Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8296

Search results for: Soret number

8296 Soret-Driven Convection in a Binary Fluid with Coriolis Force

Authors: N. H. Z. Abidin, N. F. M. Mokhtar, S. S. A. Gani

Abstract:

The influence of diffusion of the thermal or known as Soret effect in a heated Binary fluid model with Coriolis force is investigated theoretically. The linear stability analysis is used, and the eigenvalue is obtained using the Galerkin method. The impact of the Soret and Coriolis force on the onset of stationary convection in a system is analysed with respect to various Binary fluid parameters and presented graphically. It is found that an increase of the Soret values, destabilize the Binary fluid layer system. However, elevating the values of the Coriolis force helps to lag the onset of convection in a system.

Keywords: Benard convection, binary fluid, Coriolis, Soret

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8295 Soret and Dufour Effect on Variable Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of an Inclined Magnetic Field with Dissipation in Non-Darcy Porous Medium

Authors: Rasaq A. Kareem, Sulyman O. Salawu

Abstract:

The study of Soret and Dufour effect on variable viscosity and thermal conductivity of an inclined magnetic field with dissipation in non-Darcy porous medium over a continuously stretching sheet for power-law variation in the sheet temperature and concentration are investigated. The viscosity of the fluid flow and thermal conductivity are considered to vary as a function of temperature. The local similarity solutions for different values of the physical parameters are presented for velocity, temperature and concentration. The result shows that variational increase in the values of Soret and Dufour parameters increase the temperature and concentration distribution. Finally, the effects of skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers which are of physical and engineering interest are considered and discussed.

Keywords: Dufour, non-Darcy Flow, Soret, thermal conductivity, variable viscosity

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8294 Soret and Dufour's Effects on Mixed Convection Unsteady MHD Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemically Reactive Spices

Authors: Deva Kanta Phukan

Abstract:

An investigation is made to carry out to study the thermal-diffusion and diffusion thermo-effects in hydro-magnetic unsteady flow by a mixed convection boundary layer past an impermeable vertical stretching sheet embedded in a conducting fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of a chemical reaction effect. The velocity of stretching surface, the surface temperature and the concentration are assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the surface. The governing partial differential equations are transformed in to self similar unsteady equations using similarity transformations and solved numerically by the Runge kutta fourth order scheme in association with the shooting method for the whole transient domain from the initial state to the final steady state flow. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, the concentration, the skin friction , and the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are shown graphically for various flow parameters. The results reveal that there is a smooth transition of flow from unsteady state to the final steady state. A special case of our results is in good agreement with an earlier published work.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, boundary layer flow, porous media, magnetic field, Soret number, Dufour’s number

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8293 One Dimensional Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow in an Inclined Wavy Wall of a Nanofluid with Convective Boundary Condition

Authors: Abdulhakeem Yusuf, Yomi Monday Aiyesimi, Mohammed Jiya

Abstract:

The failure in an ordinary heat transfer fluid to meet up with today’s industrial cooling rate has resulted in the development of high thermal conductivity fluid which nanofluids belongs. In this work, the problem of unsteady one dimensional laminar flow of an incompressible fluid within a parallel wall is considered with one wall assumed to be wavy. The model is presented in its rectangular coordinate system and incorporates the effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. The local similarity solutions were also obtained which depends on Soret number, Dufour number, Biot number, Lewis number, and heat generation parameter. The analytical solution is obtained in a closed form via the Adomian decomposition method. It was found that the method has a good agreement with the numerical method, and it is also established that the heat generation parameter has to be kept low so that heat energy are easily evacuated from the system.

Keywords: Adomian decomposition method, Biot number, Dufour number, nanofluid

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8292 Flow over an Exponentially Stretching Sheet with Hall and Cross-Diffusion Effects

Authors: Srinivasacharya Darbhasayanam, Jagadeeshwar Pashikanti

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the Soret and Dufour effects on mixed convection flow, heat and mass transfer from an exponentially stretching surface in a viscous fluid with Hall Effect. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations are reduced to a system of linear differential equations using the successive linearization method and then solved the resulting linear system using the Chebyshev pseudo spectral method. The numerical results for the velocity components, temperature and concentration are presented graphically. The obtained results are compared with the previously published results, and are found to be in excellent agreement. It is observed from the present analysis that the primary and secondary velocities and concentration are found to be increasing, and temperature is decreasing with the increase in the values of the Soret parameter. An increase in the Dufour parameter increases both the primary and secondary velocities and temperature and decreases the concentration.

