Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14748

Search results for: computers prefer the ternary system

14748 Teaching the Binary System via Beautiful Facts from the Real Life

Authors: Salem Ben Said

Abstract:

In recent times the decimal number system to which we are accustomed has received serious competition from the binary number system. In this note, an approach is suggested to teaching and learning the binary number system using examples from the real world. More precisely, we will demonstrate the utility of the binary system in describing the optimal strategy to win the Chinese Nim game, and in telegraphy by decoding the hidden message on Perseverance’s Mars parachute written in the language of binary system. Finally, we will answer the question, “why do modern computers prefer the ternary number system instead of the binary system?”. All materials are provided in a format that is conductive to classroom presentation and discussion.

Keywords: binary number system, Nim game, telegraphy, computers prefer the ternary system

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
14747 Studies on the Applicability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Prediction of Thermodynamic Behavior of Sodium Chloride Aqueous System Containing a Non-Electrolytes

Authors: Dariush Jafari, S. Mostafa Nowee

Abstract:

In this study a ternary system containing sodium chloride as solute, water as primary solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent was considered to investigate the application of artificial neural network (ANN) in prediction of sodium solubility in the mixture of water as the solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent. The system was previously studied using by Extended UNIQUAC model by the authors of this study. The comparison between the results of the two models shows an excellent agreement between them (R2=0.99), and also approves the capability of ANN to predict the thermodynamic behavior of ternary electrolyte systems which are difficult to model.

Keywords: thermodynamic modeling, ANN, solubility, ternary electrolyte system

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14746 Curve Designing Using an Approximating 4-Point C^2 Ternary Non-Stationary Subdivision Scheme

Authors: Muhammad Younis

Abstract:

A ternary 4-point approximating non-stationary subdivision scheme has been introduced that generates the family of $C^2$ limiting curves. The theory of asymptotic equivalence is being used to analyze the convergence and smoothness of the scheme. The comparison of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated using different examples with the existing 4-point ternary approximating schemes, which shows that the limit curves of the proposed scheme behave more pleasantly and can generate conic sections as well.

Keywords: ternary, non-stationary, approximation subdivision scheme, convergence and smoothness

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
14745 Mechanochemical Behaviour of Aluminium–Boron Oxide–Melamine Ternary System

Authors: Ismail Seckin Cardakli, Mustafa Engin Kocadagistan, Ersin Arslan

Abstract:

In this study, mechanochemical behaviour of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system was investigated by high energy ball milling. According to the reaction Al + B₂O₃ = Al₂O₃ + B, stochiometric amount of aluminium and boron oxide with melamine up to ten percent of total weight was used in the experiments. The powder characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after leaching of product by 1M HCl acid. Results show that mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) between aluminium and boron oxide takes place after four hours high energy ball milling. Al₂O₃/h-BN composite powder is obtained as the product of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system.

Keywords: high energy ball milling, hexagonal boron nitride, mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, melamine

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14744 Design of Ternary Coatings System to Minimize the Residual Solvent in Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Jyoti Sharma, Raj Kumar Arya

Abstract:

The coatings of homogeneous ternary solution of Poly(styrene)(PS)-Poly(ethyleneglycol)-6000(PEG) Chlorobenzene (CLB) of two different concentrations (5.05%-4.98%-89.97% and 10.05%-5.12%-84.82%) were studied and dried under quiescent conditions. Residual solvent percentage and coatings thickness were calculated by gravimetric weight loss data. Residual solvent remained lower in case of the single thick layer as compared to layer-by-layer assembly technique. The Results suggests the effectiveness of the single thick layer for minimizing the residual solvent. A single thick layer had an initial coating thickness of 1098 µm and the final thickness of 106 µm which is lower as compared to the dried coatings of nearly the same final thickness by layer-by-layer assembly technique.

Keywords: films, layer-by-layer assembly, polymeric coatings, ternary system

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14743 Quantum Entanglement and Thermalization in Superconducting Two-Qubit Systems

Authors: E. Karami, M. Bohloul, P. Najmadi

Abstract:

The superconducting system is a suitable system for quantum computers. Quantum entanglement is a fundamental phenomenon that is key to the power of quantum computers. Quantum entanglement has been studied in different superconducting systems. In this paper, we are investigating a superconducting two-qubit system as a macroscopic system. These systems include two coupled Quantronium circuits. We calculate quantum entanglement and thermalization for system evolution and compare them. We observe, thermalization and entanglement have different behavior, and equilibrium thermal state has maximum entanglement.

