Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 236

Search results for: crystals

236 Analysis of Scattering Behavior in the Cavity of Phononic Crystals with Archimedean Tilings

Authors: Yi-Hua Chen, Hsiang-Wen Tang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen


The defect mode of two-dimensional phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings was explored in the present study. Finite element method and supercell method were used to obtain dispersion relation of phononic crystals. The simulations of the acoustic wave propagation within phononic crystals are demonstrated. Around the cavity which is created by removing several cylinders in the perfect Archimedean tilings, whispering-gallery mode (WGM) can be observed. The effects of the cavity geometry on the WGM modes are investigated. The WGM modes with high Q-factor and high cavity pressure can be obtained by phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings.

Keywords: defect mode, Archimedean tilings, phononic crystals, whispering-gallery modes

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235 Thiourea: Single Crystal with Non Linear Optical Characteristics

Authors: Kishor C. Poria, Deepak Adroja, Arvind Bajaj


During the last few decades, the growth of single crystals has attained enormous importance for both academic research and technology. Single crystals are pillars of modern technology. In recent emerging trends of photonics and optoelectronics technology, there has been increased need for organic and semi organic materials for Non-Linear Optical (NLO) applications. The paper dealt with the initiation of good single crystals of thiourea and metal doped thiourea. The authors have successfully grown thiourea (pure) and metal doped thiourea crystals using relatively simple and inexpensive slow evaporation of aqueous solution technique. Pure thiourea crystals were grown with different light intensities and frequencies as there growth conditions. Metals (Cu, Co, Ni, Fe) doped crystals were grown using a simple evaporation technique. The paper explains growth methods and associated grown parameters in detail. The average size of the crystal is varied in size from 40 mm x 1mm to 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm to 0.5 mm. Crystals obtained are hexagonal, tetragonal, and rectangular in shape with different optical qualities. All grown crystals are characterized using X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Ultra Violet Visible analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry. Their non-linear optical characteristics were determined by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and their Laser Dispersive analysis. The grown crystals are characterized using Nd:YAG laser and the highest conversion efficiency of the signal pass light are calculated. It shows 58 % of standard values for KDP crystals. All results are summarized in this work.

Keywords: crystal, metal-doped thiourea, non-linear optical, NLO, thiourea

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234 Growth and Characterization of Bis-Thiourea Nickel Barium Chloride Single Crystals

Authors: Rakesh Hajiyani, Chetan Chauhan, Harshkant Jethva, Mihir Joshi


Metal bis-thiourea type organo-metallic crystals are popular as non-linear optical materials. Bis-thiourea nickel barium chloride was synthesized and crystals were grown by slow aqueous solvent evaporation technique. The transparent and colorless crystals having maximum dimensions of 13 mm x 8 mm x 2.2 mm were obtained. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the content of nickel and barium in the grown crystals. The powder XRD analysis suggested orthorhombic crystal structure with unit cell parameters as: a= 9.70 Å, b= 10.68 Å and c= 17.95 Å. The FTIR spectroscopy study confirmed the presence of various functional groups. The UV-vis spectroscopy study indicated that the crystals were transparent in the visible region with 90% transmittance level further optical parameters were studied. From the TGA it was found that the crystals remained stable up to 170 0C and then decomposed through two decomposition stages. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations of dielectric constant, dielectric loss were studied with frequency. It was found that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decreased as the frequency of applied field increased. The results are discussed.

Keywords: crystal growth, dielectric study, optical parameters, organo-metallic crystals, powder xrd, slow evaporation technique, TGA

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233 Study of Transport Phenomena in Photonic Crystals with Correlated Disorder

Authors: Samira Cherid, Samir Bentata, Feyza Zahira Meghoufel, Yamina Sefir, Sabria Terkhi, Fatima Bendahma, Bouabdellah Bouadjemi, Ali Zitouni


Using the transfer-matrix technique and the Kronig Penney model, we numerically and analytically investigate the effect of short-range correlated disorder in random dimer model (RDM) on transmission properties of light in one dimension photonic crystals made of three different materials. Such systems consist of two different structures randomly distributed along the growth direction, with the additional constraint that one kind of these layers appears in pairs. It is shown that the one-dimensional random dimer photonic crystals support two types of extended modes. By shifting of the dimer resonance toward the host fundamental stationary resonance state, we demonstrate the existence of the ballistic response in these systems.

