Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21457

# Search results for: binary number system

##### 21457 Teaching the Binary System via Beautiful Facts from the Real Life

Authors: Salem Ben Said

Abstract:

In recent times the decimal number system to which we are accustomed has received serious competition from the binary number system. In this note, an approach is suggested to teaching and learning the binary number system using examples from the real world. More precisely, we will demonstrate the utility of the binary system in describing the optimal strategy to win the Chinese Nim game, and in telegraphy by decoding the hidden message on Perseverance’s Mars parachute written in the language of binary system. Finally, we will answer the question, “why do modern computers prefer the ternary number system instead of the binary system?”. All materials are provided in a format that is conductive to classroom presentation and discussion. Downloads 88
##### 21456 Arithmetic Operations Based on Double Base Number Systems

Abstract:

Double Base Number System (DBNS) is an imminent system of representing a number using two bases namely 2 and 3, which has its application in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) and Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA).The previous binary method representation included only base 2. DBNS uses an approximation algorithm namely, Greedy Algorithm. By using this algorithm, the number of digits required to represent a larger number is less when compared to the standard binary method that uses base 2 algorithms. Hence, the computational speed is increased and time being reduced. The standard binary method uses binary digits 0 and 1 to represent a number whereas the DBNS method uses binary digit 1 alone to represent any number (canonical form). The greedy algorithm uses two ways to represent the number, one is by using only the positive summands and the other is by using both positive and negative summands. In this paper, arithmetic operations are used for elliptic curve cryptography. Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem is the foundation for most of the day to day elliptic curve cryptography. This appears to be a momentous hard slog compared to digital logarithm problem. In elliptic curve digital signature algorithm, the key generation requires 160 bit of data by usage of standard binary representation. Whereas, the number of bits required generating the key can be reduced with the help of double base number representation. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to generate key during encryption and extraction of key in decryption. Downloads 322
##### 21455 Soret-Driven Convection in a Binary Fluid with Coriolis Force

Abstract:

The influence of diffusion of the thermal or known as Soret effect in a heated Binary fluid model with Coriolis force is investigated theoretically. The linear stability analysis is used, and the eigenvalue is obtained using the Galerkin method. The impact of the Soret and Coriolis force on the onset of stationary convection in a system is analysed with respect to various Binary fluid parameters and presented graphically. It is found that an increase of the Soret values, destabilize the Binary fluid layer system. However, elevating the values of the Coriolis force helps to lag the onset of convection in a system.

Keywords: Benard convection, binary fluid, Coriolis, Soret

##### 21454 Performance Comparison of Non-Binary RA and QC-LDPC Codes

Authors: Ni Wenli, He Jing

Abstract:

Repeat–Accumulate (RA) codes are subclass of LDPC codes with fast encoder structures. In this paper, we consider a nonbinary extension of binary LDPC codes over GF(q) and construct a non-binary RA code and a non-binary QC-LDPC code over GF(2^4), we construct non-binary RA codes with linear encoding method and non-binary QC-LDPC codes with algebraic constructions method. And the BER performance of RA and QC-LDPC codes over GF(q) are compared with BP decoding and by simulation over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channels. Downloads 292
##### 21453 Pyramid Binary Pattern for Age Invariant Face Verification

Authors: Saroj Bijarnia, Preety Singh

Abstract:

We propose a simple and effective biometrics system based on face verification across aging using a new variant of texture feature, Pyramid Binary Pattern. This employs Local Binary Pattern along with its hierarchical information. Dimension reduction of generated texture feature vector is done using Principal Component Analysis. Support Vector Machine is used for classification. Our proposed method achieves an accuracy of 92:24% and can be used in an automated age-invariant face verification system. Downloads 258
##### 21452 Fractional Residue Number System

Abstract:

During the past few years, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been receiving considerable interest due to its parallel and fault-tolerant properties. This system is a useful tool for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) since it can support parallel, carry-free, high-speed and low power arithmetic. One of the drawbacks of Residue Number System is the fractional numbers, that is, the corresponding circuit is very hard to realize in conventional CMOS technology. In this paper, we propose a method in which the numbers of transistors are significantly reduced. The related delay is extremely diminished, in the first glance we use this method to solve concerning problem of one decimal functional number some how this proposition can be extended to generalize the idea. Another advantage of this method is the independency on the kind of moduli. Downloads 417
##### 21451 Hit-Or-Miss Transform as a Tool for Similar Shape Detection

