Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: Shanghai

75 Compensation Analysis on Secondary Public Hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai

Authors: Wei Fang, Jian Jun Gu, Di Xue


Objective: To analyze the employee compensation status of secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in order to provide information for compensation reform of public hospitals in Shanghai and as well as in China. Methods: We surveyed all 15 secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai to collect hospital annual compensation data for their employees and to investigate their suggestions for compensation reform in public hospitals in China. We also collected related annual compensation data of employees in Shanghai and of physicians in the USA from Shanghai statistical Yearbook 2013 and from Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Results: The average annual compensation for the employees in secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in 2012 was 2.65 times of that for overall employees in Shanghai. The physician’s compensation in these public hospitals was relatively lower than that in the USA. Conclusion: The physicians’ compensation in the secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai should be increased rationally and new compensation reform in public hospitals in Shanghai should be carefully designed.

Keywords: human resource, compensation, public hospital, Shanghai

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74 Comparative Analysis of Patent Protection between Health System and Enterprises in Shanghai, China

Authors: Na Li, Yunwei Zhang, Yuhong Niu


The study discussed the patent protections of health system and enterprises in Shanghai. The comparisons of technical distribution and scopes of patent protections between Shanghai health system and enterprises were used by the methods of IPC classification, co-words analysis and visual social network. Results reflected a decreasing order within IPC A61 area, namely A61B, A61K, A61M, and A61F. A61B required to be further investigated. The highest authorized patents A61B17 of A61B of IPC A61 area was found. Within A61B17, fracture fixation, ligament reconstruction, cardiac surgery, and biopsy detection were regarded as common concerned fields by Shanghai health system and enterprises. However, compared with cardiac closure which Shanghai enterprises paid attention to, Shanghai health system was more inclined to blockages and hemostatic tools. The results also revealed that the scopes of patent protections of Shanghai enterprises were relatively centralized. Shanghai enterprises had a series of comprehensive strategies for protecting core patents. In contrast, Shanghai health system was considered to be lack of strategic patent protections for core patents.

Keywords: co-words analysis, IPC classification, patent protection, technical distribution

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73 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi


In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City

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72 Ties of China and the United States Regarding to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on the Basis of Soft Power Theory

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen


After a period of conflict between Russia and the West, new signs of confrontation between the United States and China are observed. China, as the most populous country in the world with a high rate of economic growth, neither stands the hegemonic power of the United States nor has the intention of direct confrontation with it. By raising the costs of the United States’ leadership at the international level, China seeks to find a better status without direct confrontation with the US. Meanwhile, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), as a soft balancing strategy against the hegemony of the United States is used as a tool to reach this goal. The authors by using a descriptive-analytical method try to explain the policies of China and the United States on Shanghai Cooperation Organization as well as confrontation between these two countries within the framework of 'balance of soft power theory'.

Keywords: balance of soft power, Central Asia, Shanghai cooperation organization, terrorism

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71 Objective-Based System Dynamics Modeling to Forecast the Number of Health Professionals in Pudong New Area of Shanghai

Authors: Jie Ji, Jing Xu, Yuehong Zhuang, Xiangqing Kang, Ying Qian, Ping Zhou, Di Xue


Background: In 2014, there were 28,341 health professionals in Pudong new area of Shanghai and the number per 1000 population was 5.199, 55.55% higher than that in 2006. But it was always less than the average number of health professionals per 1000 population in Shanghai from 2006 to 2014. Therefore, allocation planning for the health professionals in Pudong new area has become a high priority task in order to meet the future demands of health care. In this study, we constructed an objective-based system dynamics model to forecast the number of health professionals in Pudong new area of Shanghai in 2020. Methods: We collected the data from health statistics reports and previous survey of human resources in Pudong new area of Shanghai. Nine experts, who were from health administrative departments, public hospitals and community health service centers, were consulted to estimate the current and future status of nine variables used in the system dynamics model. Based on the objective of the number of health professionals per 1000 population (8.0) in Shanghai for 2020, the system dynamics model for health professionals in Pudong new area of Shanghai was constructed to forecast the number of health professionals needed in Pudong new area in 2020. Results: The system dynamics model for health professionals in Pudong new area of Shanghai was constructed. The model forecasted that there will be 37,330 health professionals (6.433 per 1000 population) in 2020. If the success rate of health professional recruitment changed from 20% to 70%, the number of health professionals per 1000 population would be changed from 5.269 to 6.919. If this rate changed from 20% to 70% and the success rate of building new beds changed from 5% to 30% at the same time, the number of health professionals per 1000 population would be changed from 5.269 to 6.923. Conclusions: The system dynamics model could be used to simulate and forecast the health professionals. But, if there were no significant changes in health policies and management system, the number of health professionals per 1000 population would not reach the objectives in Pudong new area in 2020.