Keywords: photonic crystals, disorder, correlation, transmission

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232 Rare Earth Doped Alkali Halide Crystals for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Application

Authors: Pooja Seth, Shruti Aggarwal


The Europium (Eu) doped (0.02-0.1 wt %) lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal in the form of multicrystalline sheet was gown by the edge defined film fed growth (EFG) technique. Crystals were grown in argon gas atmosphere using graphite crucible and stainless steel die. The systematic incorporation of Eu inside the host LiF lattice was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve was recorded on annealed (AN) crystals after irradiation with a gamma dose of 15 Gy. The effect of different concentration of Eu in enhancing the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of LiF was studied. The normalized peak height of the Eu-doped LiF crystal was nearly 12 times that of the LiF crystals. The optimized concentration of Eu in LiF was found to be 0.05wt% at which maximum TL intensity was observed with main TL peak positioned at 185 °C. At higher concentration TL intensity decreases due to the formation of precipitates in the form of clusters or aggregates. The nature of the energy traps in Eu doped LiF was analysed through glow curve deconvolution. The trap depth was found to be in the range of 0.2 – 0.5 eV. These results showed that doping with Eu enhances the TL intensity by creating more defect sites for capturing of electron and holes during irradiation which might be useful for dosimetry application.

Keywords: thermoluminescence, defects, gamma radiation, crystals

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
231 Optical Characterization of Anisotropic Thiophene-Phenylene Co-Oligomer Micro Crystals by Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry

Authors: Christian Röling, Elena Y. Poimanova, Vladimir V. Bruevich


Here we demonstrate a non-destructive optical technique to localize and characterize single crystals of semiconductive organic materials – Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry. With a combination of microscopy and ellipsometry, it is possible to characterize even micro-sized thin film crystals on plane surface regarding anisotropy, optical properties, crystalline domains and thickness. The semiconducting thiophene-phenylene co-oligomer 1,4-bis(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzene (dHex-TTPTT) crystals were grown by solvent based self-assembly technique on silicon substrate with 300 nm thermally silicon dioxide. The ellipsometric measurements were performed with an Ep4-SE (Accurion). In an ellipsometric high-contrast image of the complete sample, we have localized high-quality single crystals. After demonstrating the uniaxial anisotropy of the crystal by using Müller-Matrix imaging ellipsometry, we determined the optical axes by rotating the sample and performed spectroscopic measurements (λ = 400-700 nm) in 5 nm intervals. The optical properties were described by using a Lorentz term in the Ep4-Model. After determining the dispersion of the crystals, we converted a recorded Delta and Psi-map into a 2D thickness image. Based on a quantitative analysis of the resulting thickness map, we have calculated the height of a molecular layer (3.49 nm).

Keywords: anisotropy, ellipsometry, SCFET, thin film

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230 Growth of Struvite Crystals in Synthetic Urine Using Magnesium Nitrate

Authors: Reneiloe Seodigeng, John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


Urine diversion toilets have become popular as a means of solving the challenges in sanitation. As a result, the source-separated urine must be adequately treated so that it can be disposed of safely and valuable struvite can be extracted for use as fertilizer. In this study, synthetic urine was prepared, and struvite crystallisation experiments carried out using magnesium nitrate. The effect of residence time on crystal growth was studied. At residence time of 10, 30 and 60 minutes, mean particle sizes were 17, 34 and 53 µm showing that with higher residence times, larger crystal sizes can be achieved. SEM analysis of the crystal showed that the resultant crystals had the typical morphology of struvite crystals.

Keywords: struvite, magnesium nitrate, crystallisation, urine treatment

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229 Synthesis, Spectral, Thermal, Optical and Dielectric Studies of Some Organic Arylidene Derivatives

Authors: S. Sathiyamoorthi, P. Srinivasan, K. Suganya Devi


Arylidene derivatives are the subclass of chalcone derivatives. Chalcone derivatives are studied widely for the past decade because of its nonlinearity. To seek new organic group of crystals which suit for fabrication of optical devices, three-member organic arylidene crystals were synthesized by using Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction. Good quality crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. Functional groups were identified by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Optical transparency and optical band gap were determined by UV-Vis-IR studies. Thermal stability and melting point were calculated using TGA and DSC. Variation of dielectric loss and dielectric constant with frequency were calculated by dielectric measurement.