Keywords: macroscopic system, quantum entanglement, thermalization, superconducting system

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14742 Experimental Evaluation of Succinct Ternary Tree

Authors: Dmitriy Kuptsov

Abstract:

Tree data structures, such as binary or in general k-ary trees, are essential in computer science. The applications of these data structures can range from data search and retrieval to sorting and ranking algorithms. Naive implementations of these data structures can consume prohibitively large volumes of random access memory limiting their applicability in certain solutions. Thus, in these cases, more advanced representation of these data structures is essential. In this paper we present the design of the compact version of ternary tree data structure and demonstrate the results for the experimental evaluation using static dictionary problem. We compare these results with the results for binary and regular ternary trees. The conducted evaluation study shows that our design, in the best case, consumes up to 12 times less memory (for the dictionary used in our experimental evaluation) than a regular ternary tree and in certain configuration shows performance comparable to regular ternary trees. We have evaluated the performance of the algorithms using both 32 and 64 bit operating systems.

Keywords: algorithms, data structures, succinct ternary tree, per- formance evaluation

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14741 Effects of Particle Size Distribution of Binders on the Performance of Slag-Limestone Ternary Cement

Authors: Zhuomin Zou, Elke Gruyaert, Thijs Van Landeghem

Abstract:

Using supplementary cementitious materials, such as blast-furnace slag and limestone, to replace cement clinker is a promising method to reduce the carbon emissions from cement production. To efficiently use slag and limestone, it is necessary to carefully select the particle size distribution (PSD) of the binders. This study investigated the effects of the PSD of binders on the performance of slag-limestone ternary cement. The Portland cement (PC) was prepared by grinding 95% clinker + 5% gypsum. Based on the PSD parameters of the binders, three types of ternary cements with a similar overall PSD were designed, i.e., NO.1 fine slag, medium PC, and coarse limestone; NO.2 fine limestone, medium PC, and coarse slag; NO.3. fine PC, medium slag, and coarse limestone. The binder contents in the ternary cements were (a) 50 % PC, 40 % slag, and 10 % limestone (called high cement group) or (b) 35 % PC, 55 % slag, and 10 % limestone (called low cement group). The pure PC and binary cement with 50% slag and 50% PC prepared with the same binders as the ternary cement were considered as reference cements. All these cements were used to investigate the mortar performance in terms of workability, strength at 2, 7, 28, and 90 days, carbonation resistance, and non-steady state chloride migration resistance at 28 and 56 days. Results show that blending medium PC with fine slag could exhibit comparable performance to blending fine PC with medium/coarse slag in binary cement. For the three ternary cements in the high cement group, ternary cement with fine limestone (NO.2) shows the lowest strength, carbonation, and chloride migration performance. Ternary cements with fine slag (NO.1) and with fine PC (NO.3) show the highest flexural strength at early and late ages, respectively. In addition, compared with ternary cement with fine PC (NO.3), ternary cement with fine slag (NO.1) has a similar carbonation resistance and a better chloride migration resistance. For the low cement group, three ternary cements have a similar flexural and compressive strength before 7 days. After 28 days, ternary cement with fine limestone (NO.2) shows the highest flexural strength while fine PC (NO.3) has the highest compressive strength. In addition, ternary cement with fine slag (NO.1) shows a better chloride migration resistance but a lower carbonation resistance compared with the other two ternary cements. Moreover, the durability performance of ternary cement with fine PC (NO.3) is better than that of fine limestone (NO.2).

Keywords: limestone, particle size distribution, slag, ternary cement

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14740 The Attitude of High School Teachers in Saudi Arabia towards Computers: Qualitative Study

Authors: Manal O. Alothman, Judy Robertson

Abstract:

Teachers can play a huge role in encouraging students to use computers and can affect students’ attitudes towards computers. So understanding teachers’ beliefs and their use of computers is an important way to create effective motivational systems for teachers to use computers in the classroom in an effective way.A qualitative study (6 focus group) was carried out among Saudi High school teachers, both male and female, to examine their attitudes towards computers and to find out their computer skills and usage. The study showed a gender difference in that females were less likely to attend computer workshops, females also had less computer skills, and they have more negative attitudes towards computers than males. Also, the study found that low computer skills in the classroom made students unlikely to have the lessons presented using computers. Furthermore, the study found some factors that affected teachers’ attitudes towards computers. These factors were computer experience and confidence as much having skills and good experience in computer use, the role and importance of computers had become in their life and in teaching as well.

