Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Shrutisingh Tomar

22 Pachhedi: A Material Culture Study on Folk Textile of India

Authors: Shrutisingh Tomar, Madhu Sharan


It has been an undisputed fact that the culture of a nation has always been reflected in its practice, visual content and in forms of its oral traditions. Regional and communal costumes in India since ancient times have worked as a strong repository for its people to comprehend not only the locality but also the community of the wearer. Such a strong visual language apparently was ordained to communicate basic details about the person such as age, marital status, and socio-cultural status. Most of the fragments of this visual vocabulary have been intensively investigated, recorded, diversified and revived, while a limited range of these has died a slow death. Some of the rare existent kinds of such threads have survived as a mainstream article of clothing: simpler, apparent and a product for daily life yet unique in their own kind. The paper intends to consider and elaborate the investigated repository pertinent to the Pacchedi weaving tradition of Gujarat. The research involved field surveys across seven districts of the two states of India namely Gujarat and Rajasthan. Ethnographic interviews, observations, recording of oral histories and archival research was conducted through multi-timed and multi-cited studies between from the year 2012 to 2015. The results include varied forms of Pacchedi based on the sartorial expressions in the male costume. The characteristic features of these textiles were accorded by the sumptuous use of brocaded cross borders and weft heavy ends along with the details on the languishing fabrication procedure.

Keywords: handloom weaving, material culture, sartorial expressions and vernacular textile craft

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21 Non Performing Asset Variations across Indian Commercial Banks: Some Findings

Authors: Sanskriti Singh, Ankit Tomar


Banks are the instrument of growth of a country. Banks mobilize the savings of the public in the form of deposits and channelize it as advances for various activities required for the development of society at large. The advance which becomes unpaid for a certain period is called Non Performing Asset of the bank. The study makes an attempt to bring out the magnitude of NPA and its impact on profit, advances. An attempt is also made to bring out the challenges NPA poses to the banks and suggestions to overcome and to manage NPA effectively.

Keywords: India, NPAs, private banks, public banks

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20 Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates

Authors: Tao Qu, Chandra Prakash, Vikas Tomar


The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.

Keywords: chitin, composites, interfaces, fracture

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19 Comparative Study of Soliton Collisions in Uniform and Nonuniform Magnetized Plasma

Authors: Renu Tomar, Hitendra K. Malik, Raj P. Dahiya


Similar to the sound waves in air, plasmas support the propagation of ion waves, which evolve into the solitary structures when the effect of non linearity and dispersion are balanced. The ion acoustic solitary waves have been investigated in details in homogeneous plasmas, inhomogeneous plasmas, and magnetized plasmas. The ion acoustic solitary waves are also found to reflect from a density gradient or boundary present in the plasma after propagating. Another interesting feature of the solitary waves is their collision. In the present work, we carry out analytical calculations for the head-on collision of solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which has dust grains in addition to the ions and electrons. For this, we employ Poincar´e-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. To lowest nonlinear order, the problem of colliding solitary waves leads to KdV (modified KdV) equations and also yields the phase shifts that occur in the interaction. These calculations are accomplished for the uniform and nonuniform plasmas, and the results on the soliton properties are discussed in detail.

Keywords: inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, dust charging, soliton collisions, magnetized plasma

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18 Cocrystals of Etodolac: A Crystal Engineering Approach with an Endeavor to Enhance Its Biopharmaceutical Assets

Authors: Sakshi Tomar, Renu Chadha


Cocrystallization comprises a selective route to the intensive design of pharmaceutical products with desired physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The present study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of etodolac (ET) co-crystals with coformers nicotinamide (ETNI) and Glutaric acid (ETGA), using cocrystallization approach. Preliminarily examination of the prepared co-crystal was done by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). DSC thermographs of ETNI and ETGA cocrystals showed single sharp melting endotherms at 144°C and 135°C, respectively, which were different from the melting of drugs and coformers. FT-IR study points towards carbonyl-acid interaction sandwiched between the involving molecules. The emergence of new peaks in the PXRD pattern confirms the formation of new crystalline solid forms. Both the cocrystals exhibited better apparent solubility, and 3.8-5.0 folds increase in IDR were established, as compared to pure etodolac. Evaluations of these solid forms were done using anti-osteoarthritic activities. All the results indicate that etodolac cocrystals possess better anti-osteoarthritic efficacy than free drug. Thus loom of cocrystallization has been found to be a viable approach to resolve the solubility and bioavailability issues that circumvent the use of potential antiosteoarthritic molecules.

