Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: Rakesh K. Sonker

57 Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor

Authors: Bal Chandra Yadav, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta, Rakesh K. Sonker, Anjali Sharma, Punit Tyagi

Abstract:

In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.

Keywords: Sol-Gel Method, ZSO nanocomposite thin film, ZnO tetrapod structure, NO2 gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
56 Approximation of Periodic Functions Belonging to Lipschitz Classes by Product Matrix Means of Fourier Series

Authors: Uaday Singh, Smita Sonker

Abstract:

Various investigators have determined the degree of approximation of functions belonging to the classes W(L r , ξ(t)), Lip(ξ(t), r), Lip(α, r), and Lipα using different summability methods with monotonocity conditions. Recently, Lal has determined the degree of approximation of the functions belonging to Lipα and W(L r , ξ(t)) classes by using Ces`aro-N¨orlund (C 1 .Np)- summability with non-increasing weights {pn}. In this paper, we shall determine the degree of approximation of 2π - periodic functions f belonging to the function classes Lipα and W(L r , ξ(t)) by C 1 .T - means of Fourier series of f. Our theorems generalize the results of Lal and we also improve these results in the light off. From our results, we also derive some corollaries.

Keywords: Signals, Lipschitz classes, product matrix operator, trigonometric Fourier approximation

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55 Degree of Approximation of Functions Conjugate to Periodic Functions Belonging to Lipschitz Classes by Product Matrix Means

Authors: Smita Sonker

Abstract:

Various investigators have determined the degree of approximation of conjugate signals (functions) of functions belonging to different classes Lipα, Lip(α,p), Lip(ξ(t),p), W(Lr,ξ(t), (β ≥ 0)) by matrix summability means, lower triangular matrix operator, product means (i.e. (C,1)(E,1), (C,1)(E,q), (E,q)(C,1) (N,p,q)(E,1), and (E,q)(N,pn) of their conjugate trigonometric Fourier series. In this paper, we shall determine the degree of approximation of 2π-periodic function conjugate functions of f belonging to the function classes Lipα and W(Lr; ξ(t); (β ≥ 0)) by (C1.T) -means of their conjugate trigonometric Fourier series. On the other hand, we shall review above-mentioned work in the light of Lenski.

Keywords: Signals, conjugate Fourier series, trigonometric Fourier approximation, class W(L^r, \xi(t)

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
54 Digital Control Techniques for Power Electronic Devices

Authors: Rakesh Krishna, Abhishek Poddar

Abstract:

The paper discusses the work carried out on the implementation of control techniques like Digital Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Digital Pulse Fired control(PFC). These techniques are often used in devices like inverters, battery chargers, DC-to-DC converters can also be implemented on household devices like heaters. The advantage being the control and improved life span of device. In case of batteries using these techniques are known to increase the life span of battery in mobiles and other hand-held devices. 8051 microcontroller is used to implement these methods.Thyristors are used for switching operations.

Keywords: PWM, SVM, PFC, bidirectional inverters, snubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
53 Determination of Optimum Torque of an Internal Combustion Engine by Exergy Analysis

Authors: Veena Chaudhary, Rakesh P. Gakkhar

Abstract:

In this study, energy and exergy analysis are applied to the experimental data of an internal combustion engine operating on conventional diesel cycle. The experimental data are collected using an engine unit which enables accurate measurements of fuel flow rate, combustion air flow rate, engine load, engine speed and all relevant temperatures. First and second law efficiencies are calculated for different engine speed and compared. Results indicate that the first law (energy) efficiency is maximum at 1700 rpm whereas exergy efficiency is maximum and exergy destruction is minimum at 1900 rpm.

Keywords: Diesel Engine, Exergy Destruction, second law of thermodynamics, exergy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
52 Design of Lead-Lag Based Internal Model Controller for Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Tarun Kumar Dan

Abstract:

Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control method is proposed based on Internal Model Control (IMC) strategy. In this paper, we have designed the Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control for binary distillation column for SISO process (considering only bottom product). The transfer function has been taken from Wood and Berry model. We have find the composition control and disturbance rejection using Lead-Lag based IMC and comparing with the response of simple Internal Model Controller.