Keywords: attitude, education, student, teacher, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
14739 Computer Anxiety and the Use of Computerized System by University Librarians in Delta State University Library, Nigeria

Authors: L. Arumuru

Abstract:

The paper investigates computer anxiety and the use of computerized library system by university librarians in Delta State University library, Abraka, Nigeria. Some of the root causes of computer anxiety among university librarians such as lack of exposure to computers at early age, inadequate computer skills, inadequate computer training, fear at the sight of a computer, lack of understanding of how computers work, etc. were pin-pointed in the study. Also, the different services rendered in the university libraries with the aid of computers such as reference services, circulation services, acquisition services, cataloguing and classification services, etc. were identified. The study employed the descriptive survey research design through the expo-facto method, with a population of 56 librarians, while the simple percentage and frequency counts were used to analyze the data generated from the administered copies of the questionnaire. Based on the aforementioned root causes of computer anxiety and the resultant effect on computerized library system, recommendations were proffered in the study.

Keywords: computer anxiety, computerized library system, library services, university librarians

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
14738 Ternary Organic Blend for Semitransparent Solar Cells with Enhanced Short Circuit Current Density

Authors: Mohammed Makha, Jakob Heier, Frank Nüesch, Roland Hany

Abstract:

Organic solar cells (OSCs) have made rapid progress and currently achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of over 10%. OSCs have several merits over other direct light-to-electricity generating cells and can be processed at low cost from solution on flexible substrates over large areas. Moreover, combining organic semiconductors with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of semitransparent OSCs (SM-OSCs). For SM-OSCs the challenge is to achieve a high average visible transmission (AVT) while maintaining a high short circuit current (Jsc). Typically, Jsc of SM-OSCs is smaller than when using an opaque metal top electrode. This is because the non-absorbed light during the first transit through the active layer and the transparent electrode is forward-transmitted out of the device. Recently, OSCs using a ternary blend of organic materials have received attention. This strategy was pursued to extend the light harvesting over the visible range. However, it is a general challenge to manipulate the performance of ternary OSCs in a predictable way, because many key factors affect the charge generation and extraction in ternary solar cells. Consequently, the device performance is affected by the compatibility between the blend components and the resulting film morphology, the energy levels and bandgaps, the concentration of the guest material and its location in the active layer. In this work, we report on a solvent-free lamination process for the fabrication of efficient and semitransparent ternary blend OSCs. The ternary blend was composed of PC70BM and the electron donors PBDTTT-C and an NIR cyanine absorbing dye (Cy7T). Using an opaque metal top electrode, a PCE of 6% was achieved for the optimized binary polymer: fullerene blend (AVT = 56%). However, the PCE dropped to ~2% when decreasing (to 30 nm) the active film thickness to increase the AVT value (75%). Therefore we resorted to the ternary blend and measured for non-transparent cells a PCE of 5.5% when using an active polymer: dye: fullerene (0.7: 0.3: 1.5 wt:wt:wt) film of 95 nm thickness (AVT = 65% when omitting the top electrode). In a second step, the optimized ternary blend was used of the fabrication of SM-OSCs. We used a plastic/metal substrate with a light transmission of over 90% as a transparent electrode that was applied via a lamination process. The interfacial layer between the active layer and the top electrode was optimized in order to improve the charge collection and the contact with the laminated top electrode. We demonstrated a PCE of 3% with AVT of 51%. The parameter space for ternary OSCs is large and it is difficult to find the best concentration ratios by trial and error. A rational approach for device optimization is the construction of a ternary blend phase diagram. We discuss our attempts to construct such a phase diagram for the PBDTTT-C: Cy7T: PC70BM system via a combination of using selective Cy7T selective solvents and atomic force microscopy. From the ternary diagram suitable morphologies for efficient light-to-current conversion can be identified. We compare experimental OSC data with these predictions.

Keywords: organic photovoltaics, ternary phase diagram, ternary organic solar cells, transparent solar cell, lamination

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14737 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

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14736 Ternary Content Addressable Memory Cell with a Leakage Reduction Technique

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Nitin Gupta

Abstract:

Ternary Content Addressable Memory cells are mainly popular in network routers for packet forwarding and packet classification, but they are also useful in a variety of other applications that require high-speed table look-up. The main TCAM-design challenge is to decrease the power consumption associated with the large amount of parallel active circuitry, without compromising with speed or memory density. Furthermore, when the channel length decreases, leakage power becomes more significant, and it can even dominate dynamic power at lower technologies. In this paper, we propose a TCAM-design technique, called Virtual Power Supply technique that reduces the leakage by a substantial amount.

