of the stabilized blocks was achieved at 28th day of curing with 30% clay pozzolana content, which showed an improvement of 116.8% strength over the unstabilised blocks. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in the erosion resistance between the stabilized blocks and the unstabilised blocks. The study concludes that the inclusion of the clay pozzolana increased the properties of the CEBs, and therefore recommended for use in the building of houses.

Keywords: clay pozzolana, compressed earth blocks (CEBs), compressive strength, erosion test

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516 Valorisation of Polyethylene and Plastic Bottle Wastes as Pavement Blocks

Authors: Babagana Mohammed, Fidelis Patrick Afangide

Abstract:

This research investigated the possibility of using waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles for the production of interlock pavement blocks. In many parts of the world, interlock pavement block is used widely as modern day solution to outdoor flooring applications and the blocks have different shapes, sizes and colours suiting the imagination of landscape architects. Using suitable and conventional mould having a 220 x 135 x 50 mm³ shape, the interlock blocks were produced. The material constituents of the produced blocks were waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles mixed in varying, respective percentage-weight proportions of; 100%+0%, 75%+25%, 50%+50% and 25%+75%. The blocks were then tested for unconfined compressive strength and water absorption properties. The test results compared well with those of conventional concrete interlock blocks and the research demonstrates the possibility of value recovery from the waste streams which are currently dumped in open-spaces thereby affecting the environment.

Keywords: pavement blocks, polyethylene, plastic bottle, wastes, valorization

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515 Characterization of Performance of Blocks Produced from Dredged Sample

Authors: Adebayo B., Omotehinse A. O.

Abstract:

The performance and characteristics of blocks produced from dredged sample was investigated. Blocks were produced using appropriate mixes of dredged sample and sharp sand. Some geotechnical properties (moisture content, grain size distribution) of the dredged sample (Igbokoda dredged sample) were determined using the British Standard. The physico-mechanical properties (water absorption, density and compressive strength) of blocks produced were evaluated. The dredged sample is classified as a silty material. Seven replacement levels of sharp sand were considered in the study (SS- Sharp Sand and DS – Dredged Sample) was done with constant amount of cement. 1- 85 % DS and 15 % SS, 2- 70 % DS and 30 % SS, 3- 55 % DS and 45 % SS, 4- 50 % DS and 50 % SS, 5- 45 % DS and 55 % SS, 6- 30 % DS and 70 % SS, 7- 15 % DS and 85 % SS and 8 – IS 100 % with cement; 9 – SS 100 % with cement) of different ages (7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days) for the production of blocks. The compressive strength of the blocks produced ranges between 0.52 MPa to 3.0 MPa and considering the mixes, the highest compressive strength was found in mix of 15 % DS and 85 % SS.

Keywords: dredge sample, silt, sharp sand, block, cement

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514 Masonry Blocks with Recycled Aggregates and Recycled Glass

Authors: Pierre Y. Matar, Louay S. El Hassanieh, Marleine F. Bayssary

Abstract:

The demolished concrete is a major component of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the demolished concrete can be used as a substitute of natural aggregates. Another major C&D waste is the flat glass. This glass can be also recycled and used as an aggregate substitute. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of the use of recycled concrete aggregates and recycled glass on the compressive strength and fire resistance of precast concrete masonry blocks. Tests are carried out on four series of blocks whose compositions include different percentages of recycled aggregates and recycled glass and one series of reference blocks whose composition consists of exclusively natural aggregates. The recycled coarse aggregates and recycled glass have 6.3/12.5 mm fraction and the natural aggregates have 0/6.3 mm fraction; no recycled fine aggregates are included in concrete mixes.

Keywords: compressive strength, precast concrete blocks, recycled aggregates, recycled glass

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513 Quality Assessment of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks in Minna, Nigeria

Authors: M. Abdullahi, S. Sadiku, Bashar S. Mohammed, J. I. Aguwa

Abstract:

The properties of hollow sandcrete blocks produced in Minna, Nigeria are presented. Sandcrete block is made of cement, water and sand bound together in certain mix proportions. For the purpose of this work, fifty (50) commercial sandcrete block industries were visited in Minna, Nigeria to obtain block samples and aggregates used for the manufacture, and to also take inventory of the mix composition and the production process. Sieve analysis tests were conduction on the soil sample from various block industries to ascertain their quality to be used for block making. The mix ratios were also investigated. Five (5) nine inches (9’’ or 225mm) blocks were obtained from each block industry and tested for dimensional compliance and compressive strength. The result of test shows that the grading of the sand falls within the limit required by BS 882: 1990. The sand particles generally satisfy the grading requirement of overall grading and also fall in at least one of the classification of coarse grading, medium grading or fine grading. This clearly indicates that the quality of the aggregates used for the production of sandcrete blocks in Minna, Nigeria are of good quality in terms of grading and workable mix can easily be achieved to obtain high quality product. Physical examinations of the block sizes show slight deviation from the standard requirement in NIS 87:2000. Compressive strength of hollow sandcrete blocks in range of 0.12 N/mm2 to 0.54 N/mm2 was obtained which is below the recommendable value of 3.45 N/mm2 for load bearing hollow sandcrete blocks. This indicates that these blocks are below the standard for load-bearing sandcrete blocks and cannot be used as load bearing walling units. The mix composition also indicated low cement content resulting in low compressive strength. Most of the commercial block industries visited do not take curing very serious. Water were only sprinkled ones or twice before the blocks were stacked and made readily available for sale. It is recommended that a mix ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 should be used for the production of sandcrete blocks and proper curing practice should be adhered to. Blocks should also be cured for 14 days before making them available for consumers.

Keywords: compressive strength, dimensions, mix proportions, sandcrete blocks

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512 Strength Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks with Fly Ash and Glass Powder

Authors: Joel Santhosh, N. Bhavani Shankar Rao

Abstract:

Problems associated with construction site have been known for many years. Construction industry has to support a world of continuing population growth and economic development. The rising costs of construction materials and the need to adhere to sustainability, alternative construction techniques and materials are being sought. To increase the applications of concrete paving blocks, greater understanding of products produced with locally available materials and indigenously produced mineral admixtures is essential. In the present investigation, concrete paving blocks may be produced with locally available aggregates, cement, fly ash and waste glass powder as the mineral admixture. The ultimate aim of this work is to ascertain the performance of concrete paving blocks containing fly ash and glass powder and compare it with the performance of conventional concrete paving blocks. Mix design is carried out to form M40 grade of concrete by using IS: 10262: 2009 and specification given by IRC: SP: 63: 2004. The paving blocks are tested in accordance to IS: 15658: 2006. It showed that the partial replacement of cement by fly ash and waste glass powder satisfies the minimum requirement as specified by the Indian standard IS: 15658: 2006 for concrete paving blocks to be used in non traffic, light traffic and medium-heavy traffic areas. The study indicated that fly ash and waste glass powder can effectively be used as cement replacement without substantial change in strength.

Keywords: paving block, fly ash, glass powder, strength, abrasion resistance, durability

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511 Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber-Shauder DWT and SVD

Authors: Assma Azeroual, Karim Afdel, Mohamed El Hajji, Hassan Douzi

Abstract:

Key frame extraction methods select the most representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures. When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.

Keywords: FSDWT, key frame extraction, shot detection, singular value decomposition

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510 A Discrete Element Method-Based Simulation of Toppling Failure Considering Block Interaction

Authors: Hooman Dabirmanesh, Attila M. Zsaki

Abstract:

The toppling failure mode in a rock mass is considerably different from the most common sliding failure type along an existing or an induced slip plane. Block toppling is observed in a rock mass which consists of both a widely-spaced basal cross-joint set and a closely-spaced discontinuity set dipping into the slope. For this case, failure occurs when the structure cannot bear the tensile portion of bending stress, and the columns or blocks overturn by their own weight. This paper presents a particle-based discrete element model of rock blocks subjected to a toppling failure where geometric conditions and interaction among blocks are investigated. A series of parametric studies have been conducted on particles’ size, arrangement and bond contact among of particles which are made the blocks. Firstly, a numerical investigation on a one-block system was verified. Afterward, a slope consisting of multi-blocks was developed to study toppling failure and interaction forces between blocks. The results show that the formation of blocks, especially between the block and basal plane surface, can change the process of failure. The results also demonstrate that the initial configuration of particles used to form the blocks has a significant role in achieving accurate simulation results. The size of particles and bond contacts have a considerable influence to change the progress of toppling failure.

Keywords: block toppling failure, contact interaction, discrete element, particle size, random generation

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509 Study and Analysis of Permeable Articulated Concrete Blocks Pavement: With Reference to Indian Context

Authors: Shrikant Charhate, Gayatri Deshpande

Abstract:

Permeable pavements have significant benefits like managing runoff, infiltration, and carrying traffic over conventional pavements in terms of sustainability and environmental impact. Some of the countries are using this technique, especially at locations where durability and other parameters are of importance in nature; however, sparse work has been done on this concept. In India, this is yet to be adopted. In this work, the progress in the characterization and development of Permeable Articulated Concrete Blocks (PACB) pavement design is described and discussed with reference to Indian conditions. The experimentation and in-depth analysis was carried out considering conditions like soil erosion, water logging, and dust which are significant challenges caused due to impermeability of pavement. Concrete blocks with size 16.5’’x 6.5’’x 7’’ consisting of arch shape (4’’) at beneath and ½” PVC holes for articulation were casted. These blocks were tested for flexural strength. The articulation process was done with nylon ropes forming series of concrete block system. The total spacing between the blocks was kept about 8 to 10% of total area. The hydraulic testing was carried out by placing the articulated blocks with the combination of layers of soil, geotextile, clean angular aggregate. This was done to see the percentage of seepage through the entire system. The experimental results showed that with the shape of concrete block the flexural strength achieved was beyond the permissible limit. Such blocks with the combination could be very useful innovation in Indian conditions and useful at various locations compared to the traditional blocks as an alternative for long term sustainability.

Keywords: connections, geotextile, permeable ACB, pavements, stone base

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508 Optimization Techniques for Microwave Structures

Authors: Malika Ourabia

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A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The discontinuities is characterized using a hybrid spectral/numerical technique. This structure presents an arbitrary number of ports, each one with different orientation and dimensions. This article presents a hybrid method based on multimode contour integral and mode matching techniques. The process is based on segmentation and dividing the structure into key building blocks. We use the multimode contour integral method to analyze the blocks including irregular shape discontinuities. Finally, the multimode scattering matrix of the whole structure can be found by cascading the blocks. Therefore, the new method is suitable for analysis of a wide range of waveguide problems. Therefore, the present approach can be applied easily to the analysis of any multiport junctions and cascade blocks. The accuracy of the method is validated comparing with results for several complex problems found in the literature. CPU times are also included to show the efficiency of the new method proposed.

Keywords: segmentation, s parameters, simulation, optimization

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507 Bending Effect on POF Splitter Performance for Different Thickness of Fiber Cores

Authors: L. S. Supian, Mohd Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Norhana Arsad

Abstract:

Experimental study has been done to study the performance on polymer optical fiber splitter characterization when different bending radii are applied on splitters with different fiber cores. The splitters with different cores pair are attached successively to splitter platform of ellipse-shape geometrical blocks of several bending radii. A force is exerted upon the blocks thus the splitter in order to encourage the splitting of energy between the two fibers. The aim of this study is to investigate which fiber core pair gives the optimum performance that goes with each bending radius in order to develop an effective splitter.

Keywords: splitter, macro-bending, cores, geometrical blocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
506 The Use of Regional Blocks Versus IV Opioid Analgesics for Acute Traumatic Pain Management in the Emergency Department

Authors: Lajeesh Jabbar, Shibu T. Varghese

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Being under pain is a very distressing factor that it prolongs the healing of any kind of trauma and add to the post traumatic stressful state. Alleviating the pain from acute traumatic conditions like fracture, degloving injury etc will help in faster recovery and also decrease the incidence of post traumatic stress disorder. Most of the emergency departments in INDIA are using IV opioid analgesics to relieve the patient from pain in cases of acute traumatic injuries. None of the Emergency Departments practice regional blocks in the country. In this study, we are comparing the efficacy of Regional Blocks in relieving the pain in lower limb fractures versus the use of IV analgesics for the same in the emergency department. The site of study is Malabar Institute Of Medical Sciences in Calicut in Kerala in India and is a place which receives approximately 10-20 traumatic fracture cases per day. The fracture sites used for the study purpose are femur fracture and phalangeal fractures.

Keywords: regional blocks, IV analgesia, acute traumatic pain, femur fractures, phalanx fractures

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505 Speeding-up Gray-Scale FIC by Moments

Authors: Eman A. Al-Hilo, Hawraa H. Al-Waelly

Abstract:

In this work, fractal compression (FIC) technique is introduced based on using moment features to block indexing the zero-mean range-domain blocks. The moment features have been used to speed up the IFS-matching stage. Its moments ratio descriptor is used to filter the domain blocks and keep only the blocks that are suitable to be IFS matched with tested range block. The results of tests conducted on Lena picture and Cat picture (256 pixels, resolution 24 bits/pixel) image showed a minimum encoding time (0.89 sec for Lena image and 0.78 of Cat image) with appropriate PSNR (30.01dB for Lena image and 29.8 of Cat image). The reduction in ET is about 12% for Lena and 67% for Cat image.