Abstract:

This paper describes an identification of specific shapes within binary images using the morphological Hit-or-Miss Transform (HMT). Hit-or-Miss transform is a general binary morphological operation that can be used in searching of particular patterns of foreground and background pixels in an image. It is actually a basic operation of binary morphology since almost all other binary morphological operators are derived from it. The input of this method is a binary image and a structuring element (a template which will be searched in a binary image) while the output is another binary image. In this paper a modification of Hit-or-Miss transform has been proposed. The accuracy of algorithm is adjusted according to the similarity of the template and the sought template. The implementation of this method has been done by C language. The algorithm has been tested on several images and the results have shown that this new method can be used for similar shape detection. Downloads 246
##### 21450 Aggregation of Fractal Aggregates Inside Fractal Cages in Irreversible Diﬀusion Limited Cluster Aggregation Binary Systems

Authors: Zakiya Shireen, Sujin B. Babu

Abstract:

Irreversible diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) of binary sticky spheres was simulated by modifying the Brownian Cluster Dynamics (BCD). We randomly distribute N spheres in a 3D box of size L, the volume fraction is given by Φtot = (π/6)N/L³. We identify NA and NB number of spheres as species A and B in our system both having identical size. In these systems, both A and B particles undergo Brownian motion. Irreversible bond formation happens only between intra-species particles and inter-species interact only through hard-core repulsions. As we perform simulation using BCD we start to observe binary gels. In our study, we have observed that species B always percolate (cluster size equal to L) as expected for the monomeric case and species A does not percolate below a critical ratio which is different for different volume fractions. We will also show that the accessible volume of the system increases when compared to the monomeric case, which means that species A is aggregating inside the cage created by B. We have also observed that for moderate Φtot the system undergoes a transition from ﬂocculation region to percolation region indicated by the change in fractal dimension from 1.8 to 2.5. For smaller ratio of A, it stays in the ﬂocculation regime even though B have already crossed over to the percolation regime. Thus, we observe two fractal dimension in the same system.

Keywords: BCD, fractals, percolation, sticky spheres

##### 21449 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Binary Systems for Hydrogen Storage

Abstract:

Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, compatible with the sustainable energy concept. In this context, solid-state hydrogen-storage is the key challenge in developing hydrogen economy. The capability of absorption of large quantities of hydrogen makes intermetallic systems of particular interest. In this study, efforts have been devoted to the theoretical investigation of binary systems with constraints consideration. On the one hand, besides considering hydrogen-storage, a reinvestigation of crystal structures of the palladium-arsenic system shows, with experimental validations, that binary systems could still currently present new or unknown relevant structures. On the other hand, various binary Mg-based systems were theoretically scrutinized in order to find new interesting alloys for hydrogen storage. Taking the effect of pressure into account reveals a wide range of alternative structures, changing radically the stable compounds of studied binary systems. Similar constraints, induced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, have been applied to binary systems, and results are presented. Downloads 200
##### 21448 Approximately Similarity Measurement of Web Sites Using Genetic Algorithms and Binary Trees

Authors: Doru Anastasiu Popescu, Dan Rădulescu

Abstract:

In this paper, we determine the similarity of two HTML web applications. We are going to use a genetic algorithm in order to determine the most significant web pages of each application (we are not going to use every web page of a site). Using these significant web pages, we will find the similarity value between the two applications. The algorithm is going to be efficient because we are going to use a reduced number of web pages for comparisons but it will return an approximate value of the similarity. The binary trees are used to keep the tags from the significant pages. The algorithm was implemented in Java language. Downloads 285
##### 21447 On the Construction of Some Optimal Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Skezeer John B. Paz, Ederlina G. Nocon

Abstract:

Finding an optimal binary linear code is a central problem in coding theory. A binary linear code C = [n, k, d] is called optimal if there is no linear code with higher minimum distance d given the length n and the dimension k. There are bounds giving limits for the minimum distance d of a linear code of fixed length n and dimension k. The lower bound which can be taken by construction process tells that there is a known linear code having this minimum distance. The upper bound is given by theoretic results such as Griesmer bound. One way to find an optimal binary linear code is to make the lower bound of d equal to its higher bound. That is, to construct a binary linear code which achieves the highest possible value of its minimum distance d, given n and k. Some optimal binary linear codes were presented by Andries Brouwer in his published table on bounds of the minimum distance d of binary linear codes for 1 ≤ n ≤ 256 and k ≤ n. This was further improved by Markus Grassl by giving a detailed construction process for each code exhibiting the lower bound. In this paper, we construct new optimal binary linear codes by using some construction processes on existing binary linear codes. Particularly, we developed an algorithm applied to the codes already constructed to extend the list of optimal binary linear codes up to 257 ≤ n ≤ 300 for k ≤ 7. Downloads 503
##### 21446 Study on the Efficient Routing Algorithms in Delay-Tolerant Networks

Authors: Si-Gwan Kim

Abstract:

In Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN), there may not exist an end-to-end path between source and destination at the time of message transmission. Employing ‘Store Carry and Forward’ delivery mechanism for message transmission in such networks usually incurs long message delays. In this paper, we present the modified Binary Spray and Wait (BSW) routing protocol that enhances the performance of the original one. Our proposed algorithm adjusts the number of forward messages depending on the number of neighbor nodes. By using beacon messages periodically, the number of neighbor nodes can be managed. The simulation using ONE simulator results shows that our modified version gives higher delivery ratio and less latency as compared to BSW. Downloads 58
##### 21445 Reconstruction of Binary Matrices Satisfying Neighborhood Constraints by Simulated Annealing

Authors: Divyesh Patel, Tanuja Srivastava

Abstract:

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of reconstructing binary matrices satisfying exactly-1-4-adjacency constraint from its row and column projections. This problem is formulated into a maximization problem. The objective function gives a measure of adjacency constraint for the binary matrices. The maximization problem is solved by the simulated annealing algorithm and experimental results are presented. Downloads 308
##### 21444 Scheduling of Bus Fleet Departure Time Based on Mathematical Model of Number of Bus Stops for Municipality Bus Organization

Abstract:

Operating Urban Bus Transit System is a phenomenon that has a major role in transporting passengers in cities. There are many factors involved in planning and operating an Urban Bus Transit System, one of which is selecting optimized number of stops and scheduling of bus fleet departure. In this paper, we tried to introduce desirable methodology to select number of stops and schedule properly. Selecting the right number of stops causes convenience in accessibility and reduction in travel time and finally increase in public preference of this transportation mode. The achieved results revealed that number of stops must reduce from 33 to 25. Also according to scheduling and conducted economic analysis, the number of buses must decrease from 17 to 11 to have the most appropriate status for the Bus Organization. Downloads 50
##### 21443 Densities and Volumetric Properties of {Difurylmethane + [(C5 – C8) N-Alkane or an Amide]} Binary Systems at 293.15, 298.15 and 303.15 K: Modelling Excess Molar Volumes by Prigogine-Flory-Patterson Theory

Authors: Belcher Fulele, W. A. A. Ddamba

Abstract:

Study of solvent systems contributes to the understanding of intermolecular interactions that occur in binary mixtures. These interactions involves among others strong dipole-dipole interactions and weak van de Waals interactions which are of significant application in pharmaceuticals, solvent extractions, design of reactors and solvent handling and storage processes. Binary mixtures of solvents can thus be used as a model to interpret thermodynamic behavior that occur in a real solution mixture. Densities of pure DFM, n-alkanes (n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and n-octane) and amides (N-methylformamide, N-ethylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide) as well as their [DFM + ((C5-C8) n-alkane or amide)] binary mixtures over the entire composition range, have been reported at temperature 293.15, 298.15 and 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. These data has been used to derive the thermodynamic properties: the excess molar volume of solution, apparent molar volumes, excess partial molar volumes, limiting excess partial molar volumes, limiting partial molar volumes of each component of a binary mixture. The results are discussed in terms of possible intermolecular interactions and structural effects that occur in the binary mixtures. The variation of excess molar volume with DFM composition for the [DFM + (C5-C7) n-alkane] binary mixture exhibit a sigmoidal behavior while for the [DFM + n-octane] binary system, positive deviation of excess molar volume function was observed over the entire composition range. For each of the [DFM + (C5-C8) n-alkane] binary mixture, the excess molar volume exhibited a fall with increase in temperature. The excess molar volume for each of [DFM + (NMF or NEF or DMF or DMA)] binary system was negative over the entire DFM composition at each of the three temperatures investigated. The negative deviations in excess molar volume values follow the order: DMA > DMF > NEF > NMF. Increase in temperature has a greater effect on component self-association than it has on complex formation between molecules of components in [DFM + (NMF or NEF or DMF or DMA)] binary mixture which shifts complex formation equilibrium towards complex to give a drop in excess molar volume with increase in temperature. The Prigogine-Flory-Patterson model has been applied at 298.15 K and reveals that the free volume is the most important contributing term to the excess experimental molar volume data for [DFM + (n-pentane or n-octane)] binary system. For [DFM + (NMF or DMF or DMA)] binary mixture, the interactional term and characteristic pressure term contributions are the most important contributing terms in describing the sign of experimental excess molar volume. The mixture systems contributed to the understanding of interactions of polar solvents with proteins (amides) with non-polar solvents (alkanes) in biological systems. Downloads 286
##### 21442 Durability Study of Binary Blended High Performance Concrete