Keywords: match line (ML), search line (SL), ternary content addressable memory (TCAM), Leakage power (LP)

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14735 A Design-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Learning System

Authors: Martina Holenko Dlab, Natasa Hoic-Bozic, Ivica Boticki

Abstract:

This paper presents technologically innovative and scalable mobile learning solution within the SCOLLAm project (“Opening up education through Seamless and COLLAborative mobile learning on tablet computers”). The main research method applied during the development of the SCOLLAm mobile learning system is design-based research. It assumes iterative refinement of the system guided by collaboration between researches and practitioners. Following the identification of requirements, a multiplatform mobile learning system SCOLLAm [in]Form was developed. Several experiments were designed and conducted in the first and second grade of elementary school. SCOLLAm [in]Form system was used to design learning activities for math classes during which students practice calculation. System refinements were based on experience and interaction data gathered during class observations. In addition to implemented improvements, the data were used to outline possible improvements and deficiencies of the system that should be addressed in the next phase of the SCOLLAm [in]Form development.

Keywords: adaptation, collaborative learning, educational technology, mobile learning, tablet computers

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14734 Assessment of the Administration and Services of Public Access Computers in Academic Libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Ahmed Adam, Umar Ibrahim, Ezra S. Gbaje

Abstract:

This study is posed to explore the practice of Public Access Computers (PACs) in academic libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the computers and other tools available, their services and challenges of the practices. Three questions were framed to identify number of public computers and tools available, their services and problems faced during the practice. The study used qualitative research design along with semi-constructed interview and observation as tools for data collection. Descriptive analysis was employed to analyze the data. The sample size of the study comprises 52 librarian and IT staff from the seven academic institutions in Kaduna State. The findings revealed that, PACs were provided for access to the Internet, digital resources, library catalogue and training services. The study further explored that, despite the limit number of the computers, users were not allowed to enjoy many services. The study recommends that libraries in Kaduna state should provide more public computers to be able to cover the population of their users; libraries should allow users to use the computers without limitations and restrictions.

Keywords: academic libraries, computers in library, digital libraries, public computers

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
14733 Study on the Strength and Durability Properties of Ternary Blended Concrete

Authors: Athira Babu, M. Nazeer

Abstract:

Concrete is the most common and versatile construction material used in any type of civil engineering structure. The durability and strength characteristics of concrete make it more desirable among any other construction materials. The manufacture and use of concrete produces wide range of environmental and social consequences. The major component in concrete, cement accounts for roughly 5 % of global CO2 emissions. In order to improve the environmental friendliness of concrete, suitable substitutes are added to concrete. The present study deals with GGBS and silica fume as supplementary cementitious materials. The strength and durability studies were conducted in this ternary blended concrete. Several mixes were adopted with varying percentages of Silica Fume i.e., 5%, 10% and 15%. Binary mix with 50% GGBS was also prepared. GGBS content has been kept constant for the rest of mixes. There is an improvement in compressive strength with addition of Silica Fume.Maximum workability, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and impact resistance are obtained for GGBS binary blend. For durability studies, maximum sulphate resistance,carbonation resistance andresistance to chloride ion penetration are obtained for ternary blended concrete. Partial replacement of GGBS and Silica Fume reduces the environmental effects, produces economical and eco-friendly concrete. The study showed that for strength characteristics, binary blended concrete showed better performance while for durability study ternary blend performed better.

Keywords: concrete, GGBS, silica fume, ternary blend

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14732 Attempt to Reuse Used-PCs as Distributed Storage

Authors: Toshiya Kawato, Shin-ichi Motomura, Masayuki Higashino, Takao Kawamura

Abstract:

Storage for storing data is indispensable. If a storage capacity becomes insufficient, we can increase its capacity by adding new disks. It is, however, difficult to add a new disk when a budget is not enough. On the other hand, there are many unused idle resources such as used personal computers despite those use value. In order to solve those problems, used personal computers can be reused as storage. In this paper, we attempt to reuse used-PCs as a distributed storage. First, we list up the characteristics of used-PCs and design a storage system that utilizes its characteristics. Next, we experimentally implement an auto-construction system that automatically constructs a distributed storage environment in used-PCs.