Keywords: SISO, lead-lag, internal model control, wood and berry, distillation column

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
51 Queueing Modeling of M/G/1 Fault Tolerant System with Threshold Recovery and Imperfect Coverage

Authors: Madhu Jain, Rakesh Kumar Meena

Abstract:

This paper investigates a finite M/G/1 fault tolerant multi-component machining system. The system incorporates the features such as standby support, threshold recovery and imperfect coverage make the study closer to real time systems. The performance prediction of M/G/1 fault tolerant system is carried out using recursive approach by treating remaining service time as a supplementary variable. The numerical results are presented to illustrate the computational tractability of analytical results by taking three different service time distributions viz. exponential, 3-stage Erlang and deterministic. Moreover, the cost function is constructed to determine the optimal choice of system descriptors to upgrading the system.

Keywords: fault tolerant, machine repair, threshold recovery policy, imperfect coverage, supplementary variable technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
50 Comprehensive Analysis of Power Allocation Algorithms for OFDM Based Communication Systems

Authors: Dalveer Kaur, Rakesh Dubey, Vaishali Bahl

Abstract:

The spiralling urge for high rate data transmission over wireless mediums needs intelligent use of electromagnetic resources considering restrictions like power ingestion, spectrum competence, robustness against multipath propagation and implementation intricacy. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a capable technique for next generation wireless communication systems. For such high rate data transfers there is requirement of proper allocation of resources like power and capacity amongst the sub channels. This paper illustrates various available methods of allocating power and the capacity requirement with the constraint of Shannon limit.

Keywords: Additive White Gaussian Noise, Multi-Carrier Modulation, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Water Filling

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
49 Effect of Design Parameters on Porpoising Instability of a High Speed Planing Craft

Authors: V. Anantha Subramanian, Lokeswara Rao P., Naga Venkata Rakesh N.

Abstract:

It is important to estimate, predict, and avoid the dynamic instability of high speed planing crafts. It is known that design parameters like relative location of center of gravity with respect to the dynamic lift centre and length to beam ratio of the craft have influence on the tendency to porpoise. This paper analyzes the hydrodynamic performance on the basis of the semi-empirical Savitsky method and also estimates the same by numerical simulations based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations using a commercial code namely, STAR- CCM+. The paper examines through the same numerical simulation considering dynamic equilibrium, the changing running trim, which results in porpoising. Some interesting results emerge from the study and this leads to early detection of the instability.

Keywords: CFD, planing hull, porpoising, Savitsky method

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
48 A Novel Method for Silence Removal in Sounds Produced by Percussive Instruments

Authors: T. Kishore Kumar, B. Kishore Kumar, Rakesh Pogula

Abstract:

The steepness of an audio signal which is produced by the musical instruments, specifically percussive instruments is the perception of how high tone or low tone which can be considered as a frequency closely related to the fundamental frequency. This paper presents a novel method for silence removal and segmentation of music signals produced by the percussive instruments and the performance of proposed method is studied with the help of MATLAB simulations. This method is based on two simple features, namely the signal energy and the spectral centroid. As long as the feature sequences are extracted, a simple thresholding criterion is applied in order to remove the silence areas in the sound signal. The simulations were carried on various instruments like drum, flute and guitar and results of the proposed method were analyzed.

Keywords: percussive instruments, spectral energy, spectral centroid, silence removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
47 CI Engine Performance Analysis Using Sunflower and Peanut Bio-Diesel Blends

Authors: M. Manjunath, R. Rakesh, Y. T. Krishne Gowda, G. Panduranga Murthy

Abstract:

The availability of energy resources plays a vital role in the progress of a country. Over the last decades, there is an increase in the consumption of energy worldwide resulting in the depletion of fossil fuels. This necessitates dependency on other countries for energy resources. Therefore, a renewable eco-friendly alternate fuel is replaced in place of fossil fuel which can be vegetable oils as a substitute fuel for diesel. Since oils are more viscous it cannot be used directly in CI engines without any engine modification. Thus, a conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel is done by a Transesterification process. The present paper is restricted to Biofuel substitute for diesel and which can be obtained from a number of edible and non-edible oil resources. The oil from these resources can be Transesterified by a suitable method depending on its FFA content for the production of biodiesel and that can be used to operate CI engine. In this work, an attempt is made to test the performance of CI engine using Transesterified peanut and sunflower oil methyl esters blends with diesel.