Keywords: bioavailability, etodolac, nicotinamide, osteoarthritis

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17 Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor

Authors: Bal Chandra Yadav, Rakesh K. Sonker, Anjali Sharma, Punit Tyagi, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar


In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.

Keywords: ZSO nanocomposite thin film, ZnO tetrapod structure, NO2 gas sensor, sol-gel method

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16 Bioremediation of Paper Mill Effluent by Microbial Consortium Comprising Bacterial and Fungal Strain and Optimizing the Effect of Carbon Source

Authors: Priya Tomar, Pallavi Mittal


Bioremediation has been recognized as an environment friendly and less expensive method which involves the natural processes resulting in the efficient conversion of hazardous compounds into innocuous products. The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluents amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. The colouring body present in the wastewater from pulp and paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannin, resins, synthetic dyes, lignin, and its degradation products formed by the action of chlorine on lignin which imparts an offensive colour to the water. These mills use different chemical process for paper manufacturing due to which lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem we present this paper with some new techniques that were developed for the efficiency of paper mill effluents. In the present study we utilized the consortia of fungal and bacterial strain and the treatment named as C1, C2, and C3 for the decolourization of paper mill effluent. During the study, role of carbon source i.e. glucose was studied for decolourization. From the results it was observed that a maximum colour reduction of 66.9%, COD reduction of 51.8%, TSS reduction of 0.34%, TDS reduction of 0.29% and pH changes of 4.2 is achieved by consortia of Aspergillus niger with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Data indicated that consortia of Aspergillus niger with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is giving better result with glucose.

Keywords: bioremediation, decolourization, black liquor, mycoremediation

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15 Effects of Seed Culture and Attached Growth System on the Performance of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) Treating Nitrogenous Wastewater

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta


The start-up of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in hybrid reactor delineated four distinct phases i.e. cell lysis, lag phase, activity elevation and stationary phase. Cell lysis phase was marked by death and decay of heterotrophic denitrifiers resulting in breakdown of organic nitrogen into ammonium. Lag phase showed initiation of anammox activity with turnover of heterotrophic denitrifiers, which is evident from appearance of NO3-N in the effluent. In activity elevation phase, anammox became the dominant reaction, which can be attributed to consequent reduction of NH4-N into N2 with increased NO3-N in the effluent. Proper selection of mixed seed culture at influent NO2-/NH4+ ratio (1:1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day led to early startup of anammox within 70 days. Pseudo steady state removal efficiencies of NH4+ and NO2- were found as 94.3% and 96.4% respectively, at nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.35 kg N/m3d at an HRT of 1 day. Analysis of the data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 11% increase in the ammonium removal and results in an average of 29% reduction in sludge washout rate. Mass balance study of nitrogen indicated that 74.1% of total input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2% being utilized in biomass development. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge clearly showed the presence of cocci and rod shaped microorganisms intermingled on the external surface of the granules. The average size of anammox granules (1.2-1.5 mm) with an average settling velocity of 45.6 m/h indicated a high degree of granulation resulting into formation of well compacted granules in the anammox process.

Keywords: anammox, hybrid reactor, startup, granulation, nitrogen removal, mixed seed culture

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14 Gross Morphological Study on Heart of Yellow Bellied Sea Snake

Authors: Jonnalagadda Naveen, M. P. S. Tomar, Putluru Satish, Palanisamy Dharani


Present investigation was carried out on a single specimen of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake, which accidentally came to the seashore with the fisherman’s net. After the death, these specimens was preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin and observe for its morphology. The literature cited revealed that meager information was available on the anatomy of the heart of this species of snake thus present study was planned on the gross anatomy of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake. The heart of yellow-bellied sea snake was located between 28-35th rib in an oblique direction in the pericardial sac. It was three chambered with the complete division of atria but the ventricular cavity was incompletely divided. The apex did not show any gubernaculum cordis. The sinus venosus was the common cavity for confluence of anterior and posterior vana cava and the jugular vein was opened with anterior vena cava. The opening of posterior vena cava was slit-like and it was guarded by membranous valves whereas no valve could be observed at the opening of anterior vana cava and the jugular vein. Both the caval veins ran along the right border of the heart. Pulmonary vein was single which later divided into two branches. The length-width index for the atria was 1.33 whereas it was 1.67 for the ventricle. The atrioventricular canal was situated slightly towards the left of the midline of the heart and was divided into a right cavum pulmonale and left cavum arteriosum of which the right one was slightly larger and longer than the left. The cavum venosum was present in between the cavum pulmonale and the cavum arteriosum. The Ventricle was elongated triangle muscular compartment with ventrally located apex. Internally the cavity of ventricle was divided into two partial chambers dorsally by a muscular ridge and ventrally by an incomplete inter ventricular septum.