Authors: Vatsal Patel, Niraj Shah

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the properties of binary blended High Performance cementitious systems containing blends of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Porcelain Powder or Marble Powder blend proportions of 100:00, 95:05, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20 for OPC: Porcelain Powder/Marble Powder. Studies on the Engineering Properties of the cementitious concrete, namely compressive strength, flexural strength, sorptivity, rapid chloride penetration test and accelerated corrosion test have been performed and those of OPC concrete. The results show that the inclusion of Porcelain powder or Marble Powder as binary blended cement alters to a great degree the properties of the binder as well as the resulting concrete. In addition, the results show that the Porcelain powder with 85:15 proportions and Marble powder with 90:10 proportions as binary systems to produce high-performance concrete could potentially be used in the concrete construction industry particular in lowering down the volume of OPC used and lowering emission of CO2 produces during manufacturing of cement. Downloads 320
##### 21441 The Effect of the Structural Arrangement of Binary Bisamide Organogelators on their Self-Assembly Behavior

Abstract:

Low-molecular-weight organogelators form gels by self-assembly into the crystalline network which immobilizes the organic solvent. For single bisamide organogelator systems, the effect of the molecular structure on the molecular interaction and their self-assembly behavior has been explored. The spatial arrangement of bisamide molecules in the gel-state is driven by a combination of hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions. The hydrogen-bonding pattern between the amide groups of bisamide molecules is regulated by the number of methylene spacers; the even number of methylene spacers between two amide groups, in even-spaced bisamides, leads to the antiparallel position of amide groups within a molecule. An even-spaced bisamide molecule with antiparallel amide groups can make two pairs of hydrogen bonding with the molecules on the same plane. The odd-spaced bisamide with a parallel directionality of amide groups can form four independent hydrogen bonds with four other bisamide molecules on different planes. The arrangement of bisamide molecules in the crystalline state and the interaction of these molecules depends on the molecular structure, particularly the parity of the spacer length between the amide groups in the bisamide molecule. In this study, the directionality of amide groups has been exploited as a structural characteristic to affect the arrangement of molecules in the crystalline state and produce different binary bisamide gelators with different degrees of crystallinities. Single odd- and even-spaced single bisamides were synthesized and blended to produce binary bisamide organogelators to be characterized in order to understand the effect of the different directionality of amide groups on the molecular interaction in the crystalline state. The pattern of molecular interactions between these blended molecules, mixing or phase separation, has been monitored via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and crystallography techniques; X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The formation of lamellar structures for odd- and even-spaced bisamide gelators was confirmed by using SAXS and XRD techniques. DSC results have shown that binary bisamide organogelators with different parity of methylene spacers (odd-even binary blends) have a higher tendency for phase separation compared to the binary bisamides with the same parity (odd-odd or even-even binary blends). Phase separation in binary odd-even bisamides was confirmed by the presence of individual (100) reflections of odd and even lamellar structures. The structural characteristic of bisamide organogelators, the parity of spacer length in binary systems, is a promising tool to control the arrangement of molecules and their crystalline structure. Downloads 107
##### 21440 Investigating the Motion of a Viscous Droplet in Natural Convection Using the Level Set Method

Abstract:

Binary fluids and emulsions, in general, are present in a vast range of industrial, medical, and scientific applications, showing complex behaviors responsible for defining the flow dynamics and the system operation. However, the literature describing those highlighted fluids in non-isothermal models is currently still limited. The present work brings a detailed investigation on droplet migration due to natural convection in square enclosure, aiming to clarify the effects of drop viscosity on the flow dynamics by showing how distinct viscosity ratios (droplet/ambient fluid) influence the drop motion and the final movement pattern kept on stationary regimes. The analysis was taken by observing distinct combinations of Rayleigh number, drop initial position, and viscosity ratios. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations were solved considering the Boussinesq approximation in a laminar flow using the finite differences method combined with the Level Set method for binary flow solution. Previous results collected by the authors showed that the Rayleigh number and the drop initial position affect drastically the motion pattern of the droplet. For Ra ≥ 10⁴, two very marked behaviors were observed accordingly with the initial position: the drop can travel either a helical path towards the center or a cyclic circular path resulting in a closed cycle on the stationary regime. The variation of viscosity ratio showed a significant alteration of pattern, exposing a large influence on the droplet path, capable of modifying the flow’s behavior. Analyses on viscosity effects on the flow’s unsteady Nusselt number were also performed. Among the relevant contributions proposed in this work is the potential use of the flow initial conditions as a mechanism to control the droplet migration inside the enclosure. Downloads 56
##### 21439 Applications of Nonlinear Models to Measure and Predict Thermo Physical Properties of Binary Liquid Mixtures1, 4 Dioxane with Bromo Benzene at Various Temperatures

Authors: R. Ramesh, M. Y. M. Yunus, K. Ramesh

Abstract:

The study conducted in this research are Viscosities, η, and Densities ,ρ, of 1, 4-dioxane with Bromobenzene at different mole fractions and various temperatures in the atmospheric pressure condition. From experimentations excess volumes, VE, and deviations in viscosities, Δη, of mixtures at infinite dilutions have been obtained. The measured systems exhibited positive values of VmE and negative values of Δη. The binary mixture 1, 4 dioxane + Bromobenzene show positive VE and negative Δη with increasing temperatures. The outcomes clearly indicate that weak interactions present in mixture. It is mainly because of number and position of methyl groups exist in these aromatic hydrocarbons. These measured data tailored to the nonlinear models to derive the binary coefficients. Standard deviations have been considered between the fitted outcomes and the calculated data is helpful deliberate mixing behavior of the binary mixtures. It can conclude that in our cases, the data found with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The molecular interactions existing between the components and comparison of liquid mixtures were also discussed.

Keywords: 1, 4 dioxane, bromobenzene, density, excess molar volume

##### 21438 A Weighted Approach to Unconstrained Iris Recognition

Authors: Yao-Hong Tsai

Abstract:

This paper presents a weighted approach to unconstrained iris recognition. Nowadays, commercial systems are usually characterized by strong acquisition constraints based on the subject’s cooperation. However, it is not always achievable for real scenarios in our daily life. Researchers have been focused on reducing these constraints and maintaining the performance of the system by new techniques at the same time. With large variation in the environment, there are two main improvements to develop the proposed iris recognition system. For solving extremely uneven lighting condition, statistic based illumination normalization is first used on eye region to increase the accuracy of iris feature. The detection of the iris image is based on Adaboost algorithm. Secondly, the weighted approach is designed by Gaussian functions according to the distance to the center of the iris. Furthermore, local binary pattern (LBP) histogram is then applied to texture classification with the weight. Experiment showed that the proposed system provided users a more flexible and feasible way to interact with the verification system through iris recognition. Downloads 157
##### 21437 Low Density Parity Check Codes

Authors: Kassoul Ilyes

Abstract:

The field of error correcting codes has been revolutionized by the introduction of iteratively decoded codes. Among these, LDPC codes are now a preferred solution thanks to their remarkable performance and low complexity. The binary version of LDPC codes showed even better performance, although it’s decoding introduced greater complexity. This thesis studies the performance of binary LDPC codes using simplified weighted decisions. Information is transported between a transmitter and a receiver by digital transmission systems, either by propagating over a radio channel or also by using a transmission medium such as the transmission line. The purpose of the transmission system is then to carry the information from the transmitter to the receiver as reliably as possible. These codes have not generated enough interest within the coding theory community. This forgetfulness will last until the introduction of Turbo-codes and the iterative principle. Then it was proposed to adopt Pearl's Belief Propagation (BP) algorithm for decoding these codes. Subsequently, Luby introduced irregular LDPC codes characterized by a parity check matrix. And finally, we study simplifications on binary LDPC codes. Thus, we propose a method to make the exact calculation of the APP simpler. This method leads to simplifying the implementation of the system.