Keywords: Exponentially stretching sheet, Hall current, Heat and Mass transfer, Soret and Dufour Effects

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8291 Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method

Authors: Nageeb A. H. Haroun, Sabyasachi Mondal, Precious Sibanda

Abstract:

The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity, nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters. A comparison of current findings with previously published results for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.

Keywords: non-isothermal wedge, thermal radiation, nanofluid, magnetic field, soret and dufour effects

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8290 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay

Abstract:

The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, fluid dynamics

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8289 Peristaltic Transport of a Jeffrey Fluid with Double-Diffusive Convection in Nanofluids in the Presence of Inclined Magnetic Field

Authors: Safia Akram

Abstract:

In this article, the effects of peristaltic transport with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids through an asymmetric channel with different waveforms is presented. Mathematical modelling for two-dimensional and two directional flows of a Jeffrey fluid model along with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids are given. Exact solutions are obtained for nanoparticle fraction field, concentration field, temperature field, stream functions, pressure gradient and pressure rise in terms of axial and transverse coordinates under the restrictions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. With the help of computational and graphical results the effects of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, Dufour, Soret, and Grashof numbers (thermal, concentration, nanoparticles) on peristaltic flow patterns with double-diffusive convection are discussed.

Keywords: nanofluid particles, peristaltic flow, Jeffrey fluid, magnetic field, asymmetric channel, different waveforms

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8288 The Theory of Number "0"

Authors: Iryna Shevchenko

Abstract:

The science of mathematics was originated at the order of count of objects and subsequently for the measurement of size and quality of objects using the logical or abstract means. The laws of mathematics are based on the study of absolute values. The number 0 or "nothing" is the purely logical (as the opposite to absolute) value as the "nothing" should always assume the space for the something that had existed there; otherwise the "something" would never come to existence. In this work we are going to prove that the number "0" is the abstract (logical) and not an absolute number and it has the absolute value of “∞” (infinity). Therefore, the number "0" might not stand in the row of numbers that symbolically represents the absolute values, as it would be the mathematically incorrect. The symbolical value of number "0" in the row of numbers could be represented with symbol "∞" (infinity). As a result, we have the mathematical row of numbers: epsilon, ...4, 3, 2, 1, ∞. As the conclusions of the theory of number “0” we presented the statements: multiplication and division by fractions of numbers is illegal operation and the mathematical division by number “0” is allowed.

Keywords: illegal operation of division and multiplication by fractions of number, infinity, mathematical row of numbers, theory of number “0”

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8287 Flow and Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Shrinking Sheet

Authors: N. Bachok, N. L. Aleng, N. M. Arifin, A. Ishak, N. Senu

Abstract:

The problem of laminar fluid flow which results from the shrinking of a permeable surface in a nanofluid has been investigated numerically. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. A similarity solution is presented which depends on the mass suction parameter S, Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion number Nb and thermophoresis number Nt. It was found that the reduced Nusselt number is decreasing function of each dimensionless number.

Keywords: Boundary layer, nanofluid, shrinking sheet, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, similarity solution

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8286 Mixed Number Algebra and Its Application

Authors: Md. Shah Alam

Abstract:

Mushfiq Ahmad has defined a Mixed Number, which is the sum of a scalar and a Cartesian vector. He has also defined the elementary group operations of Mixed numbers i.e. the norm of Mixed numbers, the product of two Mixed numbers, the identity element and the inverse. It has been observed that Mixed Number is consistent with Pauli matrix algebra and a handy tool to work with Dirac electron theory. Its use as a mathematical method in Physics has been studied. (1) We have applied Mixed number in Quantum Mechanics: Mixed Number version of Displacement operator, Vector differential operator, and Angular momentum operator has been developed. Mixed Number method has also been applied to Klein-Gordon equation. (2) We have applied Mixed number in Electrodynamics: Mixed Number version of Maxwell’s equation, the Electric and Magnetic field quantities and Lorentz Force has been found. (3) An associative transformation of Mixed Number numbers fulfilling Lorentz invariance requirement is developed. (4) We have applied Mixed number algebra as an extension of Complex number. Mixed numbers and the Quaternions have isomorphic correspondence, but they are different in algebraic details. The multiplication of unit Mixed number and the multiplication of unit Quaternions are different. Since Mixed Number has properties similar to those of Pauli matrix algebra, Mixed Number algebra is a more convenient tool to deal with Dirac equation.