Keywords: aorta, atrium, heart, sea snake, sinus venosus, ventricle

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13 Ageing Gingiva: A New Hope for Autologous Stem Cell Therapy

Authors: Ankush M. Dewle, Suditi Bhattacharya, Prachi R. Abhang, Savita Datar, Ajay J. Jog, Rupesh K. Srivastava, Geetanjali Tomar


Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from ageing gingival tissues, in order to suggest their potential role in autologous stem cell therapy for old individuals. Methods: MSCs were isolated from gingival tissues of young (18-45 years) and old (above 45 years) donors by enzymatic digestion. MSCs were analysed for cfu-f, surface marker expression by flow-cytometry and multilineage differentiation potential. The angiogenic potential was compared in a chick embryo yolk sac membrane model. The aging and differentiation markers including SA-β-galactosidase and p21 respectively were analysed by staining and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, osteogenic markers such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured by flow-cytometry and RT-qPCR was performed for quantification of osteogenic gene expression. Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were also quantitated. Results: Gingival MSCs (GMSCs) from both the age groups were similar in their morphology and displayed cfu-f. They had similar expression of MSC surface markers and p21, comparable rate of proliferation and differentiated to all the four lineages. GMSCs from young donors had a higher adipogenic differentiation potential as compared to the old GMSCs. Moreover, these cells did not display a significant difference in ALP activity probably due to comparable expression of GR, VDR, and osteogenic genes. Conclusions: Ageing of GMSCs occurs at a much slower rate than stem cells from other sources. Thus we suggest GMSCs as an excellent candidate for autologous stem cell therapy in degenerative diseases of elderly individuals. Clinical Significance: GMSCs could help overcome the setbacks in clinical implementation of autologous stem cell therapy for regenerative medicine in all age group of patient.

Keywords: bone regeneration, cell therapy, senescence, stem cell

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12 Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation on Sarcopenic Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Deepak Nathiya1, Ramesh Roop Rai, Pratima Singh1, Preeti Raj1, Supriya Suman, Balvir Singh Tomar


Background: Sarcopenia is a catabolic state in liver cirrhosis (LC), accelerated with a breakdown of skeletal muscle to release amino acids which adversely affects survival, health-related quality of life, and response to any underlying disease. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementations on parameters associated with improved prognosis in sarcopenic patients with LC, as well as to evaluate its impact on cirrhotic-related events. Methods: We carried out a 24 week, single-center, randomized, open-label, controlled, two cohort parallel-group intervention trial comparing the efficacy of BCAA against lactoalbumin (L-ALB) on 106 sarcopenic liver cirrhotics. The BCAA (intervention) group was treated with 7.2 g BCAA per whereas, the lactoalbumin group was also given 6.3 g of L-Albumin. The primary outcome was to assess the impact of BCAA on parameters of sarcopenia: muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. The secondary outcomes were to study combined survival and maintenance of liver function changes in laboratory and clinical markers in the duration of six months. Results: Treatment with BCAA leads to significant improvement in sarcopenic parameters: muscle strength, muscle function, and muscle mass. The total cirrhotic-related complications and cumulative event-free survival occurred fewer in the BCAA group than in the L-ALB group. Prognostic markers also improved significantly in the study. Conclusion: The current clinical trial demonstrated that long-term BCAAs supplementation improved sarcopenia and prognostic markers in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: sarcopenia, liver cirrhosis, BCAA, quality of life

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11 Effect of Phthalates on Male Infertility: Myth or Truth?