Keywords: bsfc, POME, SOME, BMEP, BTE

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46 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Authors: Navin Kumar, Pramod Kumar, Sumit Sharma, Rakesh Chandra

Abstract:

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.

Keywords: Elasticity, Molecular Dynamics, Mechanical Properties, carbon nanofiber

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45 Effects of Varied Packages of Plyometric Traning on Leg Explosive Power and VO2 Max Among College Men Students

Authors: Rakesh Bharti, Nisithkumar Datta

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of varied packages of plyometric training on leg explosive power and VO2 max among college men students. Sixty male students were selected and divided into four equal groups. Group I underwent low-intensity plyometric training, Group II underwent medium intensity plyometric training and Group III underwent high-intensity plyometric training for three days per week for twelve weeks. Group IV acted as control group. The variables namely leg explosive power and VO2 max were selected as dependent variables. The analysis of covariance was used to analyze the significant difference. The 0.05 level of confidence was fixed as the level of significance to test the ‘F’ ratio obtained by the analysis of covariance. The result of the study indicates due to varied packages of plyometric training, the leg explosive power and VO2 max has been improved significantly.

Keywords: leg explosive power, plyometric exercise, VO2 max, men students

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44 Optimization of Machining Parametric Study on Electrical Discharge Machining

Authors: Rakesh Prajapati, Purvik Patel, Hardik Patel

Abstract:

Productivity and quality are two important aspects that have become great concerns in today’s competitive global market. Every production/manufacturing unit mainly focuses on these areas in relation to the process, as well as the product developed. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process, even now it is an experience process, wherein the selected parameters are still often far from the maximum, and at the same time selecting optimization parameters is costly and time consuming. Material Removal Rate (MRR) during the process has been considered as a productivity estimate with the aim to maximize it, with an intention of minimizing surface roughness taken as most important output parameter. These two opposites in nature requirements have been simultaneously satisfied by selecting an optimal process environment (optimal parameter setting). Objective function is obtained by Regression Analysis and Analysis of Variance. Then objective function is optimized using Genetic Algorithm technique. The model is shown to be effective; MRR and Surface Roughness improved using optimized machining parameters.

Keywords: ANOVA, DOE, TWR, MMR, minitab

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
43 ‘Free’ Services on Net: Move from Barter to Money

Authors: Rakesh Shrivastava

Abstract:

Consumers routinely use services on the web by accessing these from laptops and mobile. Many services are provided free of cost and are actually paid by the user’s time, attention, and data. Consumers depend on regulators and authorities to protect their interests. The barter trade of service can move to a system of money, say ‘Cyberdollar’. Whenever a service is used, the consumer of service shall pay Cyberdollars for services used by her. Service-provider shall pay Cyberdollars to the consumer for time spent by her, the attention given by the user, and for the data shared by the consumer. Cyberdollars based marketplace for web services shall be more efficient and vibrant than present barter. Consumers shall be able to influence the price of various services based on utility and quality, and service providers shall be able to optimize their earnings by dynamic pricing of services offered. Consumers shall have a choice of gracefully opting out of services, and service providers may seek compensation for loss of business. Cyberdollar may emerge as the most powerful currency used all over the globe for transacting on the world wide web.

Keywords: access to world wide web, free web services, prices of web-based services, virtual currency

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42 Degumming of Eri Silk Fabric with Ionic Liquid

Authors: Shweta K. Vyas, Rakesh Musale, Sanjeev R. Shukla

Abstract:

Eri silk is a non mulberry silk which is obtained without killing the silkworms and hence it is also known as Ahmisa silk. In the present study, the results on degumming of eri silk with alkaline peroxide have been compared with those obtained by using ionic liquid (IL) 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl. Experiments were designed to find out the optimum processing parameters for degumming of eri silk by response surface methodology. The statistical software, Design-Expert 6.0 was used for regression analysis and graphical analysis of the responses obtained by running the set of designed experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the statistical parameters. The polynomial equation of quadratic order was employed to fit the experimental data. The quality and model terms were evaluated by F-test. Three dimensional surface plots were prepared to study the effect of variables on different responses. The optimum conditions for IL treatment were selected from predicted combinations and the experiments were repeated under these conditions to determine the reproducibility.