Keywords: allocation planning, forecast, health professional, system dynamics

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70 A Study on Strategy of Coordinative Symbiosis between New and Old Buildings: Case Study of Shanghai Citic Plaza and Surroundings

Authors: Tianyi Qin


Along with the acceleration of Chinese urbanization, the expansion, renovation and demolition of old buildings is on the stage together with the design and construction of new buildings every day in downtown of the old city area. The coordinative symbiosis between new and old buildings is an important problem which needs to be solved in the process of urban development. By studying and analyzing the case of Shanghai Citic Plaza and surroundings, this paper contributes to discussing the concept, value and problems to be solved of the coordination of new and old buildings, meanwhile, striking the balance between new and old buildings from the aspects of architectural form, space, function and local context. As a result, the strategy of the coordinative symbiosis between new and old buildings is summarized, which can offer some guiding principles to urban development from now on.

Keywords: coordinative symbiosis, new and old buildings, Shanghai Citic Plaza, strategy

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69 Risk Factors’ Analysis on Shanghai Carbon Trading

Authors: Zhaojun Wang, Zongdi Sun, Zhiyuan Liu


First of all, the carbon trading price and trading volume in Shanghai are transformed by Fourier transform, and the frequency response diagram is obtained. Then, the frequency response diagram is analyzed and the Blackman filter is designed. The Blackman filter is used to filter, and the carbon trading time domain and frequency response diagram are obtained. After wavelet analysis, the carbon trading data were processed; respectively, we got the average value for each 5 days, 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 60 days. Finally, the data are used as input of the Back Propagation Neural Network model for prediction.

Keywords: Shanghai carbon trading, carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, wavelet analysis, BP neural network model

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68 The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China

Authors: Hang Meng, Wen-Bin Liu, Bi Xiao, Kai-Jun Ma, Jian-Hui Xie, Geng Fei, Tian-Ye Zhang, Lu-Yi Xu, Dong-Chuan Zhang


The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.

Keywords: corpse enter water time, corpse floating time, drowning, forensic pathology, victims in the water

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67 A Framework for Assessing and Implementing Ecological-Based Adaptation Solutions in Urban Areas of Shanghai

Authors: Xin Li


The uncertainty and the complexity of the urban environment combining with the threat of climate change are contributing factors to the vulnerability in multiple-dimensions in Chinese megacities, especially in Shanghai. The urban area occupied high valuable technological infrastructure and density buildings is under the threats of climate change and can provide insufficient ecological service to remain the trade-off on urban sustainable development. Urban ecological-based adaptation (UEbA) combines practices and theoretical work and integrates ecological services into multiple-layers of urban environment planning in order to reduce the impact of the complexity and uncertainty. To understand and to respond to the challenges in the urban level, this paper considers Shanghai as the research objective. It is necessary that its urban adaptation strategies should be reflected and contain the concept and knowledge of EbA. In this paper, we firstly use software to illustrates the visualizing patterns and trends of UEBA research in the current 10 years. Specifically, Citespace software was used for interpreting the significant hubs, landmarks points of peer-reviewed literature on the context of ecological service research in recent 10 years. Secondly, 135 evidence-based EbA literature were reviewed for categorizing the methodologies and framework of evidence-based EbA by the systematic map protocol. Finally, a conceptual framework combined with culture, economic and social components was developed in order to assess the current adaptation strategies in Shanghai. This research founds that the key to reducing urban vulnerability does not only focus on co-benefit arguments but also should pay more attention to the concept of trade-off. This research concludes that the designed framework can provide key knowledge and indicates the essential gap as a valuable tool against climate variability in the process of urban adaptation in Shanghai.

Keywords: urban ecological-based adaptation, climate change, sustainable development, climate variability

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66 The 2017 Shanghai Model Breaking Stalemate in Chinese Education Reform: A Discussion of China’s Scheduled Experiment in Access to Higher Education Between 2017 and 2020

Authors: Ping Chou, Xiaoyan Zhou


Domestically and internationally, the Chinese education has long been criticized for being test-oriented, and in spite of efforts made by the Chinese government, it remains hard to find a solution. This paper intends to look at the situation in a comparatively objective manner and discuss the significance of the Shanghai Model as a newly-scheduled experiment for education reform. As a breakthrough, in addition to comprehensive inner-quality evaluation, a small but important step is to be taken in shifting focus of attention back to students by giving them more freedom in selecting certain courses for aptitude tests for college admission. As the first author of the paper has studied and taught both in Chinese and American colleges and universities, comparisons are made when the situation becomes relevant. The official solution for test-oriented education is to make students well-rounded but the writers of this paper believe that it is even more important to make the system well-rounded so it can accept a spectrum of diverse individuals with different potential.

Keywords: college admission, education reform, Shanghai model, test-oriented education

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65 Organizational Ideologies and Their Embeddedness in Fashion Show Productions in Shanghai and London Fashion Week: International-Based-Chinese Independent Designers' Participatory Behaviors in Different Fashion Cities