Authors: Rashmi Tomar, A. Srinivasan, Nayan K. Mohanty, Arun K. Jain


Phthalates have been used as additives in industrial products since the 1930s, and are universally considered to be ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products, as well as diet and medical treatments. Animal studies showing the existence of an association between some phthalates and testicular toxicity have generated public and scientific concern about the potential adverse effects of environmental changes on male reproductive health. Unprecedented declines in fertility rates and semen quality have been reported during the last half of the 20th century in developed countries and increasing interest exists on the potential relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants, including phthalates, and human male reproductive health Studies. Phthalates may be associated with altered endocrine function and adverse effects on male reproductive development and function, but human studies are limited. The aim of the present study was detection of phthalate compounds, estimation of their metabolites in infertile & fertile male. Blood and urine samples were collected from 150 infertile patients & 75 fertile volunteers recruited through Department of Urology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. Blood have been collected in separate glass tubes from the antecubital vein of the patients, serum have been separate and estimate the phthalate level in serum samples by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry using NIOSH / OSHA detailed protocol. Urine of Infertile & Fertile Subjects was collected & extracted using solid phase extraction method, analysis by HPLC. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge the present study based on human is first to show the presence of phthalate in human serum samples and their metabolites in urine samples. Significant differences were observed between several phthalates in infertile and fertile healthy individuals.

Keywords: Gas Chromatography, HPLC, male infertility, phthalates, serum, toxicity, urine

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10 Evaluation of Paper Effluent with Two Bacterial Strain and Their Consortia

Authors: Priya Tomar, Pallavi Mittal


As industrialization is inevitable and progress with rapid acceleration, the need for innovative ways to get rid of waste has increased. Recent advancement in bioresource technology paves novel ideas for recycling of factory waste that has been polluting the agro-industry, soil and water bodies. Paper industries in India are in a considerable number, where molasses and impure alcohol are still being used as raw materials for manufacturing of paper. Paper mills based on nonconventional agro residues are being encouraged due to increased demand of paper and acute shortage of forest-based raw materials. The colouring body present in the wastewater from pulp and paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannin, resins, synthetic dyes, lignin and its degradation products formed by the action of chlorine on lignin which imparts an offensive colour to the water. These mills use different chemical process for paper manufacturing due to which lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. This paper presents some new techniques that were developed for the efficiency of bioremediation on paper industry. A short introduction to paper industry and a variety of presently available methods of bioremediation on paper industry and different strategies are also discussed here. For solving the above problem, two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) and their consortia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) were utilized for the pulp and paper mill effluent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis named as T–1, T–2, T–3, T–4, T–5, T–6, for the decolourisation of paper industry effluent. The results indicated that a maximum colour reduction is (60.5%) achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and COD reduction is (88.8%) achieved by Bacillus subtilis, maximum pH changes is (4.23) achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, TSS reduction is (2.09 %) achieved by Bacillus subtilis, and TDS reduction is (0.95 %) achieved by Bacillus subtilis. When the wastewater was supplemented with carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) source and data revealed the efficiency of Bacillus subtilis, having more with glucose than Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: bioremediation, paper and pulp mill effluent, treated effluent, lignin

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9 Engineering C₃ Plants with SbtA, a Cyanobacterial Transporter, for Enhancing CO₂ Fixation

Authors: Vandana Deopanée Tomar, Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu, Panchsheela Nogia, Rajesh Mehrotra, Sandhya Mehrotra


The cyanobacterial CO₂ concentrating mechanism (CCM) operates to raise the levels of CO₂ in the vicinity of the main carboxylation enzyme Rubisco which is encapsulated in protein micro compartments called carboxysomes. Thus, due to the presence of CCM, cyanobacterial cells are able to work with high photosynthetic efficiency even at low Ci conditions and can accumulate 1000 folds high internal concentrations of Ci than external environment. Engineering of some useful CCM components into higher plants is one of the plausible approaches to improve their photosynthetic performance. The first step and the simplest approach for attaining this objective would be the transfer of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter such as SbtA to inner chloroplast envelope of C₃ plants. For this, SbtA transporter gene from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 was fused to a transit peptide element to generate chimeric constructs in order to direct it to chloroplast inner envelope. Two transit peptides namely, TnaXTP (transit peptide from AT3G56160) and TMDTP (transit peptide from AT2G02590) were shortlisted from Arabidopsis thaliana genome and cloned in plant expression vector pCAMBIA1302 having mgfp5 as a reporter gene. Plant transformation was done by agro infiltration and Agrobacterium mediated co-culture. DNA, RNA, and protein were isolated from the leaves four days post infiltration, and the presence of transgene was confirmed by gene specific PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis and by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction). The expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting using anti-GFP primary antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated secondary antibody. The localization of the protein was detected by confocal microscopy of isolated protoplasts. We observed chloroplastic expression for both the fusion constructs which suggest that the transit peptide sequences are capable of taking the cargo protein to the chloroplasts. These constructs are now being used to generate stable transgenic plants by Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The stability of transgene expression will be analyzed from T₀ to T₂ generation.