Keywords: response surface methodology, ANOVA, ionic liquid, silk degumming

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41 A Combined Feature Extraction and Thresholding Technique for Silence Removal in Percussive Sounds

Authors: T. Kishore Kumar, Pogula Rakesh, B. Kishore Kumar

Abstract:

The music analysis is a part of the audio content analysis used to analyze the music by using the different features of audio signal. In music analysis, the first step is to divide the music signal to different sections based on the feature profiles of the music signal. In this paper, we present a music segmentation technique that will effectively segmentize the signal and thresholding technique to remove silence from the percussive sounds produced by percussive instruments, which uses two features of music, namely signal energy and spectral centroid. The proposed method impose thresholds on both the features which will vary depends on the music signal. Depends on the threshold, silence part is removed and the segmentation is done. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed using MATLAB.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, spectral energy, spectral centroid, silence removal, percussive sounds

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40 Herbal Based Fingerprint Powder Formulation for Latent Fingermark Visualization: Catechu (Kattha)

Authors: Pallavi Thakur, Rakesh K. Garg

Abstract:

Latent fingerprints are commonly encountered evidence at the scene of the crime. It is very important to decipher these fingerprints in order to explore their identity and a lot of research has been made on the visualization of latent fingermarks on various substrates by numerous researchers. During the past few years large number of powder formulations has been evolved for the development of latent fingermarks on different surfaces. This paper reports a new and simple fingerprint powder which is non-toxic and has been employed on different substrates successfully for the development and visualization of latent fingermarks upto the time period of twelve days in varying temperature conditions. In this study, a less expensive, simple and easily available catechu (kattha) powder has been used to decipher the latent fingermarks on different substrates namely glass, plastic, metal, aluminium foil, white paper, wall tile and wooden sheet. It is observed that it gives very clear results on all the mentioned substrates and can be successfully used for the development and visualization of twelve days old latent fingermarks in varying temperature conditions on wall tiles.

Keywords: Visualization, fingermarks, catechu, aged fingermarks

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
39 A Novel RLS Based Adaptive Filtering Method for Speech Enhancement

Authors: T. Kishore Kumar, Pogula Rakesh

Abstract:

Speech enhancement is a long standing problem with numerous applications like teleconferencing, VoIP, hearing aids, and speech recognition. The motivation behind this research work is to obtain a clean speech signal of higher quality by applying the optimal noise cancellation technique. Real-time adaptive filtering algorithms seem to be the best candidate among all categories of the speech enhancement methods. In this paper, we propose a speech enhancement method based on Recursive Least Squares (RLS) adaptive filter of speech signals. Experiments were performed on noisy data which was prepared by adding AWGN, Babble and Pink noise to clean speech samples at -5dB, 0dB, 5dB, and 10dB SNR levels. We then compare the noise cancellation performance of proposed RLS algorithm with existing NLMS algorithm in terms of Mean Squared Error (MSE), Signal to Noise ratio (SNR), and SNR loss. Based on the performance evaluation, the proposed RLS algorithm was found to be a better optimal noise cancellation technique for speech signals.

Keywords: Noise Reduction, RLS, adaptive filter, adaptive noise canceller, mean squared error, NLMS, SNR, SNR loss

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38 Modelling and Optimisation of Floating Drum Biogas Reactor

Authors: L. Rakesh, T. Y. Heblekar

Abstract:

This study entails the development and optimization of a mathematical model for a floating drum biogas reactor from first principles using thermal and empirical considerations. The model was derived on the basis of mass conservation, lumped mass heat transfer formulations and empirical biogas formation laws. The treatment leads to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations whose solution mapped four-time independent controllable parameters to five output variables which adequately serve to describe the reactor performance. These equations were solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method for a range of input parameter values. Using the data so obtained an Artificial Neural Network with a single hidden layer was trained using Levenberg-Marquardt Damped Least Squares (DLS) algorithm. This network was then fine-tuned for optimal mapping by varying hidden layer size. This fast forward model was then employed as a health score generator in the Bacterial Foraging Optimization code. The optimal operating state of the simplified Biogas reactor was thus obtained.

