Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 151

Search results for: Roman Catholic bishops

151 Discourse Functions of Rhetorical Devices in Selected Roman Catholic Bishops' Pastoral Letters in the Ecclesiastical Province of Onitsha, Nigeria

Authors: Virginia Chika Okafor

Abstract:

The pastoral letter, an open letter addressed by a bishop to members of his diocese for the purpose of promoting faith and good Christian living, constitutes a persuasive religious discourse characterized by numerous rhetorical devices. Previous studies on Christian religious language have concentrated mainly on sermons, liturgy, prayers, theology, scriptures, hymns, and songs to the exclusion of the persuasive power of pastoral letters. This study, therefore, examined major rhetorical devices in selected Roman Catholic bishops’ Lenten pastoral letters in the Ecclesiastical Province of Onitsha, with a view to determining their persuasive discourse functions. Aristotelian Rhetoric was adopted as the framework because of its emphasis on persuasion through three main rhetorical appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. Data were drawn from 10 pastoral letters of five Roman Catholic bishops in five dioceses (two letters from each) out of the seven in the Ecclesiastical of Onitsha. The five dioceses (Onitsha arch-diocese, Nnewi, Awka, Enugu, and Awgu dioceses) were chosen because pastoral letters are regularly published there. The 10 pastoral letters were published between 2000 and 2010 and range between 20 and 104 pages. They were selected, through purposive sampling, based on consistency in the publication and rhetorical content. Data were subjected to discourse analysis. Three categories of rhetorical devices were identified: those relating to logos (logical devices), those relating to pathos (pathetical devices), and those relating to ethos (ethical devices). Major logical devices deployed were: testimonial reference functioning as authority to validate messages; logical arguments appealing to the rationality of the audience; nominalization and passivation objectifying the validity of ideas; and modals of obligation/necessity appealing to the audience’s sense of responsibility and moral duty. Prominent among the pathetical devices deployed were: use of Igbo language to express solidarity with the audience; inclusive pronoun (we) to create a feeling of belonging, collectivism and oneness with them; prayers to inspire them; and positive emotion-laden words to refer to the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) to keep the audience emotionally attached to it. Finally, major ethical devices deployed were: use of first-person singular pronoun (I) and imperatives to invoke the authority of the bishops’ office; Latinisms to show learnedness; greetings and appreciation to express goodwill; and exemplary Biblical characters as models of faith, repentance, and love. The rhetorical devices were used in relation to the bishops’ messages of faith, repentance, love and loyalty to the Roman Catholic Church. Roman Catholic bishops’ pastoral letters in the Ecclesiastical Province of Onitsha are thus characterized by logos-, pathos-, and ethos-related rhetorical devices designed to persuade the audience to live according to the bishops’ messages of faith, love, repentance, and loyalty to the Roman Catholic Church. The rhetorical devices, therefore, establish the pastoral letters as a significant form of persuasive religious discourse.

Keywords: ecclesiastical province of Onitsha, pastoral letters, persuasive discourse functions, rhetorical devices, Roman Catholic bishops

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150 Images of Spiritism in Brazilian Catholic Discourse (1889-1937)

Authors: Frantisek Kalenda

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With the ultimate triumph of the republican movement in 1889 in Brazil and adoption of constitution promoting religious freedom, formerly dominant Roman Catholic Church entered a long period of struggle to recover its lost position, fighting both liberal and secular character of the new regime and rising competition on the “market of faith”. Spiritism in its originally Brazilian form proved to be one if its key adversaries during the First (1889-1930) and Second Republic (1930-1937), provoking significant attempt within official Church to discredit and destroy the movement. This paper explores this effort through Catholic portrayal of Spiritism in its official media, focusing, on the creation of stereotypes and both theological and “scientific” arguments used against it. Its core is based on primary sources’ analysis, mainly influential A Ordem and Mensageiro da Fé.

Keywords: Catholic Church, media, other, spiritism, stereotype

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149 Polish Catholic Discourse on Gender Equality in the Face of Social and Cultural Changes in Poland

Authors: Anna Jagielska

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Five years ago, the word ‘gender’ was discussed in Poland exclusively in academic contexts. One year later, it was chosen as the word of the year and omnipresent in the Polish media. The rapid career of this word is due to the involvement of the Polish church hierarchy who strategically brought this term into relation with abortion, pornography and paedophilia. ‘Gender’ is more than a political slogan. It is a symbol of social anxiety and moral panic in Poland which need to be historically considered. The aim of this paper is to present selected rhetorical strategies used by the Polish Catholic clergy who strive to have an impact on the current gender discourse in Poland. In particular, the gender debate, culminated in the pastoral letter of the Bishops' Conference of Poland, will be discussed. The church’s protest against the Council of Europe’s Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence will be analyzed and the recent heated debates in Poland on contraception, abortion, in vitro fertilization, and sex education will be mentioned. To provide explanations on the specificity of Polish gender debates the role of the Catholic Church in the fall of communism in Poland as well as the charismatisation of Polish society by Pope John Paul II will be explained. The social constructions of communism and feminism which are manifested in both written and symbolic contracts on gender equality between the Church and the State will be demonstrated. At the end of the paper, theories about the changing role of religion in society will be applied.