Keywords: mixed number, special relativity, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, pauli matrix

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8285 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: cavity, natural convection, Nusselt number, wavy wall

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8284 Fractional Residue Number System

Authors: Parisa Khoshvaght, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Abstract:

During the past few years, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been receiving considerable interest due to its parallel and fault-tolerant properties. This system is a useful tool for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) since it can support parallel, carry-free, high-speed and low power arithmetic. One of the drawbacks of Residue Number System is the fractional numbers, that is, the corresponding circuit is very hard to realize in conventional CMOS technology. In this paper, we propose a method in which the numbers of transistors are significantly reduced. The related delay is extremely diminished, in the first glance we use this method to solve concerning problem of one decimal functional number some how this proposition can be extended to generalize the idea. Another advantage of this method is the independency on the kind of moduli.

Keywords: computer arithmetic, residue number system, number system, one-Hot, VLSI

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8283 Scheduling of Bus Fleet Departure Time Based on Mathematical Model of Number of Bus Stops for Municipality Bus Organization

Authors: Ali Abdi Kordani, Hamid Bigdelirad, Sid Mohammad Boroomandrad

Abstract:

Operating Urban Bus Transit System is a phenomenon that has a major role in transporting passengers in cities. There are many factors involved in planning and operating an Urban Bus Transit System, one of which is selecting optimized number of stops and scheduling of bus fleet departure. In this paper, we tried to introduce desirable methodology to select number of stops and schedule properly. Selecting the right number of stops causes convenience in accessibility and reduction in travel time and finally increase in public preference of this transportation mode. The achieved results revealed that number of stops must reduce from 33 to 25. Also according to scheduling and conducted economic analysis, the number of buses must decrease from 17 to 11 to have the most appropriate status for the Bus Organization.

Keywords: number of optimized stops, organizing bus system, scheduling, urban transit

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8282 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

Authors: Nur Irmawati, H. A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics were studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2×106≤Ra≤2×107 and Reynolds number in the range of 100≤Re≤1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It was also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Keywords: numerical simulation, mixed convection, horizontal rectangular duct, nanofluids

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8281 Determining Optimal Number of Trees in Random Forests

Authors: Songul Cinaroglu

Abstract:

Background: Random Forest is an efficient, multi-class machine learning method using for classification, regression and other tasks. This method is operating by constructing each tree using different bootstrap sample of the data. Determining the number of trees in random forests is an open question in the literature for studies about improving classification performance of random forests. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is an optimal number of trees in Random Forests and how performance of Random Forests differ according to increase in number of trees using sample health data sets in R programme. Method: In this study we analyzed the performance of Random Forests as the number of trees grows and doubling the number of trees at every iteration using “random forest” package in R programme. For determining minimum and optimal number of trees we performed Mc Nemar test and Area Under ROC Curve respectively. Results: At the end of the analysis it was found that as the number of trees grows, it does not always means that the performance of the forest is better than forests which have fever trees. In other words larger number of trees only increases computational costs but not increases performance results. Conclusion: Despite general practice in using random forests is to generate large number of trees for having high performance results, this study shows that increasing number of trees doesn’t always improves performance. Future studies can compare different kinds of data sets and different performance measures to test whether Random Forest performance results change as number of trees increase or not.