Keywords: fractal gray level image, fractal compression technique, iterated function system, moments feature, zero-mean range-domain block

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504 Object-Oriented Program Comprehension by Identification of Software Components and Their Connexions

Authors: Abdelhak-Djamel Seriai, Selim Kebir, Allaoua Chaoui

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During the last decades, object oriented program- ming has been massively used to build large-scale systems. However, evolution and maintenance of such systems become a laborious task because of the lack of object oriented programming to offer a precise view of the functional building blocks of the system. This lack is caused by the fine granularity of classes and objects. In this paper, we use a post object-oriented technology namely software components, to propose an approach based on the identification of the functional building blocks of an object oriented system by analyzing its source code. These functional blocks are specified as software components and the result is a multi-layer component based software architecture.

Keywords: software comprehension, software component, object oriented, software architecture, reverse engineering

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503 A Linearly Scalable Family of Swapped Networks

Authors: Richard Draper

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A supercomputer can be constructed from identical building blocks which are small parallel processors connected by a network referred to as the local network. The routers have unused ports which are used to interconnect the building blocks. These connections are referred to as the global network. The address space has a global and a local component (g, l). The conventional way to connect the building blocks is to connect (g, l) to (g’,l). If there are K blocks, this requires K global ports in each router. If a block is of size M, the result is a machine with KM routers having diameter two. To increase the size of the machine to 2K blocks, each router connects to only half of the other blocks. The result is a larger machine but also one with greater diameter. This is a crude description of how the network of the CRAY XC® is designed. In this paper, a family of interconnection networks using routers with K global and M local ports is defined. Coordinates are (c,d, p) and the global connections are (c,d,p)↔(c’,p,d) which swaps p and d. The network is denoted D3(K,M) and is called a Swapped Dragonfly. D3(K,M) has KM2 routers and has diameter three, regardless of the size of K. To produce a network of size KM2 conventionally, diameter would be an increasing function of K. The family of Swapped Dragonflies has other desirable properties: 1) D3(K,M) scales linearly in K and quadratically in M. 2) If L < K, D3(K,M) contains many copies of D3(L,M). 3) If L < M, D3(K,M) contains many copies of D3(K,L). 4) D3(K,M) can perform an all-to-all exchange in KM2+KM time which is only slightly more than the time to do a one-to-all. This paper makes several contributions. It is the first time that a swap has been used to define a linearly scalable family of networks. Structural properties of this new family of networks are thoroughly examined. A synchronizing packet header is introduced. It specifies the path to be followed and it makes it possible to define highly parallel communication algorithm on the network. Among these is an all-to-all exchange in time KM2+KM. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the swap properties of the network of the CRAY XC® and D3(K,16) are compared.

Keywords: all-to-all exchange, CRAY XC®, Dragonfly, interconnection network, packet switching, swapped network, topology

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502 Using Thinking Blocks to Encourage the Use of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Students When Solving Problems on Fractions

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdullah, Nur Liyana Zainal Abidin, Mahani Mokhtar

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Problem-solving is an activity which can encourage students to use Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Learning fractions can be challenging for students since empirical evidence shows that students experience difficulties in solving the fraction problems. However, visual methods can help students to overcome the difficulties since the methods help students to make meaningful visual representations and link abstract concepts in Mathematics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any changes in students’ HOTS at the four highest levels when learning the fractions by using Thinking Blocks. 54 students participated in a quasi-experiment using pre-tests and post-tests. Students were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=32) received a treatment to improve the students’ HOTS and the other group acted as the control group (n=22) which used a traditional method. Data were analysed by using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that during post-test, students who used Thinking Blocks showed significant improvement in their HOTS level (p=0.000). In addition, the results of post-test also showed that the students’ performance improved significantly at the four highest levels of HOTS; namely, application (p=0.001), analyse (p=0.000), evaluate (p=0.000), and create (p=0.000). Therefore, it can be concluded that Thinking Blocks can effectively encourage students to use the four highest levels of HOTS which consequently enable them to solve fractions problems successfully.

Keywords: Thinking Blocks, Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), fractions, problem solving

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
501 Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Blocks Study from Two High-Density Panels and a Combined Panel in Nelore Beef Cattle

Authors: Priscila A. Bernardes, Marcos E. Buzanskas, Luciana C. A. Regitano, Ricardo V. Ventura, Danisio P. Munari

Abstract:

Genotype imputation has been used to reduce genomic selections costs. In order to increase haplotype detection accuracy in methods that considers the linkage disequilibrium, another approach could be used, such as combined genotype data from different panels. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks in two high-density panels before and after the imputation to a combined panel in Nelore beef cattle. A total of 814 animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (IHD), wherein 93 animals (23 bulls and 70 progenies) were also genotyped with the Affymetrix Axion Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array Plate (AHD). After the quality control, 809 IHD animals (509,107 SNPs) and 93 AHD (427,875 SNPs) remained for analyses. The combined genotype panel (CP) was constructed by merging both panels after quality control, resulting in 880,336 SNPs. Imputation analysis was conducted using software FImpute v.2.2b. The reference (CP) and target (IHD) populations consisted of 23 bulls and 786 animals, respectively. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks studies were carried out for IHD, AHD, and imputed CP. Two linkage disequilibrium measures were considered; the correlation coefficient between alleles from two loci (r²) and the |D’|. Both measures were calculated using the software PLINK. The haplotypes' blocks were estimated using the software Haploview. The r² measurement presented different decay when compared to |D’|, wherein AHD and IHD had almost the same decay. For r², even with possible overestimation by the sample size for AHD (93 animals), the IHD presented higher values when compared to AHD for shorter distances, but with the increase of distance, both panels presented similar values. The r² measurement is influenced by the minor allele frequency of the pair of SNPs, which can cause the observed difference comparing the r² decay and |D’| decay. As a sum of the combinations between Illumina and Affymetrix panels, the CP presented a decay equivalent to a mean of these combinations. The estimated haplotype blocks detected for IHD, AHD, and CP were 84,529, 63,967, and 140,336, respectively. The IHD were composed by haplotype blocks with mean of 137.70 ± 219.05kb, the AHD with mean of 102.10kb ± 155.47, and the CP with mean of 107.10kb ± 169.14. The majority of the haplotype blocks of these three panels were composed by less than 10 SNPs, with only 3,882 (IHD), 193 (AHD) and 8,462 (CP) haplotype blocks composed by 10 SNPs or more. There was an increase in the number of chromosomes covered with long haplotypes when CP was used as well as an increase in haplotype coverage for short chromosomes (23-29), which can contribute for studies that explore haplotype blocks. In general, using CP could be an alternative to increase density and number of haplotype blocks, increasing the probability to obtain a marker close to a quantitative trait loci of interest.

Keywords: Bos taurus indicus, decay, genotype imputation, single nucleotide polymorphism

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500 Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Compressed Earth Blocks Stabilized with Ca(OH)2 on Sub-Humid Warm Weather

Authors: D. Castillo T., Luis F. Jimenez

Abstract:

The compressed earth blocks (CEBs) constitute an alternative as a constructive element for building homes in regions with high levels of poverty and marginalization. Such is the case of Southeastern Mexico, where the population, predominantly indigene, build their houses with feeble materials like wood and palm, vulnerable to extreme weather in the area, because they do not have the financial resources to acquire concrete blocks. There are several advantages that can provide BTCs compared to traditional vibro-compressed concrete blocks, such as the availability of materials, low manufacturing cost and reduced CO2 emissions to the atmosphere for not be subjected to a burning process. However, to improve its mechanical properties and resistance to adverse weather conditions in terms of humidity and temperature of the sub-humid climate zones, it requires the use of a chemical stabilizer; in this case we chose Ca(OH)2. The stabilization method Eades-Grim was employed, according to ASTM C977-03. This method measures the optimum amount of lime required to stabilize the soil, increasing the pH to 12.4 or higher. The minimum amount of lime required in this experiment was 1% and the maximum was 10%. The employed material was clay unconsolidated low to medium plasticity (CL type according to the Unified Soil Classification System). Based on these results, the CEBs manufacturing process was determined. The obtained blocks were from 10x15x30 cm using a mixture of soil, water and lime in different proportions. Later these blocks were put to dry outdoors and subjected to several physical and mechanical tests, such as compressive strength, absorption and drying shrinkage. The results were compared with the limits established by the Mexican Standard NMX-C-404-ONNCCE-2005 for the construction of housing walls. In this manner an alternative and sustainable material was obtained for the construction of rural households in the region, with better security conditions, comfort and cost.

Keywords: calcium hydroxide, chemical stabilization, compressed earth blocks, sub-humid warm weather

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499 Intraoperative Inter Pectoral and Sub Serratus Nerve Blocks Reduce Post Operative Opiate Requirements in Breast Augmentation Surgery

Authors: Conor Mccartney, Mark Lee

Abstract:

Background: An essential component in ambulatory breast augmentation surgery is good analgesia. The demographic undergoing this operation is usually fit, low risk with few comorbidities. These patients do not require long-term hospitalization and do not want to spend excessive time in the hospital for financial reasons. Opiate analgesia can have significant side effects such as nausea, vomiting and sedation. Reducing volumes of postoperative opiates allows faster ambulation and discharge from day surgery. We have developed two targeted nerve blocks that can be applied by the operating surgeon in a matter of seconds under direct vision, not requiring imaging. Anecdotally we found that these targeted nerve blocks reduced opiate requirements and allowed accelerated discharge and faster return to normal activities. This was then tested in a prospective randomized, double-blind trial. Methods: 20 patients were randomized into saline (n = 10) or Ropivicaine adrenaline solution (n = 10). The operating surgeon and anesthetist were blinded to the solution. All patients were closely followed up and morphine equivalents were accurately recorded. Follow-up pain scores were recorded using the Overall Benefit of Analgesia pain questionnaire. Findings: The Ropivicaine nerve blocks significantly reduced opiate requirements postoperatively (p<0.05). Pain scores were significantly decreased in the study group (p<0.05). There were no side effects attributable to the nerve blocks. Conclusions: Intraoperative targeted nerve blocks significantly reduce postoperative opiate requirements in breast augmentation surgery. This results in faster recovery and higher patient satisfaction.