Keywords: agro infiltration, bicarbonate transporter, carbon concentrating mechanisms, cyanobacteria, SbtA

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8 Process Performance and Nitrogen Removal Kinetics in Anammox Hybrid Reactor

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta


Anammox is a promising and cost effective alternative to conventional treatment systems that facilitates direct oxidation of ammonium nitrogen under anaerobic conditions with nitrite as an electron acceptor without addition of any external carbon sources. The present study investigates the process kinetics of laboratory scale anammox hybrid reactor (AHR) which combines the dual advantages of attached and suspended growth. The performance & behaviour of AHR was studied under varying hydraulic retention time (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rate (NLRs). The experimental unit consisted of 4 numbers of 5L capacity anammox hybrid reactor inoculated with mixed seed culture containing anoxic and activated sludge. Pseudo steady state (PSS) ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies of 90.6% and 95.6%, respectively, were achieved during acclimation phase. After establishment of PSS, the performance of AHR was monitored at seven different HRTs of 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 d with increasing NLR from 0.4 to 4.8 kg N/m3d. The results showed that with increase in NLR and decrease in HRT (3.0 to 0.25 d), AHR registered appreciable decline in nitrogen removal efficiency from 92.9% to 67.4 %, respectively. The HRT of 2.0 d was considered optimal to achieve substantial nitrogen removal of 89%, because on further decrease in HRT below 1.5 days, remarkable decline in the values of nitrogen removal efficiency were observed. Analysis of data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate (additional 29% reduction). This enhanced performance may be attributed to 25% increase in sludge retention time due to the attached growth media. Three kinetic models, namely, first order, Monod and Modified Stover-Kincannon model were applied to assess the substrate removal kinetics of nitrogen removal in AHR. Validation of the models were carried out by comparing experimental set of data with the predicted values obtained from the respective models. For substrate removal kinetics, model validation revealed that Modified Stover-Kincannon is most precise (R2=0.943) and can be suitably applied to predict the kinetics of nitrogen removal in AHR. Lawrence and McCarty model described the kinetics of bacterial growth. The predicted value of yield coefficient and decay constant were in line with the experimentally observed values.

Keywords: anammox, kinetics, modelling, nitrogen removal, sludge wash out rate, AHR

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7 Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Cherry Dhiman, Ayushi Paliwal, Mohd. Shahid Khan, M. N. Reddy, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar


The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, ICCD spectrometer, engine oil

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6 Avian Esophagus: A Comparative Microscopic Study In Birds With Different Feeding Habits

Authors: M. P. S. Tomar, Himanshu R. Joshi, P. Jagapathi Ramayya, Rakhi Vaish, A. B. Shrivastav


The morphology of an organ system varies according to the feeding habit, habitat and nature of their life-style. This phenomenon is called adaptation. During evolution these morphological changes make the system species specific so the study on the differential characteristics of them makes the understanding regarding the morpho-physiological adaptation easier. Hence the present study was conducted on esophagus of pariah kite, median egret, goshawk, dove and duck. Esophagus in all birds was comprised of four layers viz. Tunica mucosa, Tunica submucosa, Tunica muscularis and Tunica adventitia. The mucosa of esophagus showed longitudinal folds thus the lumen was irregular. The epithelium was stratified squamous in all birds but in Median egret the cells were large and vacuolated. Among these species very thick epithelium was observed in goshawk and duck but keratinization was highest in dove. The stratum spongiosum was 7-8 layers thick in both Pariah kite and Goshawk. In all birds, the glands were alveolar mucous secreting type. In Median egret and Pariah kite, these were round or oval in shape and with or without lumen depending upon the functional status whereas in Goshawk the shape of the glands varied from spherical / oval to triangular with openings towards the lumen according to the functional activity and in dove these glands were oval in shape. The glands were numerous in number in egret while one or two in each fold in goshawk and less numerous in other three species. The core of the mucosal folds was occupied by the lamina propria and showed large number of collagen fibers and cellular infiltration in pariah kite, egret and dove where as in goshawk and duck, collagen and reticular fibers were fewer and cellular infiltration was lesser. Lamina muscularis was very thick in all species and it was comprised of longitudinally arranged smooth muscle fibers. In Median egret, it was in wavy pattern. Tunica submucosa was very thin in all species. Tunica muscularis was mostly comprised of circular smooth muscle bundles in all species but the longitudinal bundles were very few in number and not continuous. The tunica adventitia was comprised of loose connective tissue fibers containing collagen and elastic fibers with numerous small blood vessels in all species. Further, it was observed that the structure of esophagus in birds varies according to their feeding habits.