Keywords: gender, Poland, religion, catholicism, feminism

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148 The Protection and Enhancement of the Roman Roads in Algeria

Authors: Tarek Ninouh, Ahmed Rouili

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The Roman paths or roads offer a very interesting archaeological material, because they allow us to understand the history of human settlement and are also factors that increase territorial identity. Roman roads are one of the hallmarks of the Roman empire, which extends to North Africa. The objective of this investigation is to attract the attention of researchers to the importance of Roman roads and paths, which are found in Algeria, according to the quality of the materials and techniques used in this period of our history, and to encourage other decision makers to protect and enhance these routes because the current urbanization, intensive agricultural practices, or simply forgotten, decreases the sustainability of this important historical heritage.

Keywords: Roman paths, quality of materials, property, valuation

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147 Aquinas Be Damned: Tension between Nothingness and Suffering

Authors: Elizabeth Latham

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Aquinas has long been revered by the Catholic Church as one of the greatest theologians of all time. His most well-known and widely respected theological work, the Summa Theologica has been referenced by countless members of the clergy in support of arguments for and about the existence of God. It is surprising, then, and important that one component in his ontological arguments seems to contradict a precept upheld by the Catechism, the Catholic Church’s comprehensive document detailing their theological positions and laws. In Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas argued that God’s eternal existence is both an observable and necessary quality. In the Catechism, the Catholic Church argues that souls in Hell are separated from God, and only souls in Heaven are like him. After introducing research on Philosophical Psychology and the natures of consciousness and pain, this paper comes to the conclusion that in order to reconcile the theology of the Catholic Church at large with that of Thomas Aquinas, one must somehow solve the following problem: if a soul must exist eternally to suffer eternally, it must be like God; and, if a soul is in Hell, it is completely separate from God and not like him at all. Thomas Aquinas deviates at this point from the current theological holdings of the Catholic Church, and this apparent discrepancy must be resolved if the Church hopes to use him going forward as a standard for natural theology.

Keywords: aquinas, catholic catechism, consciousness, philosophical psychology, summa theologica

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146 Level of Understanding of the Catholic Doctrines in Relation to the Way of Life of Ignatian Graduates

Authors: Maria Wendy Mendoza-Solomo

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The study assessed the level of understanding of catholic doctrines in relation to the way of life of Ignatian graduates of Ateneo de Naga University (ADNU). It was conducted to find out if ADNU is successful in leading their students to a deeper moral understanding of the world centered on Jesus Christ through their curriculum, academic programs, activities and practices. This study further evaluated if their graduates live out their Catholic commitment to Christ in their current way of life. It also determined the factors that affected their level of understanding of Catholic doctrines and their current way of life. The descriptive, qualitative, evaluative and correlational analyses determined the level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines and the current way of life of 390 graduates. It also correlated the level of understanding to moral life and worship. The factors that affected the graduates’ level of understanding and their current way of life were measured. A researcher-made instrument was distributed to the respondents either using the traditional way or the online survey to reach out graduates across the globe. Major findings were (1) The weighted mean of graduates’ level of understanding of Catholic doctrines was 4.63. (2) Along moral life, 4.07 while along worship, 3.83. (3) The Catholic doctrines and moral life had Pearson r value of 0.79. The doctrines and worship, 0.87; and worship and moral life, 0.89. (4) The understanding of the doctrines was affected highly by the teacher factor with 4.09 mean. The moral life and worship were affected highly by the teacher and technological factors both ranked 1.5 (4.04). (5) Along Catholic doctrines, the teacher factor had 0.90 r value; and environmental, -0.40. Along moral life, teacher had r value of -0.30; technological (-0.92), socio-economic (-0.93), political (-0.83), and environmental (-0.90). Along worship, the teacher had 0.36 Pearson r value, technological and socio-economic (-0.78), political (-0.73) and environmental (-0.72). Major conclusions were: (1) Graduates had very high level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines as summarized in the Creed which is grounded in the Sacred Scriptures. (2) They live out this Catholic commitment to Christ by obeying the Commandments very extensively but needed more participation in religious and parish activities. They have overwhelming spirituality and religiosity in terms of receiving of sacraments and sacramental practices except reading the Bible and reflecting on its passages. (3) The graduates’ level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines had very strong correlation with their current way of life. (4) Teacher, socio-economic, technological, environmental, and political factors significantly affected their understanding of the Catholic doctrines and their current way of life. (5) The teacher factor had very strong relationship with the doctrines; technological and political, weak; environmental, moderate; and socio-economic, very weak relationship. The teacher factor had weak relationship but the other factors had very strong relationship with moral life and strong relationship with worship.