Keywords: DSC and TGA studies, nonlinear optic studies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR spectra

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228 Interesting Behavior of Non-Thermal Plasma Photonic Crystals

Authors: A. Mousavi, S. Sadegzadeh


In this research, the effect of non-thermal micro plasma with non-Maxwellian distribution function on the one dimensional plasma photonic crystals containing alternate plasma-dielectric layers, has been studied. By using Kronig Penny model, the dispersion relation of electromagnetic modes for such a periodic structure is obtained. In this study we take two plasma photonic crystals with different dielectric layers: the first one with Silicon monoxide named PPCI, and the second one with Tellurium dioxide named PPCII. The effects of the plasma layer thickness and the material of the dielectric layer on the plasma photonic crystal band gaps have been illustrated in the dispersion relation and the group velocity figures. Results revealed that in such a system, the non-thermal plasma exerts stronger limit on the wave’s propagation. In another word, for the non-thermal plasma photonic crystals (NPPC), there are two distinct regions in the dispersion plot. The upper region consists of alternate band gaps in such a way that both width and length of the bands decrease gradually as the band gaps order increases. Whereas in the lower region where v_ph > 20 c (for PPCI), waves will not be allowed to propagate.

Keywords: band gap, dispersion relation, non-thermal plasma, plasma photonic crystal

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227 Analytical Study Of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method

Authors: N. R. Mohamad, H. Ono, H. Haroon, A. Salleh, N. M. Z. Hashim


In this research, we have studied and analyzed the modulation of light and liquid crystal in HPDLCs using Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) method. HPDLCs are modeled as a mixture of polymer and liquid crystals (LCs) that categorized as an anisotropic medium. FDTD method is directly solves Maxwell’s equation with less approximation, so this method can analyze more flexible and general approach for the arbitrary anisotropic media. As the results from FDTD simulation, the highest diffraction efficiency occurred at ±19 degrees (Bragg angle) using p polarization incident beam to Bragg grating, Q > 10 when the pitch is 1µm. Therefore, the liquid crystal is assumed to be aligned parallel to the grating constant vector during these parameters.

Keywords: birefringence, diffraction efficiency, finite domain time difference, nematic liquid crystals

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226 Effect of Synthesis Parameters on Crystal Size and Perfection of Mordenite and Analcime

Authors: Zehui Du, Chaiwat Prapainainar, Paisan Kongkachuichay, Paweena Prapainainar


The aim of this work was to obtain small crystalline size and high crystallinity of mordenites and analcimes, by modifying the aging time, agitation, water content, crystallization temperature and crystallization time. Two different hydrothermal methods were studied. Both methods used Na2SiO3 as the silica source, NaAlO2 as the aluminum source, and NaOH as the alkali source. The first method used HMI as the template while the second method did not use the template. Mordenite crystals with spherical shape and bimodal in size of about 1 and 5 µm were obtained from the first method using conditions of 24 hr aging time, 170°C and 24 hr crystallization. Modernites with high crystallinity were formed using agitation system in the crystallization process. It was also found that the aging time of 2 hr and 24 hr did not much affect the formation of mordenite crystals. Analcime crystals were formed in spherical shape and facet on surface with the size between 13-15 µm by the second method using the conditions of 30 minutes aging time, 170°C and 24 hr crystallization without calcination. By increasing water content, the crystallization process was slowed down and resulted in smaller analcime crystals. Larger size of analcime crystals were observed when the samples were calcined at 300°C and 580°C. Higher calcination temperature led to higher crystal growth and resulted in larger crystal size. Finally, mordenite and analcime was used as fillers in zeolite/Nafion composite membrane to solve the fuel cross over problem in direct alcohol fuel cell.

Keywords: analcime, hydrothermal synthesis, mordenite, zeolite

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225 Optical Characterization of Erbium-Mixed Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks


The structural characterization of silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) have been carried out using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm. Erbium trichloride was added to silicon nano crystals using a simple chemical procedure. Erbium is useful in this context because it has a narrow emission band at ⋍1536 nm which corresponds to a standard optical telecommunication wavelength. The optical properties of SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples exhibit an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that arise from radiative recombination of Si. Erbium-mixed SiNCs also shows a weak PL emission peak at ⋍1536 nm that attributed to the intra-4f transition in erbium ions. The intensity of the PL peak of Si in erbium-mixed SiNCs is increased in the intensity up to ×3 as compared to pure SiNCs. It was observed that intensity of 1536 nm peak decreased dramatically in the presence of silicon nano crystals and the PL emission peak of silicon nano crystals is increased. Therefore, the resulted data present that the energy transfer from erbium ions to SiNCs due to the chemical mixing method which used in this work.