Keywords: dove, duck, egret, esophagus, goshawk, kite

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5 Homeostatic Analysis of the Integrated Insulin and Glucagon Signaling Network: Demonstration of Bistable Response in Catabolic and Anabolic States

Authors: Pramod Somvanshi, Manu Tomar, K. V. Venkatesh


Insulin and glucagon are responsible for homeostasis of key plasma metabolites like glucose, amino acids and fatty acids in the blood plasma. These hormones act antagonistically to each other during the secretion and signaling stages. In the present work, we analyze the effect of macronutrients on the response from integrated insulin and glucagon signaling pathways. The insulin and glucagon pathways are connected by DAG (a calcium signaling component which is part of the glucagon signaling module) which activates PKC and inhibits IRS (insulin signaling component) constituting a crosstalk. AKT (insulin signaling component) inhibits cAMP (glucagon signaling component) through PDE3 forming the other crosstalk between the two signaling pathways. Physiological level of anabolism and catabolism is captured through a metric quantified by the activity levels of AKT and PKA in their phosphorylated states, which represent the insulin and glucagon signaling endpoints, respectively. Under resting and starving conditions, the phosphorylation metric represents homeostasis indicating a balance between the anabolic and catabolic activities in the tissues. The steady state analysis of the integrated network demonstrates the presence of a bistable response in the phosphorylation metric with respect to input plasma glucose levels. This indicates that two steady state conditions (one in the homeostatic zone and other in the anabolic zone) are possible for a given glucose concentration depending on the ON or OFF path. When glucose levels rise above normal, during post-meal conditions, the bistability is observed in the anabolic space denoting the dominance of the glycogenesis in liver. For glucose concentrations lower than the physiological levels, while exercising, metabolic response lies in the catabolic space denoting the prevalence of glycogenolysis in liver. The non-linear positive feedback of AKT on IRS in insulin signaling module of the network is the main cause of the bistable response. The span of bistability in the phosphorylation metric increases as plasma fatty acid and amino acid levels rise and eventually the response turns monostable and catabolic representing diabetic conditions. In the case of high fat or protein diet, fatty acids and amino acids have an inhibitory effect on the insulin signaling pathway by increasing the serine phosphorylation of IRS protein via the activation of PKC and S6K, respectively. Similar analysis was also performed with respect to input amino acid and fatty acid levels. This emergent property of bistability in the integrated network helps us understand why it becomes extremely difficult to treat obesity and diabetes when blood glucose level rises beyond a certain value.

Keywords: bistability, diabetes, feedback and crosstalk, obesity

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4 Investigating the Process Kinetics and Nitrogen Gas Production in Anammox Hybrid Reactor with Special Emphasis on the Role of Filter Media

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta


Anammox is a novel and promising technology that has changed the traditional concept of biological nitrogen removal. The process facilitates direct oxidation of ammonical nitrogen under anaerobic conditions with nitrite as an electron acceptor without the addition of external carbon sources. The present study investigated the feasibility of anammox hybrid reactor (AHR) combining the dual advantages of suspended and attached growth media for biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. The experimental unit consisted of 4 nos. of 5L capacity AHR inoculated with mixed seed culture containing anoxic and activated sludge (1:1). The process was established by feeding the reactors with synthetic wastewater containing NH4-H and NO2-N in the ratio 1:1 at HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to higher ammonium concentration till it attained pseudo steady state removal at a total nitrogen concentration of 1200 mg/l. During this period, the performance of the AHR was monitored at twelve different HRTs varying from 0.25-3.0 d with increasing NLR from 0.4 to 4.8 kg N/m3d. AHR demonstrated significantly higher nitrogen removal (95.1%) at optimal HRT of 1 day. Filter media in AHR contributed an additional 27.2% ammonium removal in addition to 72% reduction in the sludge washout rate. This may be attributed to the functional mechanism of filter media which acts as a mechanical sieve and reduces the sludge washout rate many folds. This enhances the biomass retention capacity of the reactor by 25%, which is the key parameter for successful operation of high rate bioreactors. The effluent nitrate concentration, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process was also minimised significantly (42.3-52.3 mg/L). Process kinetics was evaluated using first order and Grau-second order models. The first-order substrate removal rate constant was found as 13.0 d-1. Model validation revealed that Grau second order model was more precise and predicted effluent nitrogen concentration with least error (1.84±10%). A new mathematical model based on mass balance was developed to predict N2 gas in AHR. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen dictated significantly higher correlation (R2=0.986) and predicted N2 gas with least error of precision (0.12±8.49%). SEM study of biomass indicated the presence of the heterogeneous population of cocci and rod shaped bacteria of average diameter varying from 1.2-1.5 mm. Owing to enhanced NRE coupled with meagre production of effluent nitrate and its ability to retain high biomass, AHR proved to be the most competitive reactor configuration for dealing with nitrogen laden wastewater.