Keywords: Catholic doctrines, Ignatian graduates, relationship, way of life

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145 Confess Your Sins to One Another: An Exploration of the Biblical Validity and the Psychological Efficacy of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in the Catholic Church

Authors: M. B. Peter

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The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation has long been upheld, by the Catholic Church, as one of the Sacraments of healing, mainly due to the sense of peace, tranquility and psychological quiescence it accords the penitent upon receiving Sacramental absolution of sin through the action of the priest. This paper explores the Sacramental character of this practice and the psychological benefits of the celebration of the Sacrament. This is achieved in two parts: firstly, by the intellectual engagement of Sacred Scripture and the consolidated Sacred Tradition that the Catholic magisterium protects and, secondly, via a broad survey of the works of Carl Gustav Jung and Orval Hobart Mowrer regarding confession and forgiveness. The former will serve to demonstrate the Catholic belief of the divine institution of the Sacrament whilst the latter will demonstrate how this belief, coupled with the existing benefit of confessing guilt, collectively bolsters the Sacrament’s overall psychological efficacy. Fundamentally, the analysis of Jung and Mowrer’s works demonstrate that man, as a naturally religious being, has an inherent need for the confession of his wrong that he might be alleviated of psychological guilt in obtaining forgiveness of a (divinely ordained) minister who is sanctioned to absolve, i.e. the priest. The paper also presents the curative effect of the celebration of this Sacrament, illustrating how, without the act of confession, man remains in moral isolation from God and man; and, that with it, man is relieved of the mysterious feeling of guilt which lies at the root of his disquiet of mind and disturbance of will. Thus, the paper penultimately establishes how the Sacrament of Reconciliation is positioned in that place where psychology and theology meet: man’s sense of guilt. It is Jung’s views on confession and forgiveness that ultimately bridge the chasm between psychology and Christianity.

Keywords: Catholic, confession, Jung, Mowrer, penance, psychology, Sacrament of Reconciliation

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144 The Applicability of General Catholic Canon Law during the Ongoing Migration Crisis in Hungary

Authors: Lorand Ujhazi

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The vast majority of existing canonical studies about migration are focused on examining the general pastoral and legal regulations of the Catholic Church. The weakness of this approach is that it ignores a number of important factors; like the financial, legal and personal circumstances of a particular church or the canonical position of certain organizations which actually look after the immigrants. This paper is a case study, which analyses the current and historical migration related policies and activities of the Catholic Church in Hungary. To achieve this goal the study uses canon law, historical publications, various instructions and communications issued by church superiors, Hungarian and foreign media reports and the relevant Hungarian legislation. The paper first examines how the Hungarian Catholic Church assisted migrants like Armenians fleeing from the Ottoman Empire, Poles escaping during the Second World War, East German and Romanian citizens in the 1980s and refugees from the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. These events underline the importance of past historical experience in the development of contemporary pastoral and humanitarian policy of the Catholic Church in Hungary. Then the paper turns to the events of the ongoing crisis by describing the unique challenges faced by churches in transit countries like Hungary. Then the research contrasts these findings with the typical responsibilities of churches in countries which are popular destinations for immigrants. The next part of the case study focuses on the changes to the pre-crisis legal and canonical framework which influenced the actions of hierarchical and charity organizations in Hungary. Afterwards, the paper illustrates the dangers of operating in an unclear legal environment, where some charitable activities of the church like a fundraising campaign may be interpreted as a national security risk by state authorities. Then the paper presents the reactions of Hungarian academics to the current migration crisis and finally it offers some proposals how to improve parts of Canon Law which govern immigration. The conclusion of the paper is that during the formulation of the central refugee policy of the Catholic Church decision makers must take into consideration the peculiar circumstances of its particular churches. This approach may prevent disharmony between the existing central regulations, the policy of the Vatican and the operations of the local church organizations.

Keywords: canon law, Catholic Church, civil law, Hungary, immigration, national security

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143 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen

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Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: germinated paddy rice, nutrient digestibility, immune activity, functional property

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142 The Catholic Aristotle: Metaphysics and the Transubstantiation of the Eucharist

Authors: Elizabeth Latham

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Aristotle’s definition of substance from Metaphysics is relevant to the Catholic transubstantiation of the Eucharist, the idea that the actual substance of bread and wine is replaced by the substance of the body and blood of Christ. Assuming the physiological nature of the subjects do not change, the Aristotelian view on the nature of substance seems to be incompatible with this belief, since bread and wine have essential qualities different from those of flesh and blood. However, based on a theological view of the essence of the body and blood of Christ as salvation along with the essence of Eucharist, transubstantiation can fit within Aristotle’s brackets. This is one step further than theologians like Aquinas have gone in their similar discussions. Using his work as a method by which to understand the apparently impossible act of transforming food to flesh provides a logical angle on a question of faith.

Keywords: aristotle, catholicism, eucharist, metaphysics transubstantiation

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141 Religion, Education, and Nation: Anticlerical Principle of France and Private School Law of South Korea

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

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The education plays an important role of political socialization in politics. In Korean and in France, religion in education is situated in an important place, but religious education in school is dealt differently in two countries. In this article, the author tries to reveal the reason why in France private Catholic schools can keep their religious discipline, but in Korea, private Christian schools cannot insist Christianism to their students. This is because of the different situation of their budget. In Korea, even though private schools are named ‘private’, they cannot be managed without government subsidy but in France, private Catholic schools are owned by private foundation and their budget is based on their own resource. That’s why French private schools do not need to follow governmental guidance but not in Korean case.