Keywords: Optimization, Biogas, neural network model, floating drum reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
37 Laboratory Studies to Assess the Effect of Recron Fiber on Soil Subgrade Characteristics

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Lokesh Gupta

Abstract:

Stabilization of weak subgrade soil is mainly aimed for the improvement of soil strength and its durability. Highway engineers are concerned to get the soil material or system that will hold under the design use conditions and for the designed life of the engineering project. The present study envisages the effect of Recron fibres mixed in different proportion (up to 1% by weight of dry soil) on Atterberg limits, Compaction of the soil, California bearing ratio (CBR) values and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the soil. The present study deals with the influence of varying in length (20 mm, 30mm, 40mm and 50mm) and percentage (0.25 %, 0.50 %, 0.75 % and 1.0 %) of fibre added to the soil samples. The aim of study is to determine the reinforcing effect of randomly distributed fibres on the Compaction characteristics, penetration resistance and unconfined compressive strength of soils. The addition of fibres leads to an increase in the optimum moisture content and decrease in maximum dry density. With the addition of the fibres, the increases in CBR and UCS values are observed. The test result shows higher CBR and unconfined compressive strength value for the soil reinforced with 0.5% Recron fibre, once keeping aspect ratio as 160.

Keywords: Soil, recron fiber, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), California bearing ratio (CBR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
36 Evaluation of the Costs and Benefits of Mumbai Sewage Disposal Project, India

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Indrani Gupta, Leena Vachasiddha

Abstract:

Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai intends to undertake Mumbai Sewage Disposal (MSDP) for improvement of environment in and around Mumbai city. Sewage generated from the city currently gets partly into the inadequate collection system for treatment and the rest into nearby marine water body through drains. This paper addresses the cost benefit analysis of MSDP works for better compliance of sewage treatment and disposal. Cost benefit analysis indicates that the investment in sewage treatment is economically beneficial and will provide immense social, environmental, health and economic benefits. Monetary values of positive benefits such as avoided health costs, enhanced fish catches and improved tourism have been quantified. The total capital cost of the project is estimated to be about INR 51,510 million and operation and maintenance cost is about INR 2240.6 million per year. The cost benefit analysis indicates that a benefit of about 25,882 million per year can be achieved due to the implementation of this project. Other than these benefits, better marine ecosystem quality; higher property cost; improved recreational opportunities were not included because of lack of information.

Keywords: Fisheries, Health, Tourism, Waste Water Treatment, Cost-benefit analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
35 Anomaly: A Case of Babri Masjid Dispute

Authors: Karitikeya Sonker

Abstract:

Religion as a discrete system through its lawful internal working produces an output in the form of realised spatial order with its social logic and a social order with its spatial logic. Thus, it appears to exhibit its duality of spatial and trans-spatial. The components of this system share a relevance forming a collective. This shared relevance creates meaning forming a group where all collectives share one identity. This group with its new social order and its spatial logic revive the already existing spatial order. These religious groups do so having a tendency to expand resulting in the production of space in a situation of encounter where they have found relevance. But an encounter without a lawful internal working of a discrete system results in anomaly because groups do not find relevance due to the absence of collective identity. Events happen all around. One of the main reasons we could say that something became an event is because of conflict. Conflict not in its definitive sense but any occurrence that happens because of an intervention that creates an event worth remembering. The unfolding of such events creates Cities and Urban spaces which exhibit their duality of spatial and trans-spatial by behaving as a discrete system. This system through its lawful internal working produces an output in the form of realized spatial order with its social logic and a social order with spatial logic. The components of this system form a collective through a shared a relevance. This shared relevance creates meaning forming a group where all collectives share one identity. This group with its new social order and its spatial logic revives the already existing spatial order. These groups do so having a tendency to expand resulting in the production of space in a situation of encounter where they have found relevance. But an encounter without a lawful internal working of the discrete system results in anomaly because groups do not find relevance due to the absence of collective identity. This paper makes an effort to explore one such even in the case of Babri Mosque and Ramjanmabhumi, Ayodhya to explain the anomaly as transposition of social and spatial. The paper through the case studies makes an attempt to generate an equation explaining the two different situations of religious encounters, former reviving the social and spatial order and the other resulting in anomaly. Through the case study, it makes an attempt to generate an equation explaining the two different situations of religious encounters, former reviving the social and spatial order and the other resulting in anomaly.