Keywords: breast augmentation, nerve block, postoperative recovery, opiate analgesia, inter pectoral block, sub serratus block

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
498 Properties and Microstructure of Scaled-Up MgO Concrete Blocks Incorporating Fly Ash or Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

Authors: L. Pu, C. Unluer

Abstract:

MgO cements have the potential to sequester CO2 in construction products, and can be partial or complete replacement of PC in concrete. Construction block is a promising application for reactive MgO cements. Main advantages of blocks are: (i) suitability for sequestering CO2 due to their initially porous structure; (ii) lack of need for in-situ treatment as carbonation can take place during fabrication; and (iii) high potential for commercialization. Both strength gain and carbon sequestration of MgO cements depend on carbonation process. Fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) are pozzolanic material and are proved to improve many of the performance characteristics of the concrete, such as strength, workability, permeability, durability and corrosion resistance. A very limited amount of work has been reported on the production of MgO blocks on a large scale so far. A much more extensive study, wherein blocks with different mix design is needed to verify the feasibility of commercial production. The changes in the performance of the samples were evaluated by compressive strength testing. The properties of the carbonation products were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/ field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and the degree of carbonation was obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results of this study enabled the understanding the relationship between lab-scale samples and scale-up blocks based on their mechanical performance and microstructure. Results indicate that for both scaled-up and lab-scale samples, MgO samples always had the highest strength results, followed by MgO-fly ash samples and MgO-GGBS had relatively lowest strength. The lower strength of MgO with fly ash/GGBS samples at early stage is related to the relatively slow hydration process of pozzolanic materials. Lab-scale cubic samples were observed to have higher strength results than scaled-up samples. The large size of the scaled-up samples made it more difficult to let CO2 to reach inner part of the samples and less carbonation products formed. XRD, TGA and FESEM/EDX results indicate the existence of brucite and HMCs in MgO samples, M-S-H, hydrotalcite in the MgO-fly ash samples and C-S-H, hydrotalctie in the MgO-GGBS samples. Formation of hydration products (M-S-H, C-S-H, hydrotalcite) and carbonation products (hydromagnecite, dypingite) increased with curing duration, which is the reason of increasing strength. This study verifies the advantage of large-scale MgO blocks over common PC blocks and the feasibility of commercial production of MgO blocks.

Keywords: reactive MgO, fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, carbonation, CO₂

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497 White-Rot Hymenomycetes as Oil Palm Log Treatments: Accelerating Biodegradation of Basal Stem Rot-Affected Oil Palm Stumps

Authors: Yuvarani Naidu, Yasmeen Siddiqui, Mohd Yusof Rafii , Abu Seman Idris

Abstract:

Sustainability of oil palm production in Southeast Asia, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, is jeopardized by Ganoderma boninense, the fungus which causes basal stem rot (BSR) in oil palm. The root contact with unattended infected debris left in the plantations during replanting is known to be the primary source of inoculum. Abiding by the law, potentially effective technique of managing Ganoderma infected oil palm debris is deemed necessary because of the zero-burning policy in Malaysian oil palm plantations. White-rot hymenomycetes antagonistic to Ganoderma sp were selected to test their efficacy as log treatments in degrading Ganoderma infected oil palm logs and to minimize the survival of Ganoderma inoculum. Decay rate in terms of mass loss was significantly higher after the application of solid-state cultivation (SSC) of Trametes lactinea FBW (64% ±1.2), followed by Pycnoporus sanguineus FBR (55% ±1.7) in infected log block tissues, after 10 months of treatments. The degradation pattern was clearly distinguished between the treated and non-treated log blocks with the developed SSC formulations. The control infected log blocks showed the highest, whereas infected log blocks treated with either P. sanguineus FBR or T. lactinea FBW SSC formulations exhibited statistically lowest number of Ganoderma spp. recovery on Ganoderma Selective Medium (GSM), after 8 months of treatment. Out of that, the lowest recovery of Ganoderma spp. was reported in infected log blocks inoculated with the strain T. lactinea FBW (21% ± 0.9) followed by P. sanguineus FBR (33% ± 2.2), after 8 months, Further, no recovery of Ganoderma was noticeable, 10 months after treatment applications in log blocks treated with both of the formulations. This is the first nursery-base study to substantiate the initial colonization of white-rot hymenomycetes on oil palm log blocks previously infected with BSR pathogen, G. boninense. The present study has indicated that log blocks treatment with white-rot hymenomycetes significantly affected the mass loss of diseased and healthy log block tissues. This study provides a basis of biotechnological approaches inefficient degradation of oil palm-generated crop debris, under natural conditions with an ultimate aim of reducing the Ganoderma inoculum under heavy BSR infection pressure in eco-friendly manner.