Keywords: religion, politics, South Korea, France

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140 Limes Africanus: Tribes, Romans and Islamic Dynasties

Authors: Erika Mattio , Edoardo Casolo

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This project studies in a complete and innovative way the lesser known southern roman border: the limes africanus. In this work, thanks to the comparison of archaeological, historical and epigraphic sources, the evolution and changes that occurred in the cities and areas around the limes were analysed. As of now, there are many studies relative to the roman imperial period, however there are not that many analysing the evolution of the limes from the Islamic conquest to the modern day, comparing the ancient, byzantine, islamic and contemporary periods, understanding the significance of the limes, it s role and the cities and commerce that were defined by it in north Africa. Using modern methods of remote sensing and landscape archaeology, a georeferencing of the area documented in the thirties of the last century by French military aviation colonel Jean Baradez was created, showing that the limes africanus had survived the fall of the roman empire and continued to be important also for the Islamic dynasties that came later, even until the italo-turkish war and the Italian conquest of Libya. With this research we wish to demonstrate the continuation through time of the limes africanus and whether today it exists still or not.

Keywords: Limes Tripolitanus, Muslim, North Africa, Romans

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139 The Power of Spirituality: The Experience of the Swiss Bethlehem Mission Society in Taiwan

Authors: Weihsuan Lin

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The Swiss Bethlehem Mission Society (BMS) in Taiwan has influenced and made an important contribution to religion and social work in Taidong. This German-speaking Catholic missionary society is located in Taidong, which is the political and economic periphery of Taiwan but is the cultural center of the Chinese and many different Austronesian ethnic groups, including Amis, Paiwan, Puyuma, Yami, Bunun, and Rukai. Through document analysis and fieldwork, this research aims to explore the result of the confrontation, exchange, and innovation between the BMS and other ethnic groups. Further, based upon Michael Foucault’s discussion of two modalities of constructing individuals, namely ‘discipline’ and ‘care of the self,’ this research will analyze the ‘discipline’ and ‘care of the self’ mechanisms of and between BMS Fathers, Brothers, and Church followers at the scale of individuals. At the scale of groups, the ‘autonomy’ and ‘been governed’ of the BMS in relationship to the Catholic Church in Taiwan and the world will also be examined.

Keywords: Bethlehem Mission Society, Religion and Geography, Spirituality, Foucault

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138 The Territorial Expression of Religious Identity: A Case Study of Catholic Communities

Authors: Margarida Franca

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The influence of the ‘cultural turn’ movement and the consequent deconstruction of scientific thought allowed geography and other social sciences to open or deepen their studies based on the analysis of multiple identities, on singularities, on what is particular or what marks the difference between individuals. In the context of postmodernity, the geography of religion has gained a favorable scientific, thematic and methodological focus for the qualitative and subjective interpretation of various religious identities, sacred places, territories of belonging, religious communities, among others. In the context of ‘late modernity’ or ‘net modernity’, sacred places and the definition of a network of sacred territories allow believers to attain the ‘ontological security’. The integration on a religious group or a local community, particularly a religious community, allows human beings to achieve a sense of belonging, familiarity or solidarity and to overcome, in part, some of the risks or fears that society has discovered. The importance of sacred places comes not only from their inherent characteristics (eg transcendent, mystical and mythical, respect, intimacy and abnegation), but also from the possibility of adding and integrating members of the same community, creating bonds of belonging, reference and individual and collective memory. In addition, the formation of different networks of sacred places, with multiple scales and dimensions, allows the human being to identify and structure his times and spaces of daily life. Thus, each individual, due to his unique identity and life and religious paths, creates his own network of sacred places. The territorial expression of religious identity allows to draw a variable and unique geography of sacred places. Through the case study of the practicing Catholic population in the diocese of Coimbra (Portugal), the aim is to study the territorial expression of the religious identity of the different local communities of this city. Through a survey of six parishes in the city, we sought to identify which factors, qualitative or not, define the different territorial expressions on a local, national and international scale, with emphasis on the socioeconomic profile of the population, the religious path of the believers, the religious group they belong to and the external interferences, religious or not. The analysis of these factors allows us to categorize the communities of the city of Coimbra and, for each typology or category, to identify the specific elements that unite the believers to the sacred places, the networks and religious territories that structure the religious practice and experience and also the non-representational landscape that unifies and creates memory. We conclude that an apparently homogeneous group, the Catholic community, incorporates multitemporalities and multiterritorialities that are necessary to understand the history and geography of a whole country and of the Catholic communities in particular.