Keywords: Silicon Nanocrystals (SiNCs), Erbium Ion, photoluminescence, energy transfer

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224 Structural, Magnetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Iridium Double Perovskites with Ir⁵⁺

Authors: Mihai I. Sturza, Laura T. Corredor, Kaustuv Manna, Gizem A. Cansever, Tushar Dey, Andrey Maljuk, Olga Kataeva, Sabine Wurmehl, Anja Wolter, Bernd Buchner


Recently, the iridate double perovskite Sr₂YIrO₆ has attracted considerable attention due to the report of unexpected magnetism in this Ir⁵⁺ material, in which according to the Jeff model, a non-magnetic ground state is expected. Structural, magnetic and thermodynamic investigations of Sr₂YIrO₆ and Ba2YIrO6 single crystals, with emphasis on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat will be presented. The single crystals were grown by using SrCl₂ and BaCl₂ as flux. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements performed on several crystals from different preparation batches showed a high quality of the crystals, proven by the good internal consistency of the data collected using the full-sphere mode and an extremely low R factor. In agreement with the expected non-magnetic ground state of Ir⁵⁺ (5d4) in these iridates, no magnetic transition is observed down to 430 mK. Moreover, our results suggest that the low-temperature anomaly observed in the specific heat is not related to the onset of long-range magnetic order. Instead, it is identified as a Schottky anomaly caused by paramagnetic impurities present in the sample, of the order of

Keywords: double perovskites, iridates, self-flux grown synthesis, spin-orbit coupling

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223 Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on Physiochemical Properties of Spherical Agglomerates of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride

Authors: S. V. Patil , S. K. Sahoo, K. Y. Chougule, S. S. Patil


Spherically agglomerated crystals of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH) with improved flowability and compactibility were successfully prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method. Plane agglomerates and agglomerates with additives: polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and β cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared using methanol, chloroform and water as good solvent, bridging liquid and poor solvent respectively. Particle size, flowability, compactibility and packability of plane, PEG and β-CD agglomerates were preferably improved for direct tableting compared with raw crystals and PVP agglomerates of PGH. These improved properties of spherically agglomerated crystals were due to their large and spherical shape and enhanced fragmentation during compaction which was well supported by increased tensile strength and less elastic recovery of its compact. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry study were indicated polymorphic transition of PGH from form II to I during recrystallization but not associated with chemical transition indicated by fourier transforms infrared spectra.

Keywords: spherical crystallization, pioglitazone hydrochloride, compactibility, packability

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222 A Methodology Based on Image Processing and Deep Learning for Automatic Characterization of Graphene Oxide

Authors: Rafael do Amaral Teodoro, Leandro Augusto da Silva


Originated from graphite, graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material that promises to revolutionize technology in many different areas, such as energy, telecommunications, civil construction, aviation, textile, and medicine. This is possible because its structure, formed by carbon bonds, provides desirable optical, thermal, and mechanical characteristics that are interesting to multiple areas of the market. Thus, several research and development centers are studying different manufacturing methods and material applications of graphene, which are often compromised by the scarcity of more agile and accurate methodologies to characterize the material – that is to determine its composition, shape, size, and the number of layers and crystals. To engage in this search, this study proposes a computational methodology that applies deep learning to identify graphene oxide crystals in order to characterize samples by crystal sizes. To achieve this, a fully convolutional neural network called U-net has been trained to segment SEM graphene oxide images. The segmentation generated by the U-net is fine-tuned with a standard deviation technique by classes, which allows crystals to be distinguished with different labels through an object delimitation algorithm. As a next step, the characteristics of the position, area, perimeter, and lateral measures of each detected crystal are extracted from the images. This information generates a database with the dimensions of the crystals that compose the samples. Finally, graphs are automatically created showing the frequency distributions by area size and perimeter of the crystals. This methodological process resulted in a high capacity of segmentation of graphene oxide crystals, presenting accuracy and F-score equal to 95% and 94%, respectively, over the test set. Such performance demonstrates a high generalization capacity of the method in crystal segmentation, since its performance considers significant changes in image extraction quality. The measurement of non-overlapping crystals presented an average error of 6% for the different measurement metrics, thus suggesting that the model provides a high-performance measurement for non-overlapping segmentations. For overlapping crystals, however, a limitation of the model was identified. To overcome this limitation, it is important to ensure that the samples to be analyzed are properly prepared. This will minimize crystal overlap in the SEM image acquisition and guarantee a lower error in the measurements without greater efforts for data handling. All in all, the method developed is a time optimizer with a high measurement value, considering that it is capable of measuring hundreds of graphene oxide crystals in seconds, saving weeks of manual work.