Keywords: classification methods, decision trees, number of trees, random forest

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8280 Number Sense Proficiency and Problem Solving Performance of Grade Seven Students

Authors: Laissa Mae Francisco, John Rolex Ingreso, Anna Krizel Menguito, Criselda Robrigado, Rej Maegan Tuazon

Abstract:

This study aims to determine and describe the existing relationship between number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance of grade seven students from Victorino Mapa High School, Manila. A paper pencil exam containing of 50-item number sense test and 5-item problem-solving test which measures their number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance adapted from McIntosh, Reys, and Bana were used as the research instruments. The data obtained from this study were interpreted and analyzed using the Pearson – Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation to determine the relationship between the two variables. It was found out that students who were low in number sense proficiency tend to be the students with poor problem-solving performance and students with medium number sense proficiency are most likely to have an average problem-solving performance. Likewise, students with high number sense proficiency are those who do excellently in problem-solving performance.

Keywords: number sense, performance, problem solving, proficiency

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8279 Entropy Production in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Porous Channel Using Darcy-Brinkman Formulation

Authors: Amel Tayari, Atef Eljerry, Mourad Magherbi

Abstract:

The paper reports a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to mixed convection in laminar flow through a channel filled with porous media. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to investigate the entropy generation rate. The Darcy-Brinkman Model is employed. The entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction dissipations has been determined in mixed convection by solving numerically the continuity, momentum and energy equations, using a control volume finite element method. The effects of Darcy number, modified Brinkman number and the Rayleigh number on averaged entropy generation and averaged Nusselt number are investigated. The Rayleigh number varied between 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105 and the modified Brinkman number ranges between 10-5 ≤ Br≤ 10-1 with fixed values of porosity and Reynolds number at 0.5 and 10 respectively. The Darcy number varied between 10-6 ≤ Da ≤10.

Keywords: entropy generation, porous media, heat transfer, mixed convection, numerical methods, darcy, brinkman

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8278 Teaching the Binary System via Beautiful Facts from the Real Life

Authors: Salem Ben Said

Abstract:

In recent times the decimal number system to which we are accustomed has received serious competition from the binary number system. In this note, an approach is suggested to teaching and learning the binary number system using examples from the real world. More precisely, we will demonstrate the utility of the binary system in describing the optimal strategy to win the Chinese Nim game, and in telegraphy by decoding the hidden message on Perseverance’s Mars parachute written in the language of binary system. Finally, we will answer the question, “why do modern computers prefer the ternary number system instead of the binary system?”. All materials are provided in a format that is conductive to classroom presentation and discussion.

Keywords: binary number system, Nim game, telegraphy, computers prefer the ternary system

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8277 Estimating Current Suicide Rates Using Google Trends

Authors: Ladislav Kristoufek, Helen Susannah Moat, Tobias Preis

Abstract:

Data on the number of people who have committed suicide tends to be reported with a substantial time lag of around two years. We examine whether online activity measured by Google searches can help us improve estimates of the number of suicide occurrences in England before official figures are released. Specifically, we analyse how data on the number of Google searches for the terms “depression” and “suicide” relate to the number of suicides between 2004 and 2013. We find that estimates drawing on Google data are significantly better than estimates using previous suicide data alone. We show that a greater number of searches for the term “depression” is related to fewer suicides, whereas a greater number of searches for the term “suicide” is related to more suicides. Data on suicide related search behaviour can be used to improve current estimates of the number of suicide occurrences.

Keywords: nowcasting, search data, Google Trends, official statistics

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8276 Numerical Study of Mixed Convection Coupled to Radiation in a Square Cavity with a Lid-Driven

Authors: Belmiloud Mohamed Amine, Sad Chemloul Nord-Eddine

Abstract:

In this study we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity; the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to see the influence of the emissivity and the varying of the Richardson number on the variation of the average Nusselt number. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume method is used for solving the dimensionless governing equations. Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the Richardson number in the range 0.1 to10. The Rayleigh number is fixed to Ra = 10000 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant Pr = 0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results of this study show that the Richardson number and emissivity affect the average Nusselt number.

Keywords: mixed convection, square cavity, wall emissivity, lid-driven, numerical study

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8275 Number of Necessary Parameters for Parametrization of Stabilizing Controllers for two times two RHinf Systems

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the number of parameters for the parametrization of stabilizing controllers for RHinf systems with size 2 × 2. Fortunately, any plant of this model can admit doubly coprime factorization. Thus we can use the Youla parameterization to parametrize the stabilizing contollers . However, Youla parameterization does not give itself the minimal number of parameters. This paper shows that the minimal number of parameters is four. As a result, we show that the Youla parametrization naturally gives the parameterization of stabilizing controllers with minimal numbers.