Keywords: geography of religion, sacred places, territoriality, Catholic Church

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137 Transparency within the Hierarchy of the Catholic Church in the Treatment of Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

Authors: Brang Mai Lazing

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The central argument of this paper proposes that while democracy cannot guarantee transparency, authentic transparency within the hierarchy of the Church can be pursued as a means of dealing with cases of clergy sexual abuse. Amid the recent global scandal of clergy sexual abuse cases, a previous study has argued that a democratic rule should be applied to the administration of the Church so that, while a democratic Church could be compelled to exercise greater transparency when handling such cases, the Church might thereby regain credibility. Using the methodology of literature analysis, this paper explores the necessity for hierarchy and finds that democracy cannot be a guarantee for transparency. Further, through a dialogue between the theological insights of Benedict XVI and Edward Schillebeeckx, this paper argues that transparency practices are possible within the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in dealing with clergy sexual abuse cases. Finally, three implications of transparency in dealing with clergy sexual abuse cases are proposed, viz.: (a) that the harm which is ultimately done to the sacred faith of believers and to the sacred origin of the hierarchy through clergy sexual abuse cases should be given greater emphasis, (b) that the removal of unnecessary layers within the Church hierarchy or replacement with layers empowered with the authority to effect change might help implement accountability and transparency practices, and (c) that any changes made to enhance transparency should be made in terms of ‘adaptability’.

Keywords: Benedict XVI, clergy sexual abuses, democracy, Edward Schillebeeckx, hierarchy, transparency

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136 The Conservation of the Roman Mosaics in the Museum of Sousse, Tunisia: Between Doctrines and Practices

Authors: Zeineb Yousse, Fakher Kharrat

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Mosaic is a part of a broad universal cultural heritage; sometimes it represents a rather essential source for the researches on the everyday life of some of the previous civilizations. Tunisia has one of the finest and largest collections of mosaics in the world, which is essentially exhibited in the Museums of Bardo and Sousse. Restored and reconstituted, they bear witnesses to hard work. Our paper deals with the discipline of conservation of Roman mosaics based on the proceedings of the workshop of the Museum of Sousse. Thus, we highlight two main objectives. In the first place, it is a question of revealing the techniques adopted by professionals to handle mosaics and to which school of conservation these techniques belong. In the second place, we are going to interpret the works initiated to preserve the archaeological heritage in order to protect it in present time and transmit it to future generations. To this end, we paid attention to four Roman mosaics currently exhibited in the Museum of Sousse. These Mosaics show different voids or gaps at the level of their surfaces and the method used to fill these gaps seems to be interesting to analyze. These mosaics are known under the names of: Orpheus Charming the Animals, Gladiator and Bears, Stud farm of Sorothus and finally Head of Medusa. The study on the conservation passes through two chained phases. We start with a small historical overview in order to gather information related to the original location, the date of its composition as well as the description of its image. Afterward, the intervention process is analyzed by handling three complementary elements which are: diagnosis of the existing state, the study of the medium processing and the study of the processing of the tesselatum surface which includes the pictorial composition of the mosaic. Furthermore, we have implemented an evaluation matrix with six operating principles allowing the assessment of the appropriateness of the intervention. These principles are the following: minimal intervention, reversibility, compatibility, visibility, durability, authenticity and enhancement. Various accumulated outcomes are pointing out the techniques used to fill the gaps as well as the level of compliance with the principles of conservation. Accordingly, the conservation of mosaics in Tunisia is a practice that combines various techniques without really arguing about the choice of a particular theory.

Keywords: conservation, matrix, museum of Sousse, operating particular theory, principles, Roman mosaics

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135 Heritage of the Ancient Greco-Roman Cities and Harbors in the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Wessam Fekry Ibrahim Moussa

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The northwest coast of Egypt embraces about 500 km of the Mediterranean coastline. The area covered extends from Alexandria on the East to the village of Sallum at Egypt's border with Libya in the west with an average depth of 20-70 km. When one looks at this long strip of land, one is struck by the fact that, from the archaeological point of view, one knows relatively little about this region during ancient times, its history, villages, inhabitants, and heritage. According to classical writers, in antiquity, the area seemed to be more populated and characterized by its rich buildings and inhabitants. They mentioned several Greco-Roman towns and harbors scattered along the coast nearly 2 thousand years ago. Strabo, for instance, in his book 17, confirmed the existence of about 12 several clusters along the coast, which varied between cities, villages, harbors, and small islands. Claudius Ptolemaeus also enumerated many marina sites as well as some small cities and villages. Unfortunately, nowadays, most of them have been lost either due to the extensive development of the north coast, Natural Disasters, or Erosion Factors. However, recent excavations carried out within the area revealed just a little of these settlements. The aim of this study is to reveal the secrets of the hidden heritage of those ancient sites and shed light on the role they played in the past, as some of them used to be stops on the trade route between Libya and Egypt (Strabo 17) or major centers for some of the international imports. The study will explore the archeological evidence using the analytical methodology to analyze each site and identify its features and significances in order to conclude the importance and role it once played during the past. Findings could be used by authorities and policymakers to utilize these heritage resources to improve cultural tourism within the area and enhance the tourist's experience.