Keywords: characterization, graphene oxide, nanomaterials, U-net, deep learning

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221 Studies on Distribution of the Doped Pr3+ Ions in the LaF3 Based Transparent Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramic

Authors: Biswajit Pal, Amit Mallik, Anil K. Barik


Current years have witnessed a phenomenal growth in the research on the rare earth-doped transparent host materials, the essential components in optoelectronics that meet up the increasing demand for fabrication of high quality optical devices especially in telecommunication system. The combination of low phonon energy (because of fluoride environment) and high chemical durability with superior mechanical stability (due to oxide environment) makes the oxyfluoride glass–ceramics the promising and useful materials in optoelectronics. The present work reports on the undoped and doped (1 mol% Pr2O3) glass ceramics of composition 16.52 Al2O3•1.5AlF3• 12.65LaF3•4.33Na2O•64.85 SiO2 (mol%), prepared by melting technique initially that follows annealation at 450 ºC for 1 h. The glass samples so obtained were heat treated at constant 600 ºC with a variation in heat treatment schedule (10- 80 h). TEM techniques were employed to structurally characterize the glass samples. Pr2O3 affects the phase separation in the glass and delays the onset of crystallization in the glass ceramic. The modified crystallization mechanism is established from the analysis of advanced STEM/EDXS results. The phase separated droplets after annealing turn into 10-20 nm of LaF3 nano crystals those upon scrutiny are found to be dotted with the doped Pr3+ ions within the crystals themselves. The EDXS results also suggest that the inner LaF3 crystal core is swallowed by an Al enriched layer that follows a Si enriched surrounding shell as the outer core. This greatly increases the viscosity in the periphery of the crystals that restricts further crystal growth to account for the formation of nano sized crystals.

Keywords: advanced STEM/EDXS, crystallization mechanism, nano crystals, pr3+ ion doped glass and glass ceramic, structural characterization

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220 A Comparative Study of a Defective Superconductor/ Semiconductor-Dielectric Photonic Crystal

Authors: S. Sadegzadeh, A. Mousavi


Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.

Keywords: defect modes, photonic crystals, semiconductor, superconductor, transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
219 Numerical Simulation of the Flowing of Ice Slurry in Seawater Pipe of Polar Ships

Authors: Li Xu, Huanbao Jiang, Zhenfei Huang, Lailai Zhang


In recent years, as global warming, the sea-ice extent of North Arctic undergoes an evident decrease and Arctic channel has attracted the attention of shipping industry. Ice crystals existing in the seawater of Arctic channel which enter the seawater system of the ship with the seawater were found blocking the seawater pipe. The appearance of cooler paralysis, auxiliary machine error and even ship power system paralysis may be happened if seriously. In order to reduce the effect of high temperature in auxiliary equipment, seawater system will use external ice-water to participate in the cooling cycle and achieve the state of its flow. The distribution of ice crystals in seawater pipe can be achieved. As the ice slurry system is solid liquid two-phase system, the flow process of ice-water mixture is very complex and diverse. In this paper, the flow process in seawater pipe of ice slurry is simulated with fluid dynamics simulation software based on k-ε turbulence model. As the ice packing fraction is a key factor effecting the distribution of ice crystals, the influence of ice packing fraction on the flowing process of ice slurry is analyzed. In this work, the simulation results show that as the ice packing fraction is relatively large, the distribution of ice crystals is uneven in the flowing process of the seawater which has such disadvantage as increase the possibility of blocking, that will provide scientific forecasting methods for the forming of ice block in seawater piping system. It has important significance for the reliability of the operating of polar ships in the future.

Keywords: ice slurry, seawater pipe, ice packing fraction, numerical simulation

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218 Antibacterial Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Activated Delta-endotoxins

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, N. Ouali, F. Z. Berrabah, A. Bentaleb


For a long time, the Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been widely used in biological control against devastating and disease vectors insects. This is due to the insecticidal activity of its crystalline parasporal inclusion (crystals) predominantly comprised of one or more proteins (Cry and Cyt proteins) also called δ-endotoxins, produced during sporulation. The shape and composition of Bt crystals vary among strains and crystalline proteins are extremely varied (more than 475 cry gene were discovered). The insecticidal activity of Bt crystals is very well studied, thus their insecticidal mode of action is well established, however, their antimicrobial effect is largely unknown. The lack of data on the antimicrobial effect of crystalline proteins of Bt and the need for searching new antimicrobial molecules encouraged us to carried out this study. The antibacterial effect of δ-endotoxines produced by two Bt stains; a strain isolated from soil at northern of Algeria (Bt 7.2.B), and a strain isolated from a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis var aizawai), activated by proteolysis, was assayed on clinical bacterial strains and ATCC collection ones respectively. Gram positive and negative clinical bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonaie, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) were sensitive to activated Bt 72B endotoxins. Similarly, bacterial strains from ATCC collection (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aerugenosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were sensitive to activated B. thuringiensis var aizawai δ-endotoxines. The activated δ-endotoxins were separated by SDS-PAGE.