Authors: Zhe Wang


The fashion week, as a critical international fashion event in shaping world fashion cities, is one of the most significant world events that serves as the core medium for designers to stage new collections. However, its role in bringing about and shaping design ideologies of major fashion cities have long been neglected from a fashion ecosystem perspective. With the expanding scale of international fashion weeks in terms of culture and commerce, the organizational structures of these fashion weeks are becoming more complex. In the emerging fashion city, typified by Shanghai, a newly-formed 'hodgepodge' transforming the current global fashion ecosystem. A city’s legitimate fashion institutions, typically the organizers of international fashion weeks, have cultivated various cultural characteristics via rules and regulations pertaining to international fashion weeks. Under these circumstances, designers’ participatory behaviors, specifically show design and production, are influenced by the cultural ideologies of official organizers and institutions. This research compares international based Chinese (IBC) independent designers’ participatory behavior in London and Shanghai Fashion Weeks: specifically, the way designers present their clothing and show production. both of which are found to be profoundly influenced by cultural and design ideologies of fashion weeks. They are, to a large degree, manipulated by domestic institutions and organizers. Shanghai fashion week has given rise to a multiple, mass-ended entertainment carnival design and cultural ideology in Shanghai, thereby impacting the explicit cultural codes or intangible rules that IBC designers must adhere to when designing and producing fashion shows. Therefore, influenced by various cultural characteristics in the two cities, IBC designers’ show design and productions, in turn, play an increasingly vital role in shaping the design characteristic of an international fashion week. Through researching the organizational systems and design preferences of organizers of London and Shanghai fashion weeks, this paper demonstrates the embeddedness of design systems in the forming of design ideologies under various cultural and institutional contexts. The core methodology utilized in this research is ethnography. As a crucial part of a Ph.D. project on innovations in fashion shows under a cross-cultural context run by Edinburgh College of Art, School of Design, the fashion week’s organizational culture in various cultural contexts is investigated in London and Shanghai for approximately six months respectively. Two IBC designers, Angel Chen and Xuzhi Chen were followed during their participation of London and Shanghai Fashion Weeks from September 2016 to June 2017, during which two consecutive seasons were researched in order to verify the consistency of design ideologies’ associations with organizational system and culture.

Keywords: institutional ideologies, international fashion weeks, IBC independent designers; fashion show

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64 Analysis and Suggestion on Patent Protection in Shanghai, China

Authors: Yuhong Niu, Na Li, Chunlin Jin, Hansheng Ding


The study reviewed all types of patents applied by Shanghai health system to analyze how patent development in China from the year of 1990 to 2012. The study used quantitative and comparative analysis to investigate the change and trends of patent numbers, patent types, patent claims, forward citations, patent life, patent transactions, etc. Results reflected an obviously increased numbers of invention patents, applications, and authorizations and short-life patents, but the ratio of invention patents represented an up and down change. Forward citations and transactions ratio always kept at a low level. The results meant that the protection of intellectual property in the Shanghai health sector had made great progress and lots of positive changes due to incentive policies by local government. However, the low-quality patents, at the same time, increased rapidly. Thus, in the future, it is suggested that the quality management should be strengthened, and invents should be estimated before patent application. It is also suggested that the incentives for intellectual property should be optimized to promote the comprehensive improvement of patent quantity and quality.

Keywords: patent claims, forward citations, patent life, patent transactions ratio

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63 A Comparative Case Study on the Relationship between Solar Energy Potential and Block Typology and Density in Shanghai Context

Authors: Dan Zhu, Jie Shi


This study explores the relationship between solar potential and block typology and density by analyzing sixteen existing typical street blocks with different topologies and densities in Shanghai, a representative high-density urban in China. Several indicators are proposed to quantify, and a methodology is conducted to evaluate and compare the solar potential both on façade and roof across various selected urban forms. 1) The importance of appropriate solar energy indicators and geometric parameters to be used in comparative studies, and 2) the relationship between urban typology, density, and solar performance are discussed. In this way, the results reveal the key design attributes contributing to increasing solar potential.

Keywords: block typology, geometric parameters, high-density urban, solar potential

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62 Improving Internal Efficiency of Local Universities and Colleges: Asseessing the Impact of the 085 Project in Shanghai

Authors: Qing Hui Wang, You Lin Fang, Min Chen


In 2003 the percentage of students in Shanghai taking part in tertiary education reached 53% of the age cohort, which is at the universal level according to Trow's typology. This achievement led to a conscientious effort by the government to improve internal efficiency of local universities and colleges through a series of programs, the most important of which is the 085 Project. This paper considers the effects of the 085 Project- the 5 initiatives launched in 2008 on increasing the investment to improve institutional overall visibilities, teaching excellence, knowledge innovation, faculty development as well as internationalization. Using the approach of ERC (a theory of equality, reciprocity, and competition) model, it was found that the initiatives helped the lower tier universities and colleges make full play in the aspects of strategic planning and identifying themselves. It was also found that the rate of growth of social resources for universities as a whole increased more quickly after the implementation of the 085 Project.

Keywords: 085 Project, impact, internal efficiency, local universities and colleges

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61 Comparison of Patient Satisfaction and Observer Rating of Outpatient Care among Public Hospitals in Shanghai