Keywords: Greco Roman, heritage, ancient cities, north west coast

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134 'Violence Is Bad, but It's Just a Game': The Glorification of Violence from Roman Antiquity to Popular Culture

Authors: M. C. Steyn

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Violence and entertainment are not mutually exclusive subjects in the Ancient Roman world, in reality they are closely knit together. Their world is permeated by repeated and continuous episodes of violence in its many manifestations, both sanctioned and spontaneous, most of which is considered as some form of entertainment, from plays and writings through the spectrum to the gladiatorial arena. In the 21st century this socio-psychological dynamic is manifested through the stage provided by the screen and what we watch in terms of TV, movies and games. This glorification of violence in a modern world is not out of place as seen in contemporary post apocalyptical/ dystopian literature, film and computer games where the act of violence, frowned upon by social norms and values, becomes sanctioned by the (un)real nature of the game: ‘I am not a violent person, violence is bad, this is just a game’. This paper will examine how violence is framed in the Ancient World and subsequently how it is received by popular culture to represent a world in which the maintenance of stability can only be achieved through officially sanctioned violence, whether sanctioned by the State or the gaming community. This argument will examine both ancient and modern critics of violence such as Senecca, Coleman and Foucault and framed by Baudrillard’s commentary on the post-modern conceptualization of reality.

Keywords: entertainment, violence, gladiatorial games, gaming

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133 Exploring the Visual Roots of Classical Rhetoric and Its Implication for Gender Politics: Reflection upon Roman Rhetoric from a Bakhtin's Perspective

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang

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This study aims to explore the visual roots of classical rhetoric and its implication for gender politics by the constant reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory of novelist time. First, it attempts to clarify the argument that “visuality always has been integral to rhetorical consciousness” by critically re-reading the rhetorical theories of roman rhetorician such as Cicero and Quintilian. Thereby, the vague clues of visuality would be realized from the so-called ‘five canons of rhetoric’ (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery), which originally deriving from verbal and spoken rhetorical tradition. Drawing on Mikhail Bakhtin’s elaboration of novelist time in contrast to epic time, it addresses the specific timeline inherent in the dynamics of visual rhetoric involves the refusing the ‘absolute past’, the focusing on unfinalized contemporary reality, and the expecting for open future. Taking the primary visions of Taipei LGBT parade over the past 13 years as research cases, it mentions that visuality could not only activate the rhetorical functions of classical rhetoric, but also inspire gender politics in the contemporary era.

Keywords: classical rhetoric, gender politics, Mikhail Bakhtin, visuality

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132 Santo Niño in Canada: Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside

Authors: Alison Marshall

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“Santo Niño in Canada – Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside” seeks to explore the intersection of religion, migration and the Filipino underside through research participant narratives, archival research, and fieldwork on the cult of Santo Niño in Canada. Santo Niño is the single most revered saint in Filipino religiosity. According to popular lore, the original statue of Santo Niño was brought to the Philippines by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, who claimed the islands on behalf of Spain. While Santo Niño is meant to be a manifestation of Jesus as a child, in Filipino thought and culture he very much resembles pre-Hispanic spirits, as well as patron saints introduced by the Spanish. Santo Niño shrines appear in churches, restaurants, businesses, and homes throughout the diaspora suggesting that he was much more than a Catholic image. He represents a deity who often shares a business or home shrine with non-Christian statues such as lucky cats, the Buddha, Guanyin, and Guangong, and sometimes the Chinese God of the Earth. He represents how Christian culture has been refashioned through indigenous, Chinese, Malay, and Indonesian influences. He embodies the religious superstructure that defines Christian piety and habits. On the one hand, he stands for Jesus, a pious son of God, and yet, on the other hand, he can be a simple vindictive child who punishes those who ignore him. Santo Niño is a complex character linked to the past before Christianity. As Filipinos engage with Santo Niño in Canada, they connect to him as Jesus, the son of God. They are also connecting to a childlike figure who sometimes uses his spiritual power to punish. A hybrid figure who comes came into being at the beginning of the Spanish colonial moment, he is maintained throughout the American one and continues to be a powerful reminder of Filipino identity and resilience when people leave the Philippines for migrant work. As this paper argues, Santo Niño beliefs, practices, and stories unite people in the diaspora regardless of language, gender, or nation. Santo Niño enables one to think about and understand what it means to be Filipino and living migrant lives in the diaspora today. In this way, the cult of Santo Niño expresses both Catholic orthodoxy and the heterodox Filipino underside that includes the use of magical amulets, healing, visions, and spirit mediumship.

Keywords: ethnography, migration, Philippines, religion

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131 Handwriting Recognition of Gurmukhi Script: A Survey of Online and Offline Techniques

Authors: Ravneet Kaur

Abstract:

Character recognition is a very interesting area of pattern recognition. From past few decades, an intensive research on character recognition for Roman, Chinese, and Japanese and Indian scripts have been reported. In this paper, a review of Handwritten Character Recognition work on Indian Script Gurmukhi is being highlighted. Most of the published papers were summarized, various methodologies were analysed and their results are reported.