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, crystals, cry proteins, δ-endotoxins, antibacterial activity

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217 Antibacterial Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cristalline Parasporal Proteins

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, N. Ouali, F. Z. Berrabah, A. Bentaleb


For a long time, the Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been widely used in biological control against devastating and disease vectors insects. This is due to the insecticidal activity of its crystalline parasporal inclusion (crystals) predominantly comprised of one or more proteins (Cry and Cyt proteins) also called δ-endotoxins, produced during sporulation. The shape and composition of Bt crystals vary among strains and crystalline proteins are extremely varied (more than 475 cry gene were discovered). The insecticidal activity of Bt crystals is very well studied, thus their insecticidal mode of action is well established, however, their antimicrobial effect is largely unknown. The lack of data on the antimicrobial effect of crystalline proteins of Bt and the need for searching new antimicrobial molecules encouraged us to carried out this study. The antibacterial effect of δ-endotoxines produced by two Bt stains; a strain isolated from soil at northern of Algeria (Bt 7.2.B), and a strain isolated from a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis var aizawai), activated by proteolysis, was assayed on clinical bacterial strains and ATCC collection ones respectively. Gram positive and negative clinical bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonaie, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) were sensitive to activated Bt 72B endotoxins. Similarly, bacterial strains from ATCC collection (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aerugenosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were sensitive to activated B. thuringiensis var aizawai δ-endotoxines. The activated δ-endotoxins were separated by SDS-PAGE.

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, crystals, cry proteins, δ-endotoxins, antibacterial activity

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216 Rare-Earth Ions Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals: Luminescence and Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Ninel Kokanyan, Edvard Kokanyan, Anush Movsesyan, Marc D. Fontana


Lithium Niobate (LN) is one of the widely used ferroelectrics having a wide number of applications such as phase-conjugation, holographic storage, frequency doubling, SAW sensors. Furthermore, the possibility of doping with rare-earth ions leads to new laser applications. Ho and Tm dopants seem interesting due to laser emission obtained at around 2 µm. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful spectroscopic technique providing a possibility to obtain a number of information about physicochemical and also optical properties of a given material. Polarized Raman measurements were carried out on Ho and Tm doped LN crystals with excitation wavelengths of 532nm and 785nm. In obtained Raman anti-Stokes spectra, we detect expected modes according to Raman selection rules. In contrast, Raman Stokes spectra are significantly different compared to what is expected by selection rules. Additional forbidden lines are detected. These lines have quite high intensity and are well defined. Moreover, the intensity of mentioned additional lines increases with an increase of Ho or Tm concentrations in the crystal. These additional lines are attributed to emission lines reflecting the photoluminescence spectra of these crystals. It means that in our case we were able to detect, within a very good resolution, in the same Stokes spectrum, the transitions between the electronic states, and the vibrational states as well. The analysis of these data is reported as a function of Ho and Tm content, for different polarizations and wavelengths, of the incident laser beam. Results also highlight additional information about π and σ polarizations of crystals under study.

Keywords: lithium niobate, Raman spectroscopy, luminescence, rare-earth ions doped lithium niobate

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215 Deconvolution of Anomalous Fast Fourier Transform Patterns for Tin Sulfide

Authors: I. Shuro


The crystal structure of Tin Sulfide prepared by certain chemical methods is investigated using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. An anomalous HRTEM Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) exhibited a central scatter of diffraction spots, which is surrounded by secondary clusters of spots arranged in a hexagonal pattern around the central cluster was observed. FFT analysis has revealed a long lattice parameter and mostly viewed along a hexagonal axis where there many columns of atoms slightly displaced from one another. This FFT analysis has revealed that the metal sulfide has a long-range order interwoven chain of atoms in its crystal structure. The observed crystalline structure is inconsistent with commonly observed FFT patterns of chemically synthesized Tin Sulfide nanocrystals and thin films. SEM analysis showed the morphology of a myriad of multi-shaped crystals ranging from hexagonal, cubic, and spherical micro to nanostructured crystals. This study also investigates the presence of quasi-crystals as reflected by the presence of mixed local symmetries.