Keywords: distributed storage, used personal computer, idle resource, auto construction

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14731 Efficient Utilization of Commodity Computers in Academic Institutes: A Cloud Computing Approach

Authors: Jasraj Meena, Malay Kumar, Manu Vardhan

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a new technology in industry and academia. The technology has grown and matured in last half decade and proven their significant role in changing environment of IT infrastructure where cloud services and resources are offered over the network. Cloud technology enables users to use services and resources without being concerned about the technical implications of technology. There are substantial research work has been performed for the usage of cloud computing in educational institutes and majority of them provides cloud services over high-end blade servers or other high-end CPUs. However, this paper proposes a new stack called “CiCKAStack” which provide cloud services over unutilized computing resources, named as commodity computers. “CiCKAStack” provides IaaS and PaaS using underlying commodity computers. This will not only increasing the utilization of existing computing resources but also provide organize file system, on demand computing resource and design and development environment.

Keywords: commodity computers, cloud-computing, KVM, CloudStack, AppScale

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14730 Modulated Bioavailability of an Anti HIV Drug through a Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System

Authors: Sunit Kumar Sahoo, Prakash Chandra Senapati

Abstract:

The main drawback to design drug delivery systems with BCS class II drugs is their low bioavailabilty due to their inherent low permeability characteristics. So the present investigation aspire to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of BCS class II anti HIV drug efavirenz (EFZ) using mixtures of non-ionic surfactant mixtures with the main objective to improve the oral bioavailability of said drug. Results obtained from solubility studies of EFZ in various expients utilized for construction of the pseudo ternary phase diagram containing surfactant mixtures. Surfactants in 1:1 combination are used with different co-surfactants in different ratio to delineate the area of monophasic region of the pseudo ternary phase diagram. The formulations which offered positive results in different thermodynamic stability studies were considered for percentage transmittance and turbidity analysis. The various characterization studies like the TEM analysis of post diluted SNEDDS formulations r confirmed the size in nanometric range (below 50 nm) and FT-IR studies confirmed the intactness of the drug the in the preconcentrate. The in vitro dissolution profile of SNEDDS showed that 80% drug was released within 30 min in case of optimized SNEDDS while it was approximately 18.3 % in the case of plain drug powder.. The Pharmacokinetic study using rat model revealed a 2.63 fold increase in AUC (0-∞) in comparison to plain EFZ suspension. The designed delivery system illustrated the confidence in creating a formulation of EFZ with enhanced bioavailability for better HIV treatment.

Keywords: efavirenz, self-nanoemulsifying, surfactant mixture, bioavailability

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14729 Trusting Smart Speakers: Analysing the Different Levels of Trust between Technologies

Authors: Alec Wells, Aminu Bello Usman, Justin McKeown

Abstract:

The growing usage of smart speakers raises many privacy and trust concerns compared to other technologies such as smart phones and computers. In this study, a proxy measure of trust is used to gauge users’ opinions on three different technologies based on an empirical study, and to understand which technology most people are most likely to trust. The collected data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test to determine the statistical differences between the users’ trust level of the three technologies: smart speaker, computer and smart phone. The findings of the study revealed that despite the wide acceptance, ease of use and reputation of smart speakers, people find it difficult to trust smart speakers with their sensitive information via the Direct Voice Input (DVI) and would prefer to use a keyboard or touchscreen offered by computers and smart phones. Findings from this study can inform future work on users’ trust in technology based on perceived ease of use, reputation, perceived credibility and risk of using technologies via DVI.

Keywords: direct voice input, risk, security, technology, trust

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14728 Nursing Students' Experience of Using Electronic Health Record System in Clinical Placements

Authors: Nurten Tasdemir, Busra Baloglu, Zeynep Cingoz, Can Demirel, Zeki Gezer, Barıs Efe

Abstract:

Student nurses are increasingly exposed to technology in the workplace after graduation with the growing numbers of electric health records (EHRs), handheld computers, barcode scanner medication dispensing systems, and automatic capture of patient data such as vital signs. Internationally, electronic health records (EHRs) systems are being implemented and evaluated. Students will inevitably encounter EHRs in the clinical learning environment and their professional practice. Nursing students must develop competency in the use of EHR. Aim: The study aimed to examine nursing students’ experiences of learning to use electronic health records (EHR) in clinical placements. Method: This study adopted a descriptive approach. The study population consisted of second and third-year nursing students at the Zonguldak School of Health in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey; the study was conducted during the 2015–2016 academic year. The sample consisted of 315 (74.1% of 425 students) nursing students who volunteered to participate. The students, who were involved in clinical practice, were invited to participate in the study Data were collected by a questionnaire designed by the researchers based on the relevant literature. Data were analyzed descriptively using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 16.0. The data are presented as means, standard deviations, and percentages. Approval for the study was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the University (Reg. Number: 29/03/2016/112) and the director of Nursing Department. Findings: A total of 315 students enrolled in this study, for a response rate of 74.1%. The mean age of the sample was 22.24 ± 1.37 (min: 19, max: 32) years, and most participants (79.7%) were female. Most of the nursing students (82.3%) stated that they use information technologies in clinical practice. Nearly half of the students (42.5%) reported that they have not accessed to EHR system. In addition, 61.6% of the students reported that insufficient computers available in clinical placement. Of the students, 84.7% reported that they prefer to have patient information from EHR system, and 63.8% of them found more effective to preparation for the clinical reporting. Conclusion: This survey indicated that nursing students experience to learn about EHR systems in clinical placements. For more effective learning environment nursing education should prepare nursing students for EHR systems in their educational life.

Keywords: electronic health record, clinical placement, nursing student, nursing education

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14727 Mechanical Properties of Ternary Metal Nitride Ti1-xTaxN Alloys from First-Principles

Authors: M. Benhamida, Kh. Bouamama, P. Djemia

Abstract:

We investigate by first-principles pseudo-potential calculations the composition dependence of lattice parameter, hardness and elastic properties of ternary disordered solid solutions Ti(1-x)Ta(x)N (1>=x>=0) with B1-rocksalt structure. Calculations use the coherent potential approximation with the exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) and hardness formula for multicomponent covalent solid solution proposed. Bulk modulus B shows a nearly linear behaviour whereas not C44 and C’=(C11-C12)/2 that are not monotonous. Influences of vacancies on hardness of off-stoichiometric transition-metal nitrides TiN(1−x) and TaN(1−x) are also considered.

Keywords: transition metal nitride materials, elastic constants, hardness, EMTO

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14726 Hydraulic Analysis on Microhabitat of Benthic Macroinvertebrates at Riparian Riffles

Authors: Jin-Hong Kim

Abstract:

Hydraulic analysis on microhabitat of Benthic Macro- invertebrates was performed at riparian riffles of Hongcheon River and Gapyeong Stream. As for the representative species, Ecdyonurus kibunensis, Paraleptophlebia cocorata, Chironomidae sp. and Psilotreta kisoensis iwata were chosen. They showed hydraulically different habitat types by flow velocity and particle diameters of streambed materials. Habitat conditions of the swimmers were determined mainly by the flow velocity rather than by flow depth or by riverbed materials. Burrowers prefer sand and silt, and inhabited at the riverbed. Sprawlers prefer cobble or boulder and inhabited for velocity of 0.05-0.15 m/s. Clingers prefer pebble or cobble and inhabited for velocity of 0.06-0.15 m/s. They were found to be determined mainly by the flow velocity.

Keywords: benthic macroinvertebrates, riffles, clinger, swimmer, burrower, sprawler

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14725 Excel-VBA as Modelling Platform for Thermodynamic Optimisation of an R290/R600a Cascade Refrigeration System

Authors: M. M. El-Awad

Abstract:

The availability of computers and educational software nowadays helps engineering students acquire better understanding of engineering principles and their applications. With these facilities, students can perform sensitivity and optimisation analyses which were not possible in the past by using slide-rules and hand calculators. Standard textbooks in engineering thermodynamics also use software such as Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and Interactive Thermodynamics (IT) for solving calculation-intensive and design problems. Unfortunately, engineering students in most developing countries do not have access to such applications which are protected by intellectual-property rights. This paper shows how Microsoft ExcelTM and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications), which are normally distributed with personal computers and laptops, can be used as an alternative modelling platform for thermodynamic analyses and optimisation. The paper describes the VBA user-defined-functions developed for determining the refrigerants properties with Excel. For illustration, the combination is used to model and optimise the intermediate temperature for a propane/iso-butane cascade refrigeration system.