Keywords: anammox, filter media, kinetics, nitrogen removal

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3 Reagentless Detection of Urea Based on ZnO-CuO Composite Thin Film

Authors: Neha Batra Bali, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta


A reagentless biosensor for detection of urea based on ZnO-CuO composite thin film is presented in following work. Biosensors have immense potential for varied applications ranging from environmental to clinical testing, health care, and cell analysis. Immense growth in the field of biosensors is due to the huge requirement in today’s world to develop techniques which are both cost effective and accurate for prevention of disease manifestation. The human body comprises of numerous biomolecules which in their optimum levels are essential for functioning. However mismanaged levels of these biomolecules result in major health issues. Urea is one of the key biomolecules of interest. Its estimation is of paramount significance not only for healthcare sector but also from environmental perspectives. If level of urea in human blood/serum is abnormal, i.e., above or below physiological range (15-40mg/dl)), it may lead to diseases like renal failure, hepatic failure, nephritic syndrome, cachexia, urinary tract obstruction, dehydration, shock, burns and gastrointestinal, etc. Various metal nanoparticles, conducting polymer, metal oxide thin films, etc. have been exploited to act as matrix to immobilize urease to fabricate urea biosensor. Amongst them, Zinc Oxide (ZnO), a semiconductor metal oxide with a wide band gap is of immense interest as an efficient matrix in biosensors by virtue of its natural abundance, biocompatibility, good electron communication feature and high isoelectric point (9.5). In spite of being such an attractive candidate, ZnO does not possess a redox couple of its own which necessitates the use of electroactive mediators for electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode, thereby causing hindrance in realization of integrated and implantable biosensor. In the present work, an effort has been made to fabricate a matrix based on ZnO-CuO composite prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique in order to incorporate redox properties in ZnO matrix and to utilize the same for reagentless biosensing applications. The prepared bioelectrode Urs/(ZnO-CuO)/ITO/glass exhibits high sensitivity (70µAmM⁻¹cm⁻²) for detection of urea (5-200 mg/dl) with high stability (shelf life ˃ 10 weeks) and good selectivity (interference ˂ 4%). The enhanced sensing response obtained for composite matrix is attributed to the efficient electron exchange between ZnO-CuO matrix and immobilized enzymes, and subsequently fast transfer of generated electrons to the electrode via matrix. The response is encouraging for fabricating reagentless urea biosensor based on ZnO-CuO matrix.

Keywords: biosensor, reagentless, urea, ZnO-CuO composite

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2 Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies on Corneal Ontogeny in Buffalo