Keywords: RHinfo, parameterization, number of parameters, multi-input, multi-output systems

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8274 Transient Hygrothermoelastic Behavior in an Infinite Annular Cylinder with Internal Heat Generation by Linear Dependence Theory of Coupled Heat and Moisture

Authors: Tasneem Firdous Islam, G. D. Kedar

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of internal heat generation in a transient infinitely long annular cylinder subjected to hygrothermal loadings. The linear dependence theory of moisture and temperature is derived based on Dufour and Soret effect. The meticulous solutions of temperature, moisture, and thermal stresses are procured by using the Hankel transform technique. The influence of the internal heat source on the radial aspect is examined for coupled and uncoupled cases. In the present study, the composite material T300/5208 is considered, and the coupled and uncoupled cases are analyzed. The results obtained are computed numerically and illustrated graphically.

Keywords: temperature, moisture, hygrothermoelasticity, internal heat generation, annular cylinder

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8273 A Stable Method for Determination of the Number of Independent Components

Authors: Yuyan Yi, Jingyi Zheng, Nedret Billor

Abstract:

Independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the most commonly used blind source separation (BSS) techniques for signal pre-processing, such as noise reduction and feature extraction. The main parameter in the ICA method is the number of independent components (IC). Although there have been several methods for the determination of the number of ICs, it has not been given sufficient attentionto this important parameter. In this study, wereview the mostused methods fordetermining the number of ICs and providetheir advantages and disadvantages. Further, wepropose an improved version of column-wise ICAByBlock method for the determination of the number of ICs.To assess the performance of the proposed method, we compare the column-wise ICAbyBlock with several existing methods through different ICA methods by using simulated and real signal data. Results show that the proposed column-wise ICAbyBlock is an effective and stable method for determining the optimal number of components in ICA. This method is simple, and results can be demonstrated intuitively with good visualizations.

Keywords: independent component analysis, optimal number, column-wise, correlation coefficient, cross-validation, ICAByblock

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8272 Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility

Authors: Prateek Kishore, T. M. Muruganandam

Abstract:

Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.

Keywords: method of characteristics, nozzle, supersonic wind tunnel, variable mach number

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8271 Exploring the Effect of Using Lesh Model in Enhancing Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Number Sense

Authors: Areej Isam Barham

Abstract:

Developing students’ number sense is an essential element in the learning of mathematics. Number sense is one of the foundational ideas in mathematics where students need to understand numbers, representing them in different ways, and realize the relationships among numbers. Number sense also reflects students’ understanding of the meaning of operations, how they related to one another, how to compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. Developing students’ number sense in the mathematics classroom requires good preparation for mathematics teachers, those who will direct their students towards the real understanding of numbers and its implementation in the learning of mathematics. This study describes the development of elementary prospective mathematics teachers’ number sense through a mathematics teaching methods course at Qatar University. The study examined the effect of using the Lesh model in enhancing mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense. Thirty-nine elementary prospective mathematics teachers involved in the current study. The study followed an experimental research approach, and quantitative research methods were used to answer the research questions. Pre-post number sense test was constructed and implemented before and after teaching by using the Lesh model. Data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive data analysis and t-test were used to examine the impact of using the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense. Finding of the study indicated poor number sense and limited numeracy skills before implementing the use of the Lesh model, which highly demonstrate the importance of the study. The results of the study also revealed a positive impact on the use of the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense with statistically significant differences. The discussion of the study addresses different features and issues related to the participants’ number sense. In light of the study, the research presents recommendations and suggestions for the future development of mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense.

Keywords: number sense, Lesh model, prospective mathematics teachers, development of number sense

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8270 An Algorithm to Find Fractional Edge Domination Number and Upper Fractional Edge Domination Number of an Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graph

Authors: Karunambigai Mevani Govindasamy, Sathishkumar Ayyappan

Abstract:

In this paper, we formulate the algorithm to find out the dominating function parameters of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graphs(IFG). The methodology we adopted here is converting any physical problem into an IFG, and that has been transformed into Intuitionistic Fuzzy Matrix. Using Linear Program Solver software (LiPS), we found the defined parameters for the given IFG. We obtained these parameters for a path and cycle IFG. This study can be extended to other varieties of IFG. In particular, we obtain the definition of edge dominating function, minimal edge dominating function, fractional edge domination number (γ_if^') and upper fractional edge domination number (Γ_if^') of an intuitionistic fuzzy graph. Also, we formulated an algorithm which is appropriate to work on LiPS to find fractional edge domination number and upper fractional edge domination number of an IFG.