Authors: Tian Yi Du, Guan Rong Fan, Dong Dong Zou, Di Xue


Background: The patient satisfaction survey is becoming of increasing importance for hospitals or other providers to get more reimbursement and/or more governmental subsidies. However, when the results of patient satisfaction survey are compared among medical institutions, there are some concerns. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate patient satisfaction in tertiary hospitals of Shanghai and to compare the satisfaction rating on physician services between patients and observers. Methods: Two hundred outpatients were randomly selected for patient satisfaction survey in each of 28 public tertiary hospitals of Shanghai. Four or five volunteers were selected to observe 5 physicians’ practice in each of above hospitals and rated observed physicians’ practice. The outpatients that the volunteers observed their physician practice also filled in the satisfaction questionnaires. The rating scale for outpatient survey and volunteers’ observation was: 1 (very dissatisfied) to 6 (very satisfied). If the rating was equal to or greater than 5, we considered the outpatients and volunteers were satisfied with the services. The validity and reliability of the measure were assessed. Multivariate regressions for each of the 4 dimensions and overall of patient satisfaction were used in analyses. Paired t tests were applied to analyze the rating agreement on physician services between outpatients and volunteers. Results: Overall, 90% of surveyed outpatients were satisfied with outpatient care in the tertiary public hospitals of Shanghai. The lowest three satisfaction rates were seen in the items of ‘Restrooms were sanitary and not crowded’ (81%), ‘It was convenient for the patient to pay medical bills’ (82%), and ‘Medical cost in the hospital was reasonable’ (84%). After adjusting the characteristics of patients, the patient satisfaction in general hospitals was higher than that in specialty hospitals. In addition, after controlling the patient characteristics and number of hospital visits, the hospitals with higher outpatient cost per visit had lower patient satisfaction. Paired t tests showed that the rating on 6 items in the dimension of physician services (total 14 items) was significantly different between outpatients and observers, in which 5 were rated lower by the observers than by the outpatients. Conclusions: The hospital managers and physicians should use patient satisfaction and observers’ evaluation to detect the room for improvement in areas such as social skills cost control, and medical ethics.

Keywords: patient satisfaction, observation, quality, hospital

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60 BIM Application Research Based on the Main Entrance and Garden Area Project of Shanghai Disneyland

Authors: Ying Yuken, Pengfei Wang, Zhang Qilin, Xiao Ben


Based on the main entrance and garden area (ME&G) project of Shanghai Disneyland, this paper introduces the application of BIM technology in this kind of low-rise comprehensive building with complex facade system, electromechanical system and decoration system. BIM technology is applied to the whole process of design, construction and completion of the whole project. With the construction of BIM application framework of the whole project, the key points of BIM modeling methods of different systems and the integration and coordination of BIM models are elaborated in detail. The specific application methods of BIM technology in similar complex low-rise building projects are sorted out. Finally, the paper summarizes the benefits of BIM technology application, and puts forward some suggestions for BIM management mode and practical application of similar projects in the future.

Keywords: BIM, complex low-rise building, BIM modeling, model integration and coordination, 3D scanning

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59 The Reach of Shopping Center Layout Form on Subway Based on Kernel Density Estimate

Authors: Wen Liu


With the rapid progress of modern cities, the railway construction must be developing quickly in China. As a typical high-density country, shopping center on the subway should be one important factor during the process of urban development. The paper discusses the influence of the layout of shopping center on the subway, and put it in the time and space’s axis of Shanghai urban development. We use the digital technology to establish the database of relevant information. And then get the change role about shopping center on subway in Shanghaiby the Kernel density estimate. The result shows the development of shopping center on subway has a relationship with local economic strength, population size, policy support, and city construction. And the suburbanization trend of shopping center would be increasingly significant. By this case research, we could see the Kernel density estimate is an efficient analysis method on the spatial layout. It could reveal the characters of layout form of shopping center on subway in essence. And it can also be applied to the other research of space form.

Keywords: Shanghai, shopping center on the subway, layout form, Kernel density estimate

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58 A Preliminary Study of Urban Resident Space Redundancy in the Context of Rapid Urbanization: Based on Urban Research of Hongkou District of Shanghai

Authors: Ziwei Chen, Yujiang Gao


The rapid urbanization has caused the massive physical space in Chinese cities to be in a state of duplication and dislocation through the rapid development, forming many daily spaces that cannot be standardized, typed, and identified, such as illegal construction. This phenomenon is known as urban spatial redundancy and is often excluded from mainstream architectural discussions because of its 'remaining' and 'excessive' derogatory label. In recent years, some practice architects have begun to pay attention to this phenomenon and tried to tap the value behind it. In this context, the author takes the redundancy phenomenon of resident space as the research object and explores the inspiration to the urban architectural renewal and the innovative residential area model, based on the urban survey of redundant living space in Hongkou District of Shanghai. On this basis, it shows that the changes accumulated in the long-term use of the building can be re-applied to the goals before the design, which is an important link and significance of the existence of an architecture.

Keywords: rapid urbanization, living space redundancy, architectural renewal, residential area model

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57 E-teaching Barriers: A Survey from Shanghai Primary School Teachers

Authors: Liu Dan


It was considered either unnecessary or impossible for primary school students to implement online teaching until last year. A large number of E-learning or E-teaching researches have been focused on adult-learners, andragogy and technology, however, primary school education, it is facing many problems that need to be solved. Therefore, this research is aimed at exploring barriers and influential factors on online teaching for K-12 students from teachers’ perspectives and discussing the E-pedagogy that is suitable for primary school students and teachers. Eight hundred and ninety-six teachers from 10 primary schools in Shanghai were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey. Data were analysed by hierarchical regression, and the results stress the significant three barriers by teachers with online teaching: the existing system is deficient in emotional interaction, teachers’ attitude towards the technology is negative and the present teacher training is lack of systematic E-pedagogy guidance. The barriers discovered by this study will help the software designers (E-lab) develop tools that allow for flexible and evolving pedagogical approaches whilst providing an easy entry point for cautious newcomers, so that help the teachers free to engage in E-teaching at pedagogical and disciplinary levels, to enhance their repertoire of teaching practices.