Keywords: Gurmukhi character recognition, online, offline, HCR survey

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130 Planning and Strategies for Risks Prevention, Mitigating, and Recovery of Ancient Theatres Heritage: Investigation and Recommendations

Authors: Naif A. Haddad

Abstract:

Greek, Hellenistic and Roman theatre heritage are exposed to multiple risks at varied times or simultaneously. There is no single reason why a theatre building becomes ‘at risk’, as each case has different circumstances which have led to the theatre building decay. There are complicated processes of destruction and distress that show divergence in theatre building materials' decay. Theatre modern use for cultural performances causes much of the risks concerning the physical structure and authenticity of theatre sites. In addition, there are some deterioration and deformations due to previous poor quality restorations and interventions through related excavation and conservation programmes as also risks to authenticity due to new additions. For preventive conservation, theatre natural and anthropogenic risks management can provide a framework for decision making. These risks to ancient theatre heritage may stem from exposure to one or more risk or synergy of many factors. We, therefore, need to link the theatre natural risks to the risks that come from anthropogenic factors associated with social and economic development. However, this requires a holistic approach, and systematic methodology for understanding these risks from various sources while incorporating specific actions, planning and strategies for each specific risk. Elaborating on recent relevant studies, and ERATO and ATHENA EU projects for ancient theaters and odea and general surveys, this paper attempts to discuss the main aspects of the ancient Greek, Hellenistic and Roman theatres risk related issues. Relevant case studies shall also be discussed and investigated to examine frameworks for risk mitigation, and related guidelines and recommendations that provide a systematic approach for sustainable management and planning in relation mainly to ‘compatible use’ of theatre sites.

Keywords: cultural heritage management, European ancient theatres projects, Anthropogenic risks mitigation, sustainable management and planning, preventive conservation, modern use, compatible use

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129 Sacidava and Its Role of Military Outpost in the Moesian Sector of the Danube Limes: Animal Food Resources and Landscape Reconstruction

Authors: Margareta Simina Stanc, Aurel Mototolea, Tiberiu Potarniche

Abstract:

Sacidava archeological site is located in Dobrudja region, Romania, on a hill on the right bank of the Danube - the Musait point, located at about 5 km north-east from Dunareni village. The place-name documents the fact that, prior to the Roman conquest, in the area, there was a Getic settlement. The location of the Sacidava was made possible by corroborating the data provided by the ancient sources with the epigraphic documents (the milial pillar during the time of Emperor Decius). The tegular findings attest that an infantry unit, cohors I Cilicum milliaria equitata, as well as detachments from Legio V Macedonica and Legio XI Claudia, were confined to Sacidava. During the period of the Dominion, the garrison of the fortification is the host of a cavalry unit: cuneus equitum scutariorum. In the immediate vicinity to the Roman fortress, to the east, were identified two other fortifications: a Getic settlement (4th-1st century B.C.) and an Early Medieval settlement (9th-10th century A.C.). The archaeological material recovered during the research is represented by ceramic forms such as amphoras, jugs, pots, cups, plates, to which are added oil lamps, some of them typologically new at the time of discovery. Local ceramic shapes were also founded, worked by hand or by wheel, considered un-Romanized or in the course of Romanization. During the time of the Principality, Sacidava it represented an important military outpost serving mainly the city of Tropaeum Traiani, controlling also the supply and transport on the Danube limes in the Moesic sector. This role will determine the development of the fortress and the appearance of extramuros civil structures, thus becoming an important landmark during the 5th-6th centuries A.C., becoming a representation of power of the Roman empire in an area of continuous conflict. During recent archaeological researches, faunal remains were recovered, and their analysis allowed to estimate the animal resources and subsistence practices (animal husbandry, hunting, fishing) in the settlement. The methodology was specific to archaeozoology, mainly consisting of anatomical, taxonomical, and taphonomical identifications, recording, and quantification of the data. The remains of domestic mammals have the highest proportion indicating the importance of animal husbandry; the predominant species are Bos taurus, Ovis aries/Capra hircus, and Sus domesticus. Fishing and hunting were of secondary importance in the subsistence economy of the community. Wild boar and the red deer were the most frequently hunted species. Just a few fish bones were recovered. Thus, the ancient city of Sacidava is proving to be an important element of cultural heritage of the south-eastern part of Romania, for whose conservation and enhancement efforts must be made, especially by landscape reconstruction.

Keywords: archaeozoology, landscape reconstruction, limes, military outpost

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128 The Impact of the Great Irish Famine on Irish Mass Migration to the United States at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

Authors: Gayane Vardanyan, Gaia Narciso, Battista Severgnini

Abstract:

This paper investigates the long-run impact of the Great Irish Famine on emigration from Ireland at the turn of the twentieth century. To do it we combine the 1901 and the 1911 Irish Census data sets with the Ellis Island Administrative Records on Irish migrants to the United States. We find that the migrants were more likely to be Catholic, literate, unmarried, young and Gaelic speaking compared to the ones that stay. Running individual level specifications, our preliminary findings suggest that being born in a place where the Famine was more severe increases the probability of becoming a migrant in the long-run. We also intend to explore the mechanisms through which this impact occurs.