Keywords: fast fourier transform, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, tin sulfide, crystalline structure

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214 Jalovchat Gabbroic Intrusive of the Caucasus: Petrological Study, Geochemical Peculiarities and Formation Conditions

Authors: Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Nikoloz Maisuradze, Giorgi Beridze


The Jalovchat intrusive is built up of hornblende gabbros, gabbro-norites and norites. Within the intrusive hornblende-bearing gabbro-pegmatites are widespread. That is a coarse-grained rock with gigantic hornblende crystals. By its unusual composition, the Jalovchat intrusive has no analogue in the Caucasus. However, petrologically and geochemically, the intrusive rocks were studied insufficiently. For comprehensive investigations, the authors applied appropriate methodologies: Microscopic study of thin sections, petro- and geochemical analyses of the samples and also different petrogenic, rare and rare earth elements diagrams and spidergrams. Analytical study established that the Jalovchat intrusive by its composition corresponds mainly to the mid-ocean ridge basalts and according to geodynamic type belongs to the subduction type. In general, it is an anomalous phenomenon, as in the rocks of such composition crystallization of hornblende and especially of its gigantic crystals is atypical. The authors believe that the water-rich magma reservoir, which was necessary for the crystallization of gigantic hornblende crystals, appeared as a result of melting of water-rich mid-ocean ridge basaltic rocks during the subduction process in Bajocian time.

Keywords: gabbro-pegmatite, intrusive, petrogenesis, petrogeochemistry, the Caucasus

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213 Ballistic Transport in One-Dimensional Random Dimer Photonic Crystals

Authors: Samira Cherid, Samir Bentata, F. Zahira Meghoufel, Sabria Terkhi, Yamina Sefir, Fatima Bendahma, Bouabdellah Bouadjemi, Ali Z. Itouni


In this work, we examined the propagation of light in one-dimensional systems is examined by means of the random dimer model. The introduction of defect elements, randomly in the studied system, breaks down the Anderson localization and provides a set of propagating delocalized modes at the corresponding conventional dimer resonances. However, tuning suitably the defect dimer resonance on the host ones (or vice versa), the transmission magnitudes can be enhanced providing the optimized ballistic transmission regime as an average response. Hence, ballistic optical filters can be conceived at desired wavelengths.

Keywords: photonic crystals, random dimer model, ballistic resonance, localization and transmission

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212 Field Theories in Chiral Liquid Crystals: A Theory for Helicoids and Skyrmions

Authors: G. De Matteis, L. Martina, V. Turco


The work is focused on determining and comparing special nonlinear static configurations in cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs), confined between two parallel plates and in the presence of an external static electric/magnetic field. The solutions are stabilised by topological and non-topological conservation laws since they are described in terms of integrable or partially integrable nonlinear boundary value problems. In cholesteric liquid crystals which are subject to geometric frustration; anchoring conditions at boundaries, i.e., homeotropic conditions, are incompatible with the cholesteric twist. This aspect turns out to be essential in the admissible classes of solutions, allowing also for disclination type singularities. Within the framework of Frank-Oseen theory, we study the static configurations for CLCs. First, we find numerical solutions for isolated axisymmetric states in confined CLCs with weak homeotropic anchoring at the boundaries. These solutions describe 3-dimensional modulations, namely spherulites or cholesteric bubbles, actually observed in these systems, of standard baby skyrmions. Relations with well-known nonlinear integrable systems are found and are used to explore the asymptotic behavior of the solutions. Then we turn our attention to extended periodic static configurations called Helicoids or cholesteric fingers, described by an elliptic sine-Gordon model with appropriate boundary conditions, showing how their period and energies are determined by both the thickness of the cell and the intensity of the external electric/magnetic field. We explicitly show that helicoids with π or 2π of rotations of the molecular director are different in many aspects and are not simply algebraically related. The behaviour of the solutions, their energy and the properties of the associated disclinations are discussed in detail, both analytically and numerically.