Keywords: LDPC, parity check matrix, 5G, BER, SNR

##### 21436 Comparative Analysis of Dissimilarity Detection between Binary Images Based on Equivalency and Non-Equivalency of Image Inversion

Abstract:

Image matching is a fundamental problem that arises frequently in many aspects of robot and computer vision. It can become a time-consuming process when matching images to a database consisting of hundreds of images, especially if the images are big. One approach to reducing the time complexity of the matching process is to reduce the search space in a pre-matching stage, by simply removing dissimilar images quickly. The Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) showed that dissimilarity detection between binary images can be accomplished quickly by random pixel mapping and is size invariant. The model is based on the gamma binary similarity distance that recognizes an image and its inverse as containing the same scene and hence considers them to be the same image. However, in many applications, an image and its inverse are not treated as being the same but rather dissimilar. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of dissimilarity detection between PMMBI based on the gamma binary similarity distance and a modified PMMBI model based on a similarity distance that does distinguish between an image and its inverse as being dissimilar. Downloads 72
##### 21435 Feasibility Study of the Binary Fluid Mixtures C3H6/C4H10 and C3H6/C5H12 Used in Diffusion-Absorption Refrigeration Cycles

Authors: N. Soli, B. Chaouachi, M. Bourouis

Abstract:

We propose in this work the thermodynamic feasibility study of the operation of a refrigerating machine with absorption-diffusion with mixtures of hydrocarbons. It is for a refrigerating machine of low power (300 W) functioning on a level of temperature of the generator lower than 150 °C (fossil energy or solar energy) and operative with non-harmful fluids for the environment. According to this study, we determined to start from the digraphs of Oldham of the different binary of hydrocarbons, the minimal and maximum temperature of operation of the generator, as well as possible enrichment. The cooling medium in the condenser and absorber is done by the ambient air with a temperature at 35 °C. Helium is used as inert gas. The total pressure in the cycle is about 17.5 bars. We used suitable software to modulate for the two binary following the system propylene /butane and propylene/pentane. Our model is validated by comparison with the literature’s resultants.

Keywords: absorption, DAR cycle, diffusion, propyléne

##### 21434 Magneto-Convective Instability in a Horizontal Power-Law Nanofluid Saturated Porous Layer

Abstract:

The onset of the convective instability in the horizontal through flow of a power-law nanofluid saturated by porous layer heated from below under the influences of magnetic field are investigated in this study. The linear stability theory is used for the transformation of the partial differential equations to system of ordinary differential equations through infinitesimal perturbations, scaling, linearization and method of normal modes with two-dimensional periodic waves. The system is solved analytically for the closed form solution of the Rayleigh number by using the Galerkin-type weighted residuals method to investigate the onset of both traveling wave and oscillatory convection. The effects of the power-law index, Lewis number and Peclet number on the stability of the system were investigated. The Lewis number stabilizes while the power-law index and Peclet number destabilize the nanofluid system. The system in the presence of magnetic field is more stable than the system in the absence of magnetic field. Downloads 192
##### 21433 Quick Similarity Measurement of Binary Images via Probabilistic Pixel Mapping

Abstract:

In this paper we present a quick technique to measure the similarity between binary images. The technique is based on a probabilistic mapping approach and is fast because only a minute percentage of the image pixels need to be compared to measure the similarity, and not the whole image. We exploit the power of the Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) to arrive at an estimate of the similarity. We show that the estimate is a good approximation of the actual value, and the quality of the estimate can be improved further with increased image mappings. Furthermore, the technique is image size invariant; the similarity between big images can be measured as fast as that for small images. Examples of trials conducted on real images are presented. Downloads 113
##### 21432 Features Vector Selection for the Recognition of the Fragmented Handwritten Numeric Chains

Abstract:

In this study, we propose an offline system for the recognition of the fragmented handwritten numeric chains. Firstly, we realized a recognition system of the isolated handwritten digits, in this part; the study is based mainly on the evaluation of neural network performances, trained with the gradient backpropagation algorithm. The used parameters to form the input vector of the neural network are extracted from the binary images of the isolated handwritten digit by several methods: the distribution sequence, sondes application, the Barr features, and the centered moments of the different projections and profiles. Secondly, the study is extended for the reading of the fragmented handwritten numeric chains constituted of a variable number of digits. The vertical projection was used to segment the numeric chain at isolated digits and every digit (or segment) was presented separately to the entry of the system achieved in the first part (recognition system of the isolated handwritten digits). Downloads 169
##### 21431 Dynamical Systems and Fibonacci Numbers

Authors: Vandana N. Purav

Abstract:

The Dynamical systems concept is a mathematical formalization for any fixed rule that describes the time dependence of a points position in its ambient space. e.g. pendulum of a clock, the number of fish each spring in a lake, the number of rabbits spring in an enclosure, etc. The Dynamical system theory used to describe the complex nature that is dynamical systems with differential equations called continuous dynamical system or dynamical system with difference equations called discrete dynamical system. The concept of dynamical system has its origin in Newtonian mechanics. Downloads 422
##### 21430 Prediction of the Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Supercritical CO2 Using the PC-SAFT EoS

Authors: Hamidreza Bagheri, Alireza Shariati

Abstract:

There are many difficulties in the purification of raw components and products. However, researchers are seeking better ways for purification. One of the recent methods is extraction using supercritical fluids. In this study, the phase equilibria of benzoic acid-supercritical carbon dioxide system were investigated. Regarding the phase equilibria of this system, the modeling of solid-supercritical fluid behavior was performed using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and Peng-Robinson equations of state (PR EoS). For this purpose, five PC-SAFT EoS parameters for pure benzoic acid were obtained using its experimental vapor pressure. Benzoic acid has association sites and the behavior of the benzoic acid-supercritical fluid system was well-predicted using both equations of state, while the binary interaction parameter values for PR EoS were negative. Genetic algorithm, which is one of the most accurate global optimization algorithms, was also used to optimize the pure benzoic acid parameters and the binary interaction parameters. The AAD% value for the PC-SAFT EoS, were 0.22 for the carbon dioxide-benzoic acid system. Downloads 403
##### 21429 Unequal Error Protection of VQ Image Transmission System

Abstract:

We will study the unequal error protection for VQ image. We have used the Reed Solomon (RS) Codes as Channel coding because they offer better performance in terms of channel error correction over a binary output channel. One such channel (binary input and output) should be considered if it is the case of the application layer, because it includes all the features of the layers located below and on the what it is usually not feasible to make changes. Downloads 272
##### 21428 The Foundation Binary-Signals Mechanics and Actual-Information Model of Universe

Abstract:

In contrast to the uncertainty and complementary principle, it will be shown in the present paper that the probability of the simultaneous occupation event of any definite values of coordinates by any definite values of momentum and energy at any definite instance of time can be described by a binary definite function equivalent to the difference between their numbers of occupation and evacuation epochs up to that time and also equivalent to the number of exchanges between those occupation and evacuation epochs up to that times modulus two, these binary definite quantities can be defined at all point in the time’s real-line so it form a binary signal represent a complete mechanical description of physical reality, the time of these exchanges represent the boundary of occupation and evacuation epochs from which we can calculate these binary signals using the fact that the time of universe events actually extends in the positive and negative of time’s real-line in one direction of extension when these number of exchanges increase, so there exists noninvertible transformation matrix can be defined as the matrix multiplication of invertible rotation matrix and noninvertible scaling matrix change the direction and magnitude of exchange event vector respectively, these noninvertible transformation will be called actual transformation in contrast to information transformations by which we can navigate the universe’s events transformed by actual transformations backward and forward in time’s real-line, so these information transformations will be derived as an elements of a group can be associated to their corresponded actual transformations. The actual and information model of the universe will be derived by assuming the existence of time instance zero before and at which there is no coordinate occupied by any definite values of momentum and energy, and then after that time, the universe begin its expanding in spacetime, this assumption makes the need for the existence of Laplace’s demon who at one moment can measure the positions and momentums of all constituent particle of the universe and then use the law of classical mechanics to predict all future and past of universe’s events, superfluous, we only need for the establishment of our analog to digital converters to sense the binary signals that determine the boundaries of occupation and evacuation epochs of the definite values of coordinates relative to its origin by the definite values of momentum and energy as present events of the universe from them we can predict approximately in high precision it's past and future events. Downloads 66