Keywords: thermodynamic optimisation, engineering education, excel, VBA, cascade refrigeration system

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14724 Application of Industrial Ergonomics in Vehicle Service System Design

Authors: Zhao Yu, Zhi-Nan Zhang

Abstract:

More and more interactive devices are used in the transportation service system. Our mobile phones, on-board computers, and Head-Up Displays (HUDs) can all be used as the tools of the in-car service system. People can access smart systems with different terminals such as mobile phones, computers, pads and even their cars and watches. Different forms of terminals bring the different quality of interaction by the various human-computer Interaction modes. The new interactive devices require good ergonomics design at each stage of the whole design process. According to the theory of human factors and ergonomics, this paper compared three types of interactive devices by four driving tasks. Forty-eight drivers were chosen to experience these three interactive devices (mobile phones, on-board computers, and HUDs) by a simulate driving process. The subjects evaluated ergonomics performance and subjective workload after the process. And subjects were encouraged to support suggestions for improving the interactive device. The result shows that different interactive devices have different advantages in driving tasks, especially in non-driving tasks such as information and entertainment fields. Compared with mobile phones and onboard groups, the HUD groups had shorter response times in most tasks. The tasks of slow-up and the emergency braking are less accurate than the performance of a control group, which may because the haptic feedback of these two tasks is harder to distinguish than the visual information. Simulated driving is also helpful in improving the design of in-vehicle interactive devices. The paper summarizes the ergonomics characteristics of three in-vehicle interactive devices. And the research provides a reference for the future design of in-vehicle interactive devices through an ergonomic approach to ensure a good interaction relationship between the driver and the in-vehicle service system.

Keywords: human factors, industrial ergonomics, transportation system, usability, vehicle user interface

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14723 Alkali Activation of Fly Ash, Metakaolin and Slag Blends: Fresh and Hardened Properties

Authors: Weiliang Gong, Lissa Gomes, Lucile Raymond, Hui Xu, Werner Lutze, Ian L. Pegg

Abstract:

Alkali-activated materials, particularly geopolymers, have attracted much interest in academia. Commercial applications are on the rise, as well. Geopolymers are produced typically by a reaction of one or two aluminosilicates with an alkaline solution at room temperature. Fly ash is an important aluminosilicate source. However, using low-Ca fly ash, the byproduct of burning hard or black coal reacts and sets slowly at room temperature. The development of mechanical durability, e.g., compressive strength, is slow as well. The use of fly ashes with relatively high contents ( > 6%) of unburned carbon, i.e., high loss on ignition (LOI), is particularly disadvantageous as well. This paper will show to what extent these impediments can be mitigated by mixing the fly ash with one or two more aluminosilicate sources. The fly ash used here is generated at the Orlando power plant (Florida, USA). It is low in Ca ( < 1.5% CaO) and has a high LOI of > 6%. The additional aluminosilicate sources are metakaolin and blast furnace slag. Binary fly ash-metakaolin and ternary fly ash-metakaolin-slag geopolymers were prepared. Properties of geopolymer pastes before and after setting have been measured. Fresh mixtures of aluminosilicates with an alkaline solution were studied by Vicat needle penetration, rheology, and isothermal calorimetry up to initial setting and beyond. The hardened geopolymers were investigated by SEM/EDS and the compressive strength was measured. Initial setting (fluid to solid transition) was indicated by a rapid increase in yield stress and plastic viscosity. The rheological times of setting were always smaller than the Vicat times of setting. Both times of setting decreased with increasing replacement of fly ash with blast furnace slag in a ternary fly ash-metakaolin-slag geopolymer system. As expected, setting with only Orlando fly ash was the slowest. Replacing 20% fly ash with metakaolin shortened the set time. Replacing increasing fractions of fly ash in the binary system by blast furnace slag (up to 30%) shortened the time of setting even further. The 28-day compressive strength increased drastically from < 20 MPa to 90 MPa. The most interesting finding relates to the calorimetric measurements. The use of two or three aluminosilicates generated significantly more heat (20 to 65%) than the calculated from the weighted sum of the individual aluminosilicates. This synergetic heat contributes or may be responsible for most of the increase of compressive strength of our binary and ternary geopolymers. The synergetic heat effect may be also related to increased incorporation of calcium in sodium aluminosilicate hydrate to form a hybrid (N,C)A-S-H) gel. The time of setting will be correlated with heat release and maximum heat flow.