Keywords: online teaching barriers (OTB), e-teaching, primary school, teachers, technology

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56 Rural to Urban Migration and Mental Health Consequences in Urbanizing China

Authors: Jie Li, Nick Manning


The mass rural-urban migrants in China associated with the urbanization processes bear significant implications on public health, which is an important yet under-researched area. Urban social and built environment, such as noise, air pollution, high population density, and social segregation, has the potential to contribute to mental illness. In China, rural-urban migrants are also faced with institutional discrimination tied to the hukou (household registration) system, through which they are denied of full citizenship to basic social welfare and services, which may elevate the stress of urban living and exacerbate the risks to mental illness. This paper aims to link the sociospatial exclusion, everyday life experiences and its mental health consequences on rural to urban migrants living in the mega-city of Shanghai. More specifically, it asks what the daily experience of being a migrant in Shanghai is actually like, particularly regarding sources of stress from housing, displacement, service accessibility, and cultural conflict, and whether these stresses affect mental health? Secondary data from literature review on migration, urban studies, and epidemiology research, as well as primary data from preliminary field trip observations and interviews are used in the analysis.

Keywords: migration, urbanisation, mental health, China

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55 The Death of Ruan Lingyu: Leftist Aesthetics and Cinematic Reality in the 1930s Shanghai

Authors: Chen Jin


This topic seeks to re-examine the New Women Incident in 1935 Shanghai from the perspective of the influence of leftist cinematic aesthetics on public discourse in 1930s Shanghai. Accordingly, an original means of interpreting the death of Ruan Lingyu will be provided. On 8th March 1935, Ruan Lingyu, the queen of Chinese silent film, committed suicide through overdosing on sleeping tablets. Her last words, ‘gossip is fearful thing’, interlinks her destiny with the protagonist she played in the film The New Women (Cai Chusheng, 1935). The coincidence was constantly questioned by the masses following her suicide, constituting the enduring question: ‘who killed Ruan Lingyu?’ Responding to this query, previous scholars primarily analyze the characters played by women -particularly new women as part of the leftist movement or public discourse of 1930s Shanghai- as a means of approaching the truth. Nevertheless, alongside her status as a public celebrity, Ruan Lingyu also plays as a screen image of mechanical reproduction. The overlap between her screen image and personal destiny attracts limited academic focus in terms of the effect and implications of leftist aesthetics of reality in relation to her death, which itself has provided impetus to this research. With the reconfiguration of early Chinese film theory in the 1980s, early discourses on the relationship between cinematic reality and consciousness proposed by Hou Yao and Gu Kenfu in the 1920s are integrated into the category of Chinese film ontology, which constitutes a transcultural contrast with the Euro-American ontology that advocates the representation of reality. The discussion of Hou and Gu overlaps cinematic reality with effect, which emphasizes the empathy of cinema that is directly reflected in the leftist aesthetics of the 1930s. As the main purpose of leftist cinema is to encourage revolution through depicting social reality truly, Ruan Lingyu became renowned for her natural and realistic acting proficiency, playing leading roles in several esteemed leftist films. The realistic reproduction and natural acting skill together constitute the empathy of leftist films, which establishes a dialogue with the virtuous female image within the 1930s public discourse. On this basis, this research considers Chinese cinematic ontology and affect theory as the theoretical foundation for investigating the relationship between the screen image of Ruan Lingyu reproduced by the leftist film The New Women and the female image in the 1930s public discourse. Through contextualizing Ruan Lingyu’s death within the Chinese leftist movement, the essay indicates that the empathy embodied within leftist cinematic reality limits viewers’ cognition of the actress, who project their sentiments for the perfect screen image on to Ruan Lingyu’s image in reality. Essentially, Ruan Lingyu is imprisoned in her own perfect replication. Consequently, this article states that alongside leftist anti-female consciousness, the leftist aesthetics of reality restricts women in a passive position within public discourse, which ultimately plays a role in facilitating the death of Ruan Lingyu.

Keywords: cinematic reality, leftist aesthetics, Ruan Lingyu, The New Women

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54 Economic Integration in Eurasia: Modeling of the Current and Future Architecture

Authors: M. G. Shilina


The prospects for political and economic development of the Eurasian space are currently discussed at both governmental and expert levels. New concepts actively proposed by the Eurasian governments require the analysis and search for effective implementation options. In the paper, an attempt to identify effective solutions to the problems surrounding the current economic integration of the Eurasian states is given on the basis of an interdisciplinary, comprehensive, structured analysis. The phenomenon is considered through the prism of the international law, world economy and politics, combined with the study of existing intergovernmental practice. The modeling method was taken as the basis for the research and is supplemented by legal and empirical methods. The detailed multi-level model of practical construction the 'Great Eurasia' (the GE) concept is proposed, the option for building a phased interaction in Eurasia is given through the prism of construction by the Eurasian Economic Union (the EAEU) as the main tool. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (the SCO) is seen as the most promising element of the model. The SCO is capable of streamlining the formation of the GE and determine the transformation of Eurasia into a common economic space. Effective development of the economic integration between Eurasian states on the framework of the SCO is optimal. The SCO+ could be used as a platform for integration-integration processes formation. The creation of stable financial ties could become the basis for the possible formation of an expanded transregional integration platform. The paper concludes that the implementation of the proposed model could entail a gradual economic rapprochement of Eurasia and beyond.