Keywords: fractional edge domination number, intuitionistic fuzzy cycle, intuitionistic fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy path

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8269 Trinary Affinity—Mathematic Verification and Application (1): Construction of Formulas for the Composite and Prime Numbers

Authors: Liang Ming Zhong, Yu Zhong, Wen Zhong, Fei Fei Yin

Abstract:

Trinary affinity is a description of existence: every object exists as it is known and spoken of, in a system of 2 differences (denoted dif1, dif₂) and 1 similarity (Sim), equivalently expressed as dif₁ / Sim / dif₂ and kn / 0 / tkn (kn = the known, tkn = the 'to be known', 0 = the zero point of knowing). They are mathematically verified and illustrated in this paper by the arrangement of all integers onto 3 columns, where each number exists as a difference in relation to another number as another difference, and the 2 difs as arbitrated by a third number as the Sim, resulting in a trinary affinity or trinity of 3 numbers, of which one is the known, the other the 'to be known', and the third the zero (0) from which both the kn and tkn are measured and specified. Consequently, any number is horizontally specified either as 3n, or as '3n – 1' or '3n + 1', and vertically as 'Cn + c', so that any number seems to occur at the intersection of its X and Y axes and represented by its X and Y coordinates, as any point on Earth’s surface by its latitude and longitude. Technically, i) primes are viewed and treated as progenitors, and composites as descending from them, forming families of composites, each capable of being measured and specified from its own zero called in this paper the realistic zero (denoted 0r, as contrasted to the mathematic zero, 0m), which corresponds to the constant c, and the nature of which separates the composite and prime numbers, and ii) any number is considered as having a magnitude as well as a position, so that a number is verified as a prime first by referring to its descriptive formula and then by making sure that no composite number can possibly occur on its position, by dividing it with factors provided by the composite number formulas. The paper consists of 3 parts: 1) a brief explanation of the trinary affinity of things, 2) the 8 formulas that represent ALL the primes, and 3) families of composite numbers, each represented by a formula. A composite number family is described as 3n + f₁‧f₂. Since there are an infinitely large number of composite number families, to verify the primality of a great probable prime, we have to have it divided with several or many a f₁ from a range of composite number formulas, a procedure that is as laborious as it is the surest way to verifying a great number’s primality. (So, it is possible to substitute planned division for trial division.)

Keywords: trinary affinity, difference, similarity, realistic zero

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8268 Number of Parameters of Anantharam's Model with Single-Input Single-Output Case

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the parametrization of Anantharam’s model within the framework of the factorization approach. In the parametrization, we investigate the number of required parameters of Anantharam’s model. We consider single-input single-output systems in this paper. By the investigation, we find three cases that are (1) there exist plants which require only one parameter and (2) two parameters, and (3) the number of parameters is at most three.

Keywords: linear systems, parametrization, coprime factorization, number of parameters

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8267 Entropy Generation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Cavity Using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: M. Alipanah, A. Ranjbar, E. Farnad, F. Alipanah

Abstract:

Entropy generation of an Al2O3-water nanofluid due to heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility has been investigated in a square cavity subject to different side wall temperatures using a nanofluid for natural convection flow. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number between 104 to 107 and volume fraction between 0 to 0.05. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation, average entropy generation and average Bejan number are determined. The results are compared for a pure fluid and a nanofluid. It is totally found that the heat transfer and entropy generation of the nanofluid is more than the pure fluid and minimum entropy generation and Nusselt number occur in the pure fluid at any Rayleigh number. Results depict that the addition of nanoparticles to the pure fluid has more effect on the entropy generation as the Rayleigh number goes up.

Keywords: entropy generation, natural convection, bejan number, nuselt number, nanofluid

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