Keywords: alkali-activated materials, binary and ternary geopolymers, blends of fly ash, metakaolin and blast furnace slag, rheology, synergetic heats

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14722 Atom Probe Study of Early Stage of Precipitation on Binary Al-Li, Al-Cu Alloys and Ternary Al-Li-Cu Alloys

Authors: Muna Khushaim

Abstract:

Aluminum-based alloys play a key role in modern engineering, especially in the aerospace industry. Introduction of solute atoms such as Li and Cu is the main approach to improve the strength in age-hardenable Al alloys via the precipitation hardening phenomenon. Knowledge of the decomposition process of the microstructure during the precipitation reaction is particularly important for future technical developments. The objective of this study is to investigate the nano-scale chemical composition in the Al-Cu, Al-Li and Al-Li-Cu during the early stage of the precipitation sequence and to describe whether this compositional difference correlates with variations in the observed precipitation kinetics. Comparing the random binomial frequency distribution and the experimental frequency distribution of concentrations in atom probe tomography data was used to investigate the early stage of decomposition in the different binary and ternary alloys which were experienced different heat treatments. The results show that an Al-1.7 at.% Cu alloy requires a long ageing time of approximately 8 h at 160 °C to allow the diffusion of Cu atoms into Al matrix. For the Al-8.2 at.% Li alloy, a combination of both the natural ageing condition (48 h at room temperature) and a short artificial ageing condition (5 min at 160 °C) induces increasing on the number density of the Li clusters and hence increase number of precipitated δ' particles. Applying this combination of natural ageing and short artificial ageing conditions onto the ternary Al-4 at.% Li-1.7 at.% Cu alloy induces the formation of a Cu-rich phase. Increasing the Li content in the ternary alloy up to 8 at.% and increasing the ageing time to 30 min resulted in the precipitation processes ending with δ' particles. Thus, the results contribute to the understanding of Al-alloy design.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, atom probe tomography, early stage, decomposition

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14721 Development and Evaluation of Simvastatin Based Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Hardeep

Abstract:

The aim of this research work to improve the solubility and bioavailability of Simvastatin using a self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Self emulsifying property of various oils including essential oils was evaluated with suitable surfactants and co-surfactants. Validation of a method for accuracy, repeatability, Interday and intraday precision, ruggedness, and robustness were within acceptable limits. The liquid SNEDDS was prepared and optimized using a ternary phase diagram, thermodynamic, centrifugation and cloud point studies. The globule size of optimized formulations was less than 200 nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion size range. The mean droplet size, drug loading, PDI and zeta potential were found to be 141.0 nm, 92.22%, 0.23 and -10.13 mV and 153.5nm, 93.89 % ,0.41 and -11.7 mV and 164.26 nm, 95.26% , 0.41 and -10.66mV respectively.

Keywords: simvastatin, self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system, solubility, bioavailability

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14720 A Hybrid Expert System for Generating Stock Trading Signals

Authors: Hosein Hamisheh Bahar, Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi, Akbar Esfahanipour

Abstract:

In this paper, a hybrid expert system is developed by using fuzzy genetic network programming with reinforcement learning (GNP-RL). In this system, the frame-based structure of the system uses the trading rules extracted by GNP. These rules are extracted by using technical indices of the stock prices in the training time period. For developing this system, we applied fuzzy node transition and decision making in both processing and judgment nodes of GNP-RL. Consequently, using these method not only did increase the accuracy of node transition and decision making in GNP's nodes, but also extended the GNP's binary signals to ternary trading signals. In the other words, in our proposed Fuzzy GNP-RL model, a No Trade signal is added to conventional Buy or Sell signals. Finally, the obtained rules are used in a frame-based system implemented in Kappa-PC software. This developed trading system has been used to generate trading signals for ten companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). The simulation results in the testing time period shows that the developed system has more favorable performance in comparison with the Buy and Hold strategy.

Keywords: fuzzy genetic network programming, hybrid expert system, technical trading signal, Tehran stock exchange

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14719 A Novel Way to Create Qudit Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Arun Moorthy

Abstract:

Quantum computing promises to provide algorithmic speedups for a number of tasks; however, similar to classical computing, effective error-correcting codes are needed. Current quantum computers require costly equipment to control each particle, so having fewer particles to control is ideal. Although traditional quantum computers are built using qubits (2-level systems), qudits (more than 2-levels) are appealing since they can have an equivalent computational space using fewer particles, meaning fewer particles need to be controlled. Currently, qudit quantum error-correction codes are available for different level qudit systems; however, these codes have sometimes overly specific constraints. When building a qudit system, it is important for researchers to have access to many codes to satisfy their requirements. This project addresses two methods to increase the number of quantum error correcting codes available to researchers. The first method is generating new codes for a given set of parameters. The second method is generating new error-correction codes by using existing codes as a starting point to generate codes for another level (i.e., a 5-level system code on a 2-level system). So, this project builds a website that researchers can use to generate new error-correction codes or codes based on existing codes.

Keywords: qudit, error correction, quantum, qubit

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