Keywords: Conflict, Religion, Babri Masjid, Ayodhya

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34 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
33 Simulation and Experimental Research on Pocketing Operation for Toolpath Optimization in CNC Milling

Authors: Rakesh Prajapati, Purvik Patel, Avadhoot Rajurkar

Abstract:

Nowadays, manufacturing industries augment their production lines with modern machining centers backed by CAM software. Several attempts are being made to cut down the programming time for machining complex geometries. Special programs/software have been developed to generate the digital numerical data and to prepare NC programs by using suitable post-processors for different machines. By selecting the tools and manufacturing process then applying tool paths and NC program are generated. More and more complex mechanical parts that earlier were being cast and assembled/manufactured by other processes are now being machined. Majority of these parts require lots of pocketing operations and find their applications in die and mold, turbo machinery, aircraft, nuclear, defense etc. Pocketing operations involve removal of large quantity of material from the metal surface. The modeling of warm cast and clamping a piece of food processing parts which the used of Pro-E and MasterCAM® software. Pocketing operation has been specifically chosen for toolpath optimization. Then after apply Pocketing toolpath, Multi Tool Selection and Reduce Air Time give the results of software simulation time and experimental machining time.

Keywords: Optimization, toolpath, part program, pocket

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
32 Linking Remittances and Household Level Development in India: An Analysis of NSSO 64th Round Data

Authors: Rajni Singh, Rakesh Mishra, Mukunda Upadhyay

Abstract:

This paper attempts to link remittances sent by internal as well as international out-migrants and its domestic preferences of usage in three different dimension of Household level development in India and its states. Investment of remittances in these sectors reveals for mixed choices of preferential among the states from where people have out-migrated. The multivariate analysis implies that among all three indicators of human development, health (Investment in Food and Health) is the one that attracts the major investment followed by capital formation and least on Education. Usage of the remittances has been found to be varying across all the states in India as far as usage in health, capital formation and education are concerned. Orissa, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, D & H Haweli are some of the states and union territory that contributes highest of its international remittances on health, while most of the usage of the internal remittances has second or third preferences of investment on the health except for Uttar Pradesh, D & H Haweli, Arunachal Pradesh and A & N Is. This paper tries to access usage of international remittances as well as internal remittances on the flow of remittances at the micro level and its implications across three basic determinants of Human Development that is Health, Capital formation and Education coupled with the preferences of usage in presence of Several Socio economic and Demographic variable.

Keywords: Multivariate analysis, remittances, household development, internal and international migration

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31 Growth and Characterization of Bis-Thiourea Nickel Barium Chloride Single Crystals

Authors: Rakesh Hajiyani, Chetan Chauhan, Harshkant Jethva, Mihir Joshi

Abstract:

Metal bis-thiourea type organo-metallic crystals are popular as non-linear optical materials. Bis-thiourea nickel barium chloride was synthesized and crystals were grown by slow aqueous solvent evaporation technique. The transparent and colorless crystals having maximum dimensions of 13 mm x 8 mm x 2.2 mm were obtained. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the content of nickel and barium in the grown crystals. The powder XRD analysis suggested orthorhombic crystal structure with unit cell parameters as: a= 9.70 Å, b= 10.68 Å and c= 17.95 Å. The FTIR spectroscopy study confirmed the presence of various functional groups. The UV-vis spectroscopy study indicated that the crystals were transparent in the visible region with 90% transmittance level further optical parameters were studied. From the TGA it was found that the crystals remained stable up to 170 0C and then decomposed through two decomposition stages. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations of dielectric constant, dielectric loss were studied with frequency. It was found that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decreased as the frequency of applied field increased. The results are discussed.