Keywords: basal stem rot disease, ganoderma boninense, oil palm, white-rot fungi

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496 Effect pH on Chemical and Physical Properties of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of pH on chemical, structural, and functional properties of Fetta cheese, and to relate changes in structure to changes in cheese unctionality. Fetta cheese was obtained from a cheese-production facility and stored at 4°C. Ten days after manufacture, the cheese was cut into blocks that were vacuum-packaged and stored for 4 d at 4°C. Cheese blocks were then high-pressure injected one, three, or five times with a 20% (wt/wt) glucono-δ-lactone solution. Successive injections were performed 24 h apart. Cheese blocks were then analyzed after 40 d of storage at 4°C. Acidulant injection decreased cheese pH from 5.3 in the uninjected cheese to 4.7 after five injections. Decreased pH increased the content of soluble calcium and slightly decreased the total calcium content of cheese. At the highest level, injection of acidulant promoted syneresis. Thus, after five injections, the moisture content of cheese decreased from 34 to 31%, which esulted in decreased cheese weight. Lowered cheese pH, 4.7 compared with 5.3, also resulted in contraction of the protein matrix. Acidulant injection decreased cheese hardness and cohesiveness, and the cheese became more crumbly.

Keywords: calcium, high-pressure injection, protein matrix, syneresis

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495 Ceramic Ware Waste Potential as Co-Ballast in Dense Masonry Unit Production

Authors: A. A. Ajayi-Banji, M. A. Adegbile, T. D. Akpenpuun, J. Bello, O. Omobowale, D. A. Jenyo

Abstract:

Ceramic ware waste applicability as coarse aggregate was considered in this study for dense masonry unit production. The waste was crushed into 1.4 mm particle size and mixed with natural fine aggregate in the ratio 2:3. Portland ordinary cement, aggregate, and water mix ratio was 1:7:0.5. Masonry units produced were cured for 7, 21 and 28 days prior to compressive test. The result shows that curing age have a significant effect on all the compressive strength indices inspected except for Young’s modulus. Crushing force and the compressive strength of the ceramic-natural fine aggregate blocks increased by 11.7 – 54.7% and 11.6 – 59.2% respectively. The highest ceramic-natural fine block compressive strength at yield and peak, 4.97 MPa, was obtained after 21 days curing age. Ceramic aggregate introduced into the dense blocks improved the suitability of the blocks for construction purposes.

Keywords: ceramic ware waste, co-ballast, dense masonry unit, compressive strength, curing time

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
494 High Temperature Behaviour of Various Limestone Used in Heritage Buildings at Material and Block Scales

Authors: Ayoub Daoudi, Javad Eslami, Anne-Lise Beaucour, Martin Vigroux, Albert Noumowé

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As a fact, many cultural heritage masonry buildings have undergone violent fires during their history. In order to investigate the high temperature behaviour of stone masonry, six French limestones were heated to 600 °C at a rate of 9 °C/min. The main focus is the comparison between the high temperature behaviour of stones at the material and at the structural scale. In order to evaluate the risk of spalling, the tests have been carried out on the stone blocks (12x30x30 cm) instrumented with thermocouples and subjected to an unidirectional heating on one face. Thereafter, visual assessments and non-destructive measurements (dynamic elastic modulus) performed on blocks demonstrate a different behaviour from what was observed at the material scale. Finally, a series of thermo-mechanical computations, using finite element method, allowed us to highlight the difference between the behaviour of stones at material and block scales.

Keywords: limestones, hight temperature behaviour, damage, thermo-mechanical modeling, material and blocks scales, color change

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493 Incorporation of Safety into Design by Safety Cube

Authors: Mohammad Rajabalinejad

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Safety is often seen as a requirement or a performance indicator through the design process, and this does not always result in optimally safe products or systems. This paper suggests integrating the best safety practices with the design process to enrich the exploration experience for designers and add extra values for customers. For this purpose, the commonly practiced safety standards and design methods have been reviewed and their common blocks have been merged forming Safety Cube. Safety Cube combines common blocks for design, hazard identification, risk assessment and risk reduction through an integral approach. An example application presents the use of Safety Cube for design of machinery.