Keywords: Great Famine, mass migration, long-run impact, mechanisms

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127 An Intervention Method on Improving Teamwork Competence for Business Studies Undergraduates

Authors: Silvia Franco, Marcos Sarasola

Abstract:

The Faculty of Business Administration at the Catholic University of Uruguay is performing an important educational innovation, unique in the country. In preparing future professionals in companies, teamwork competence is very important. However, there is no often a systematic and specific training in the acquisition of this competence in undergraduate students. For this reason, we have designed and implemented an educational innovation through an intervention method to improve teamwork competence for undergraduate students of business studies. Students’ teams are integrated according to the complementary roles of Belbin; changes in teamwork competence during training period are measured with CCSAC tool; classroom methodology in the prio-border teamwork by Team-Based Learning. Methodology also integrates coaching and support team performance during the first two semesters.

Keywords: business students, teamwork, learning, competences

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126 Living the Religious of the Virgin Mary (RVM) Educational Mission: A Grounded Theory Approach

Authors: Violeta Juanico

Abstract:

While there was a statement made by the RVM Education Ministry Commission that its strength is its Ignacian identity, shaped by the Ignacian spirituality that permeates the school community leading to a more defined RVM school culture, there has been no empirical study made in terms of a clear and convincing conceptual framework on how the RVM Educational mission is lived in the Religious of the Virgin Mary (RVM) learning institutions to the best of author’s knowledge. This dissertation is an attempt to come up with a substantive theory that supports and explains the stakeholders’ experiences with the RVM educational mission in the Philippines. Participants that represent the different stakeholders ranging from students to administrators were interviewed. The expressions and thoughts of the participants were initially coded and analyzed using the Barney Glaser’s original grounded theory methodology to find out how the RVM mission is lived in the field of education.

Keywords: catholic education, grounded theory, lived experience, RVM educational mission

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125 The Analysis of Cultural Diversity in EFL Textbook for Senior High School in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the cultural diversity highlighted in EFL textbook for Senior High School grade 10 in Indonesia. The visual images are selected as the data and qualitatively analysed using content analysis. The reason to choose visual images because images are not always neutral and they might impact teaching and learning process. In the current study, cultural diversity aspects are focused on religion (Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian), gender (male, female, unclear), ethnic (Melanesian, Austronesian, Foreigner) and socioeconomic (low, middle, high, undetermined) diversity as the theoretical framework. The four aspects of cultural diversity are sufficiently representative to draw a conclusion in investigating Indonesian culture representation in EFL textbook. The finding shows that cultural diversity is not proportionally reflected in the textbook, particularly in the visual images.

Keywords: EFL textbook, cultural diversity, visual images, Indonesia

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124 A Calibration Device for Force-Torque Sensors

Authors: Nicolay Zarutskiy, Roman Bulkin

Abstract:

The paper deals with the existing methods of force-torque sensor calibration with a number of components from one to six, analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, the necessity of introduction of a calibration method. Calibration method and its constructive realization are also described here. A calibration method allows performing automated force-torque sensor calibration both with selected components of the main vector of forces and moments and with complex loading. Thus, two main advantages of the proposed calibration method are achieved: the automation of the calibration process and universality.

Keywords: automation, calibration, calibration device, calibration method, force-torque sensors

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123 Limits of Phase Modulated Frequency Shifted Holographic Vibrometry at Low Amplitudes of Vibrations

Authors: Pavel Psota, Vít Lédl, Jan Václavík, Roman Doleček, Pavel Mokrý, Petr Vojtíšek

Abstract:

This paper presents advanced time average digital holography by means of frequency shift and phase modulation. This technique can measure amplitudes of vibrations at ultimate dynamic range while the amplitude distribution evaluation is done independently in every pixel. The main focus of the paper is to gain insight into behavior of the method at low amplitudes of vibrations. In order to reach that, a set of experiments was performed. Results of the experiments together with novel noise suppression show the limit of the method to be below 0.1 nm.

Keywords: acusto-optical modulator, digital holography, low amplitudes, vibrometry

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122 Religion and the Constitutional Regulation

Authors: Valbona Metaj

Abstract:

The relationship between the state and the religion is different based on the fact that how powerful is the religion faith in a state and of the influences that affected the views of the constitution drafters according to the constitutional system they were based to draft their constitution. This paper aims at providing, through a comparative methodology, how it is regulated by the constitution the relationship between the state and the religion. The object of this study are the constitutions of Italy as a nation with catholic religious tradition, Greece as a nation with orthodox religion tradition, and Turkey as a nation which represents Muslim religion, while Albania as a nation known for its religious plurality. In particular, the analysis will be focused on the secular or religious principle provided in the constitution of each respective state. This comparative overview intends to discern which of the states analyzed is more tolerant and fully respects the freedom of religion. It results that most of the states subject of this study, despite their religious tradition have chosen the secular principle in their constitutions, but the religious freedom is differently guaranteed.

Keywords: constitution, religion, religious freedom, secular

Procedia PDF Downloads 397