Keywords: cholesteric liquid crystals, geometric frustration, helicoids, skyrmions

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211 Preparation and Electro-Optic Characteristics of Polymer Network Liquid Crystals Based On Polymethylvinilpirydine and Polyethylene Glycol

Authors: T. D. Ibragimov, A. R. Imamaliyev, G. M. Bayramov


The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals Н37 and 5CB with polymethylvinilpirydine (PMVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been developed. Mesogene substance 4-n-heptyoxibenzoic acid (HOBA) is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 % and 9 %, correspondingly. At slow cooling, the system separates into a liquid crystal –rich phase and a liquid crystal-poor phase. At this case, transition of these phases in the H-37 + PMVP + HOBA (87 % + 12 % + 1 %) composite to an anisotropic state occurs at 49 оС and и 41 оС, accordingly, while the composite 5CB+PEG+HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) passes to anisotropic state at 36 оС corresponding to the isotropic-nematic transition of pure 5CB. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. It is shown that the threshold voltage of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA increase in comparison with pure H-37 and, accordingly, there is a shift of voltage dependence of rise times to the high voltage region. The contrast ratio worsens while decay time improves in comparison with the pure liquid crystal at all applied voltage. The switching times of the composite 5CB + PEG + HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) show anomalous behavior connected with incompleteness of the transition to an anisotropic state. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with the high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration.

Keywords: liquid crystals, polymers, small-angle scattering, optical properties

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210 Thermosalient Effect of an Organic Aminonitrile and its Derivatives

Authors: Lukman O. Alimi, Vincent J. Smith, Leonard J. Barbour


The thermosalient effect is an extremely rare propensity of certain crystalline solids for self-actuation by elastic deformation or a ballistic event1. Thermosalient compounds, colloquially known as ‘jumping crystals’ are promising materials for fabrication of actuators that are also being considered as materials for clean energy conversion because of their capabilities to convert thermal energy into mechanical motion directly. Herein, an organic aminonitrile and its derivatives have been probed by a combination of structural, microscopic and thermoanalytical techniques. Crystals of these compounds were analysed by means of single crystal XRD and hotstage microscopy in the temperature range of 100 to 298 K and found to exhibit the thermosalient effect. We also carried out differential scanning calorimetric analysis at the temperature corresponding to that at which the crystal jumps as observed under a hotstage microscope.

Keywords: aminonitrile, jumping crystal, self actuation, thermosalient effect

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209 Co-Precipitation Method for the Fabrication of Charge-Transfer Molecular Crystal Nanocapsules

Authors: Rabih Al-Kaysi


When quasi-stable solutions of 9-methylanthracene (pi-electron donor, 0.0005 M) and 1,2,4,5-Tetracyanobenzene (pi-electron acceptor, 0.0005 M) in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 0.025 M) were gently mixed, uniform-shaped rectangular charge-transfer nanocrystals precipitated out. These red colored charge-transfer (CT) crystals were composed of a 1:1-mole ratio of acceptor/ donor and are highly insoluble in water/SDS solution. The rectangular crystals morphology is semi hollow with symmetrical twin pockets reminiscent of nanocapsules. For a typical crop of nanocapsules, the dimensions are 21 x 6 x 0.5 microns with an approximate hollow volume of 1.5 x 105 nm3. By varying the concentration of aqueous SDS, mixing duration and incubation temperature, we can control the size and volume of the nanocapsules. The initial number of CT seed nanoparticles, formed by mixing the D and A solutions, determined the number and dimensions of the obtained nanocapsules formed after several hours of incubation under still conditions. Prolonged mixing of the donor and acceptor solutions resulted in plenty of initial seeds hence smaller nanocapsules. Short mixing times yields less seed formation and larger micron-sized capsules. The addition of Doxorubicin in situ with the quasi-stable solutions while mixing leads to the formation of CT nanocapsules with Doxorubicin sealed inside. The Doxorubicin can be liberated from the nanocapsules by cracking them using ultrasonication. This method can be extended to other binary CT complex crystals as well.

Keywords: charge-transfer, nanocapsules, nanocrystals, doxorubicin

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208 Retention Properties of the Matrix Material Fe-Mn-Cu-Sn-C in Relation to Diamond Particles

Authors: Elżbieta Cygan-Bączek, Piotr Wyżga, Sławomir Cygan


In the presented work, the main goal was to investigate the retention properties, defined as the ability of the matrix material to hold diamond particles in relation to metallized (Ti, Si, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni) and non-metallized diamond crystals. For this purpose, diamond-impregnated specimens were tested for wear rate on abrasive sandstone using a test rig specially designed to simulate tool application conditions. The tests that involved 3- and 2-body abrasion ranked the alloys in different orders. The ability of the matrix to retain diamond crystals was determined using the electron microskopy (SEM, TEM). The specimens were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and hardness. The conducted research has shown that Si and Ti metallized diamonds, apart from mechanical jamming in the matrix, are also connected in a metallurgical manner, ensuring the improvement of the retention properties of the matrix material.

Keywords: diamond, metallic-diamond segments, retention, abrasive wear resistance

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207 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, L.Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke


Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of monofunctional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiateor, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

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