Keywords: economic integration, The Eurasian Economic Union, The European Union, The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the silk road economic belt

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53 Digital Employment of Disabled People: Empirical Study from Shanghai

Authors: Yan Zi, Han Xiao


Across the globe, ICTs are influencing employment both as an industry that creates jobs and as a tool that empowers disabled people to access new forms of work, in innovative and more flexible ways. The advancements in ICT and the number of apps and solutions that support persons with physical, cognitive and intellectual disabilities challenge traditional biased notions and offer a pathway out of traditional sheltered workshops. As the global leader in digital technology innovation, China is arguably a leader in the use of digital technology as a 'lever' in ending the economic and social marginalization of the disabled. This study investigates factors that influence adoption and use of employment-oriented ICT applications among disabled people in China and seeks to integrate three theoretical approaches: the technology acceptance model (TAM), the uses and gratifications (U&G) approach, and the social model of disability. To that end, the study used data from self-reported survey of 214 disabled adults who have been involved in two top-down 'Internet + employment' programs promoted by local disabled persons’ federation in Shanghai. A structural equation model employed in the study demonstrates that the use of employment-oriented ICT applications is affected by demographic factors of gender, categories of disability, education and marital status. The organizational support of local social organizations demonstrates significate effects on the motivations of disabled people. Results from the focus group interviews particularly suggested that to maximize the positive impact of ICTs on employment, there is significant need to build stakeholder capacity on how ICTs could benefits persons with disabilities.

Keywords: disabled people, ICTs, technology acceptance model, uses and gratifications, the social model of disability

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52 A Preliminary Study of the Reconstruction of Urban Residential Public Space in the Context of the “Top-down” Construction Model in China: Based on Research of TianZiFang District in Shanghai and Residential Space in Hangzhou

Authors: Wang Qiaowei, Gao Yujiang


With the economic growth and rapid urbanization after the reform and openness, some of China's fast-growing cities have demolished former dwellings and built modern residential quarters. The blind, incomplete reference to western modern cities and the one-off construction lacking feedback mechanism have intensified such phenomenon, causing the citizen gradually expanded their living scale with the popularization of car traffic, and the peer-to-peer lifestyle gradually settled. The construction of large-scale commercial centers has caused obstacles to small business around the residential areas, leading to space for residents' interaction has been compressed. At the same time, the advocated Central Business District (CBD) model even leads to the unsatisfactory reconstruction of many historical blocks such as the Hangzhou Southern Song Dynasty Imperial Street. However, the popularity of historical spaces such as Wuzhen and Hongcun also indicates the collective memory and needs of the street space for Chinese residents. The evolution of Shanghai TianZiFang also proves the importance of the motivation of space participants in space construction in the context of the “top-down” construction model in China. In fact, there are frequent occurrences of “reconstruction”, which may redefine the space, in various residential areas. If these activities can be selectively controlled and encouraged, it will be beneficial to activate the public space as well as the residents’ intercourse, so that the traditional Chinese street space can be reconstructed in the context of modern cities.

Keywords: rapid urbanization, traditional street space, space re-construction, bottom-up design

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51 From the Corniche, Jumping into Vital Restoration: Sustainability Assessment of West Bund

Authors: Yiqi Sun, Zhiyuan Zhang, Chenkun Ma


Regeneration of outmoded urban forms and restorative environments are now recognized as major assets towards achieving sustainable development. Shanghai, like many Chinese cities, is now shifting from an agitated industrial past to more livable development schemes. Therefore, a sustainable approach to Shanghai development consists in turning industrial heritage into places with high potential for improving citizen’s daily life as regard to the three pillars of sustainability, namely: environment, economy, and society. As such, this study focuses on the Corniche in Xuhui West Bund district; a former industrial area converted into recreational public spaces in Xuhui West Bund. This area was the birthplace of the aviation industry of China, and many of the industrial features were preserved. Unused areas have been transformed into exhibition halls and green spaces, integrating some of the original industrial, architectural forms. Our case study investigates the effects of this approach associating urban regeneration with restorative design, as well as its impact on the surrounding neighborhood. Information extracted from visitors’ answers to a questionnaire survey; on-site systematic observation, counts, and measurements allowed us to assess the sustainability of this intervention in terms of accessibility, functionality, cultural and restorative qualities. In general, we found that cycling is not highly encouraged by the current design and level of connectivity, while visitors widely acknowledge the enhancement of cultural heritage resulting from the intervention. Moreover, recreational and restorative areas were found to have a very positive effect on local communities. Indeed, such an approach can provide valuable insights on how future interventions in Chinese major cities could take full advantage of existing assets in creating a more environmental, more livable, and culturally richer city.