Keywords: safety, safety cube, product, system, machinery, design

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492 Synthesis of Cardanol Oil Building Blocks for Polymer Synthesis

Authors: Sylvain Caillol

Abstract:

Uncertainty in terms of price and availability of petroleum, in addition to global political and institutional tendencies toward the principles of sustainable development, urge chemical industry to a sustainable chemistry and particularly the use of renewable resources in order to synthesize biobased chemicals and products. We propose a platform approach for the synthesis of various building blocks from cardanol in one or two-steps syntheses. Cardanol, which is a natural phenol, is issued from Cashew Nutshell Liquid (CNSL), a non-edible renewable resource, co-produced from cashew industry in large commercial volumes. Cardanol is particularly interesting to replace fossil aromatic groups in polymers and materials. Our team studied various routes for the synthesis of cardanol-derived biobased building blocks used after that in polymer syntheses. For example, we used phenolation to dimerize/oligomerize cardanol to propose increase functionality of cardanol. Thio-ene was used to synthesize new reactive amines. Epoxidation and (meth)acrylation were also used to insert oxirane or (meth)acrylate groups in order to synthesize polymers and materials.

Keywords: cardanol, cashew nutshell liquid, epoxy, vinyl ester, latex, emulsion

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
491 Implementation of Complete Management Practices in Managing the Cocoa Pod Borer

Authors: B. Saripah, A. Alias

Abstract:

Cocoa Theobroma cacao (Linnaeus) (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) is subjected to be infested by various numbers of insect pests, and Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is the most serious pest of cocoa in Malaysia. The pest was indigenous to the South East Asia. Several control measures have been implemented and the chemicals have been a major approach if not unilateral, in the management of CPB. Despite extensive use of insecticides, CPB continues to cause an unacceptable level of damage; thus, the combination of several control approaches should be sought. The study was commenced for 12 months at three blocks; Block 18C with complete management practices which include insecticide application, pruning, fertilization and frequent harvesting, Block 17C was treated with frequent harvesting at intervals of 7-8 days, and Block 19C was served as control block. The results showed that the mean numbers of CPB eggs were recorded higher in Block 17C compared with Block 18C in all sampling occasions. Block 18C shows the lowest mean number of CPB eggs in both sampling plots, outside and core plots and it was found significantly different (p ≤ 0. 05) compared to the other blocks. The mean number of CPB eggs was fluctuated throughout sampling occasions, the lowest mean number of eggs was recorded in January (17C) and November (18C), while the highest was recorded in April (17C) and December 2012 (18C). Frequent spraying with insecticides at the adjacent block (18C) helps in reducing CPB eggs in the control block (Block 19C), although there was no spraying was implemented Block 19C. In summary, the combination of complete management practices at Block 18C seems to have some effect on the CPB population at Blocks 17 and 19C because all blocks are adjacent to each other.

Keywords: cocoa, theobroma cacao, cocoa pod borer, conopomorpha cramerella

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
490 Object Recognition Using Boosted DenseNet with Reinforced Dense Blocks

Authors: Sourour Brahimi, Najib Ben Aoun, Chokri Ben Amar

Abstract:

Recently, more and more attention has been made to the computer vision field. Especially we are interested in object recognition task because it has become the center of interest for numerous researchers around the world. The effectiveness of the deep learning approaches in recognizing objects has encouraged recent works to follow it. In this paper, we introduce a very deep learning approach for object recognition, namely Boosted DenseNet. Our proposed method uses the DenseNet architecture boosted by adding reinforced dense blocks and boosted convolutional layers. These reinforced dense blocks consist of similar convolutional layer numbers as DenseNet boosted by conducting Multi-Bias Nonlinear Activation, Batch Normalization, and Concatenated Rectified Linear Unit functions. Besides, rather than using transition layers, our Boosted DenseNet is improved by applying boosted convolutional layers, which makes to keep the number of parameters with a deeper network. In addition, our approach has been reinforced by conducting Generalizing Pooling layer and spatial pyramid pooling technique. Generalizing pooling, which combines pooling operations within a hierarchical tree structure, replaces the max pooling layer in reinforced dense blocks. Then, the Spatial Pyramid Pooling was inserted into our network in order to remove the constraint of the fixed-size input image. Experiments on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and Pascal VOC 2007 have shown the effectiveness of our proposed object recognition approach.

Keywords: deep learning, reinforced dense block, boosted convolutional layer, spatial pyramid pooling, object recognition

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