Keywords: Crystal Growth, TGA, dielectric study, optical parameters, organo-metallic crystals, powder xrd, slow evaporation technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
30 SOCS1 Inhibits MDR1 in Mammary Cell Carcinoma Reverses Multidrug Resistance

Authors: Debasish Pradhan, Shaktiprasad Pradhan, Rakesh Kumar Pradhan, Gitanjali Tripathy

Abstract:

Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS1), a newly indentified antiapoptotic molecule is a downstream effector of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signalling pathway. The current study has uncovered that SOCS1 may have wide and imperative capacities, particularly because of its close correlation with malignant tumors. To investigate the impact of SOCS1 on MDR, we analyzed the expression of P-gp and SOCS1 by immunohistochemistry and found there was a positive correlation between them. At that point, we effectively interfered with RNA translation by the contamination of siRNA of SOCS1 into MCF7/ADM breast cancer cell lines through a lentivirus, and the expression of the target gene was significantly inhibited. After RNAi, the drug resistance was reduced altogether and the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp in MCF7/ADM cell lines demonstrated a significant decrease. Likewise, the expression of P53 protein increased in a statistically significant manner (p ≤ 0.01) after RNAi exposure. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis uncovers that cell cycle and anti-apoptotic enhancing capacity of cells changed after RNAi treatment. These outcomes proposed SOCS1 may take part in breast cancer MDR by managing MDR1 and P53 expression, changing cell cycle and enhancing the anti-apoptotic ability.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, RNA Interference, multidrug resistance, SOCS1 gene, MDR1 gene

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29 Transcriptional Profiling of Developing Ovules in Litchi chinensis

Authors: Ashish Kumar Pathak, Ritika Sharma, Vishal Nath, Sudhir Pratap Singh, Rakesh Tuli

Abstract:

Litchi is a sub-tropical fruit crop with genotypes bearing delicious juicy fruits with variable seed size (bold to rudimentary size). Small seed size is a desirable trait in litchi, as it increases consumer acceptance and fruit processing. The biochemical activities in mid- stage ovules (e.g. 16, 20, 24 and 28 days after anthesis) determine the fate of seed and fruit development in litchi. Comprehensive ovule-specific transcriptome analysis was performed in two litchi genotypes with contrasting seed size to gain molecular insight on determinants of seed fates in litchi fruits. The transcriptomic data was de-novo assembled in 1,39,608 trinity transcripts, out of which 6,325 trinity transcripts were differentially expressed between the two contrasting genotypes. Differential transcriptional pattern was found among ovule development stages in contrasting litchi genotypes. The putative genes for salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and brassinosteroid pathway were down-regulated in ovules of small-seeded litchi. Embryogenesis, cell expansion, seed size and stress related trinity transcripts exhibited altered expression in small-seeded genotype. The putative regulators of seed maturation and seed storage were down-regulated in small-seed genotype.

Keywords: Defence, Seed, Transcriptome, Litchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
28 Assessing Level of Pregnancy Rate and Milk Yield in Indian Murrah Buffaloes

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, V. Jamuna, A. K. Chakravarty, C. S. Patil, M. A. Mir

Abstract:

Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits viz. pregnancy rate has lead to deterioration in their performances. Aim of study is to develop an optimum model for predicting pregnancy rate and to assess the level of pregnancy rate with respect to milk production Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 21 years were analyzed and it was observed that pregnancy rate depicted negative phenotypic association with lactation milk yield (-0.08 ± 0.04). For developing optimum model for pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes seven simple and multiple regression models were developed. Among the seven models, model II having only Service period as an independent reproduction variable, was found to be the best prediction model, based on the four statistical criterions (high coefficient of determination (R 2), low mean sum of squares due to error (MSSe), conceptual predictive (CP) value, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). For standardizing the level of fertility with milk production, pregnancy rate was classified into seven classes with the increment of 10% in all parities, life time and their corresponding average pregnancy rate in relation to the average lactation milk yield (MY).It was observed that to achieve around 2000 kg MY which can be considered optimum for Indian Murrah buffaloes, level of pregnancy rate should be in between 30-50%.

Keywords: Production, standardization, life time, pregnancy rate, service period

Procedia PDF Downloads 475