Keywords: architectural heritage conservation, cultural urban identity, sustainability assessment, restorative environment, urban regeneration

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50 Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth and Correlation Analysis of PM2.5 Based on GF-1 Wide Field of View Images

Authors: Bo Wang


This paper proposes a method that can estimate PM2.5 by the images of GF-1 Satellite that called WFOV images (Wide Field of View). AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) over land surfaces was retrieved in Shanghai area based on DDV (Dark Dense Vegetation) method. PM2.5 information, gathered from ground monitoring stations hourly, was fitted with AOD using different polynomial coefficients, and then the correlation coefficient between them was calculated. The results showed that, the GF-1 WFOV images can meet the requirement of retrieving AOD, and the correlation coefficient between the retrieved AOD and PM2.5 was high. If more detailed and comprehensive data is provided, the accuracy could be improved and the parameters can be more precise in the future.

Keywords: remote sensing retrieve, PM 2.5, GF-1, aerosol optical depth

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49 Multi-Scale Spatial Difference Analysis Based on Nighttime Lighting Data

Authors: Qinke Sun, Liang Zhou


The ‘Dragon-Elephant Debate’ between China and India is an important manifestation of global multipolarity in the 21st century. The two rising powers have carried out economic reforms one after another in the interval of more than ten years, becoming the fastest growing developing country and emerging economy in the world. At the same time, the development differences between China and India have gradually attracted wide attention of scholars. Based on the continuous annual night light data (DMSP-OLS) from 1992 to 2012, this paper systematically compares and analyses the regional development differences between China and India by Gini coefficient, coefficient of variation, comprehensive night light index (CNLI) and hot spot analysis. The results show that: (1) China's overall expansion from 1992 to 2012 is 1.84 times that of India, in which China's change is 2.6 times and India's change is 2 times. The percentage of lights in unlighted areas in China dropped from 92% to 82%, while that in India from 71% to 50%. (2) China's new growth-oriented cities appear in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, Ordos, and Urumqi in the west, and the declining cities are concentrated in Liaoning Province and Jilin Province in the northeast; India's new growth-oriented cities are concentrated in Chhattisgarh in the north, while the declining areas are distributed in Uttar Pradesh. (3) China's differences on different scales are lower than India's, and regional inequality of development is gradually narrowing. Gini coefficients at the regional and provincial levels have decreased from 0.29, 0.44 to 0.24 and 0.38, respectively, while regional inequality in India has slowly improved and regional differences are gradually widening, with Gini coefficients rising from 0.28 to 0.32. The provincial Gini coefficient decreased slightly from 0.64 to 0.63. (4) The spatial pattern of China's regional development is mainly east-west difference, which shows the difference between coastal and inland areas; while the spatial pattern of India's regional development is mainly north-south difference, but because the southern states are sea-dependent, it also reflects the coastal inland difference to a certain extent. (5) Beijing and Shanghai present a multi-core outward expansion model, with an average annual CNLI higher than 0.01, while New Delhi and Mumbai present the main core enhancement expansion model, with an average annual CNLI lower than 0.01, of which the average annual CNLI in Shanghai is about five times that in Mumbai.

Keywords: spatial pattern, spatial difference, DMSP-OLS, China, India

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48 A Research on the Improvement of Small and Medium-Sized City in Early-Modern China (1895-1927): Taking Southern Jiangsu as an Example

Authors: Xiaoqiang Fu, Baihao Li


In 1895, the failure of Sino-Japanese prompted the trend of comprehensive and systematic study of western pattern in China. In urban planning and construction, urban reform movement sprang up slowly, which aimed at renovating and reconstructing the traditional cities into modern cities similar to the concessions. During the movement, Chinese traditional city initiated a process of modern urban planning for its modernization. Meanwhile, the traditional planning morphology and system started to disintegrate, on the contrary, western form and technology had become the paradigm. Therefore, the improvement of existing cities had become the prototype of urban planning of early modern China. Currently, researches of the movement mainly concentrate on large cities, concessions, railway hub cities and some special cities resembling those. However, the systematic research about the large number of traditional small and medium-sized cities is still blank, up to now. This paper takes the improvement constructions of small and medium-sized cities in Southern region of Jiangsu Province as the research object. First of all, the criteria of small and medium-sized cities are based on the administrative levels of general office and cities at the county level. Secondly, the suitability of taking the Southern Jiangsu as the research object. The southern area of Jiangsu province called Southern Jiangsu for short, was the most economically developed region in Jiangsu, and also one of the most economically developed and the highest urbanization regions in China. As the most developed agricultural areas in ancient China, Southern Jiangsu formed a large number of traditional small and medium-sized cities. In early modern times, with the help of the Shanghai economic radiation, geographical advantage and powerful economic foundation, Southern Jiangsu became an important birthplace of Chinese national industry. Furthermore, the strong business atmosphere promoted the widespread urban improvement practices, which were incomparable of other regions. Meanwhile, the demonstration of Shanghai, Zhenjiang, Suzhou and other port cities became the improvement pattern of small and medium-sized city in Southern Jiangsu. This paper analyzes the reform movement of the small and medium-sized cities in Southern Jiangsu (1895-1927), including the subjects, objects, laws, technologies and the influence factors of politic and society, etc. At last, this paper reveals the formation mechanism and characteristics of urban improvement movement in early modern China. According to the paper, the improvement of small-medium city was a kind of gestation of the local city planning culture in early modern China,with a fusion of introduction and endophytism.