Authors: M. P. S. Tomar, Neelam Bansal


Histomorphological, histochemical and scanning electron microscopic observations were recorded in developing cornea of buffalo fetuses. The samples from fetal cornea were collected in appropriate fixative from slaughter house and Veterinary Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The microscopic slides were stained for detailed histomorphological and histochemical studies. The scanning electron microscopic studies were performed at Electron microscopy & Nanobiology Lab, PAU Ludhiana. In present study, it was observed that, in 36 days (d) fetus, the corneal epithelium was well marked single layered structure which was placed on stroma mesenchyme. Cornea appeared as the continuation of developing sclera. The thickness of cornea and its epithelium increased as well as the epithelium started becoming double layered in 47d fetus at corneo-scleral junction. The corneal thickness in this stage suddenly increased thus easily distinguished from developing sclera. The separation of corneal endothelium from stroma was evident as a single layered epithelium. The stroma possessed numerous fibroblasts in 49d stage eye. Descemet’s membrane was appeared at 52d stage. The limbus area was separated by a depression from the developing cornea in 61d stage. In 65d stage, the Bowman’s layer was more developed. Fibroblasts were arranged parallel to each other as well as parallel to the surface of developing cornea in superficial layers. These fibroblasts and fibers were arranged in wavy pattern in the center of stroma. Corneal epithelium started to be stratified as a double layered epithelium was present in this age of fetal eye. In group II (>120 Days), the corneal epithelium was stratified towards a well marked irido-corneal angle. The stromal fibroblasts followed a complete parallel arrangement in its entire thickness. In full term fetuses, a well developed cornea was observed. It was a fibrous layer which had five distinct layers. From outside to inwards were described as the outer most layer was the 7-8 layered corneal epithelial, subepithelial basement membrane (Bowman’s membrane), substantia propria or stroma, posterior limiting membrane (Descemet’s membrane) and the posterior epithelium (corneal endothelium). The corneal thickness and connective tissue elements were continued to be increased. It was 121.39 + 3.73µ at 36d stage which increased to 518.47 + 4.98 µ in group III fetuses. In fetal life, the basement membrane of corneal epithelium and endothelium depicted strong to intense periodic Acid Schiff’s (PAS) reaction. At the irido-corneal angle, the endothelium of blood vessels was also positive for PAS activity. However, cornea was found mild positive for alcian blue reaction. The developing cornea showed strong reaction for basic proteins in outer epithelium and the inner endothelium layers. Under low magnification scanning electron microscope, cornea showed two types of cells viz. light cells and dark cells. The light cells were smaller in size and had less number of microvilli in their surface than in the dark cells. Despite these surface differences between light and dark cells, the corneal surface showed the same general pattern of microvilli studding all exposed surfaces out to the cell margin. which were long (with variable height), slight tortuous slender and possessed a micro villus shaft with a very prominent knob.

Keywords: buffalo, cornea, eye, fetus, ontogeny, scanning electron microscopy

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1 Fe Modified Tin Oxide Thin Film Based Matrix for Reagentless Uric Acid Biosensing

Authors: Kashima Arora, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta


Biosensors have found potential applications ranging from environmental testing and biowarfare agent detection to clinical testing, health care, and cell analysis. This is driven in part by the desire to decrease the cost of health care and to obtain precise information more quickly about the health status of patient by the development of various biosensors, which has become increasingly prevalent in clinical testing and point of care testing for a wide range of biological elements. Uric acid is an important byproduct in human body and a number of pathological disorders are related to its high concentration in human body. In past few years, rapid growth in the development of new materials and improvements in sensing techniques have led to the evolution of advanced biosensors. In this context, metal oxide thin film based matrices due to their bio compatible nature, strong adsorption ability, high isoelectric point (IEP) and abundance in nature have become the materials of choice for recent technological advances in biotechnology. In the past few years, wide band-gap metal oxide semiconductors including ZnO, SnO₂ and CeO₂ have gained much attention as a matrix for immobilization of various biomolecules. Tin oxide (SnO₂), wide band gap semiconductor (Eg =3.87 eV), despite having multifunctional properties for broad range of applications including transparent electronics, gas sensors, acoustic devices, UV photodetectors, etc., it has not been explored much for biosensing purpose. To realize a high performance miniaturized biomolecular electronic device, rf sputtering technique is considered to be the most promising for the reproducible growth of good quality thin films, controlled surface morphology and desired film crystallization with improved electron transfer property. Recently, iron oxide and its composites have been widely used as matrix for biosensing application which exploits the electron communication feature of Fe, for the detection of various analytes using urea, hemoglobin, glucose, phenol, L-lactate, H₂O₂, etc. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no work is being reported on modifying the electronic properties of SnO₂ by implanting with suitable metal (Fe) to induce the redox couple in it and utilizing it for reagentless detection of uric acid. In present study, Fe implanted SnO₂ based matrix has been utilized for reagentless uric acid biosensor. Implantation of Fe into SnO₂ matrix is confirmed by energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Electrochemical techniques have been used to study the response characteristics of Fe modified SnO₂ matrix before and after uricase immobilization. The developed uric acid biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity to about 0.21 mA/mM and a linear variation in current response over concentration range from 0.05 to 1.0 mM of uric acid besides high shelf life (~20 weeks). The Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameter (Km) is found to be relatively very low (0.23 mM), which indicates high affinity of the fabricated bioelectrode towards uric acid (analyte). Also, the presence of other interferents present in human serum has negligible effect on the performance of biosensor. Hence, obtained results highlight the importance of implanted Fe:SnO₂ thin film as an attractive matrix for realization of reagentless biosensors towards uric acid.

Keywords: Fe implanted tin oxide, reagentless uric acid biosensor, rf sputtering, thin film

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