Keywords: early modern China, improvement of small-medium city, southern region of Jiangsu province, urban planning history of China

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47 The Scenario Analysis of Shale Gas Development in China by Applying Natural Gas Pipeline Optimization Model

Authors: Meng Xu, Alexis K. H. Lau, Ming Xu, Bill Barron, Narges Shahraki


As an emerging unconventional energy, shale gas has been an economically viable step towards a cleaner energy future in U.S. China also has shale resources that are estimated to be potentially the largest in the world. In addition, China has enormous unmet for a clean alternative to substitute coal. Nonetheless, the geological complexity of China’s shale basins and issues of water scarcity potentially impose serious constraints on shale gas development in China. Further, even if China could replicate to a significant degree the U.S. shale gas boom, China faces the problem of transporting the gas efficiently overland with its limited pipeline network throughput capacity and coverage. The aim of this study is to identify the potential bottlenecks in China’s gas transmission network, as well as to examine the shale gas development affecting particular supply locations and demand centers. We examine this through application of three scenarios with projecting domestic shale gas supply by 2020: optimistic, medium and conservative shale gas supply, taking references from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) projections and China’s shale gas development plans. Separately we project the gas demand at provincial level, since shale gas will have more significant impact regionally than nationally. To quantitatively assess each shale gas development scenario, we formulated a gas pipeline optimization model. We used ArcGIS to generate the connectivity parameters and pipeline segment length. Other parameters are collected from provincial “twelfth-five year” plans and “China Oil and Gas Pipeline Atlas”. The multi-objective optimization model uses GAMs and Matlab. It aims to minimize the demands that are unable to be met, while simultaneously seeking to minimize total gas supply and transmission costs. The results indicate that, even if the primary objective is to meet the projected gas demand rather than cost minimization, there’s a shortfall of 9% in meeting total demand under the medium scenario. Comparing the results between the optimistic and medium supply of shale gas scenarios, almost half of the shale gas produced in Sichuan province and Chongqing won’t be able to be transmitted out by pipeline. On the demand side, the Henan province and Shanghai gas demand gap could be filled as much as 82% and 39% respectively, with increased shale gas supply. To conclude, the pipeline network in China is currently not sufficient in meeting the projected natural gas demand in 2020 under medium and optimistic scenarios, indicating the need for substantial pipeline capacity expansion for some of the existing network, and the importance of constructing new pipelines from particular supply to demand sites. If the pipeline constraint is overcame, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Henan’s gas demand gap could potentially be filled, and China could thereby reduce almost 25% its dependency on LNG imports under the optimistic scenario.

Keywords: energy policy, energy systematic analysis, scenario analysis, shale gas in China

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46 Spatial Heterogeneity of Urban Land Use in the Yangtze River Economic Belt Based on DMSP/OLS Data

Authors: Liang Zhou, Qinke Sun


Taking the Yangtze River Economic Belt as an example, using long-term nighttime lighting data from DMSP/OLS from 1992 to 2012, support vector machine classification (SVM) was used to quantitatively extract urban built-up areas of economic belts, and spatial analysis of expansion intensity index, standard deviation ellipse, etc. was introduced. The model conducts detailed and in-depth discussions on the strength, direction, and type of the expansion of the middle and lower reaches of the economic belt and the key node cities. The results show that: (1) From 1992 to 2012, the built-up areas of the major cities in the Yangtze River Valley showed a rapid expansion trend. The built-up area expanded by 60,392 km², and the average annual expansion rate was 31%, that is, from 9615 km² in 1992 to 70007 km² in 2012. The spatial gradient analysis of the watershed shows that the expansion of urban built-up areas in the middle and lower reaches of the river basin takes Shanghai as the leading force, and the 'bottom-up' model shows an expanding pattern of 'upstream-downstream-middle-range' declines. The average annual rate of expansion is 36% and 35%, respectively. 17% of which the midstream expansion rate is about 50% of the upstream and downstream. (2) The analysis of expansion intensity shows that the urban expansion intensity in the Yangtze River Basin has generally shown an upward trend, the downstream region has continued to rise, and the upper and middle reaches have experienced different amplitude fluctuations. To further analyze the strength of urban expansion at key nodes, Chengdu, Chongqing, and Wuhan in the upper and middle reaches maintain a high degree of consistency with the intensity of regional expansion. Node cities with Shanghai as the core downstream continue to maintain a high level of expansion. (3) The standard deviation ellipse analysis shows that the overall center of gravity of the Yangtze River basin city is located in Anqing City, Anhui Province, and it showed a phenomenon of reciprocating movement from 1992 to 2012. The nighttime standard deviation ellipse distribution range increased from 61.96 km² to 76.52 km². The growth of the major axis of the ellipse was significantly larger than that of the minor axis. It had obvious east-west axiality, in which the nighttime lights in the downstream area occupied in the entire luminosity scale urban system leading position.

Keywords: urban space, support vector machine, spatial characteristics, night lights, Yangtze River Economic Belt

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