Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Search results for: Rajib Chowdhury

76 A Deep Learning Based Method for Faster 3D Structural Topology Optimization

Authors: Anupam Chakrabarti, Arya Prakash Padhi, Rajib Chowdhury

Abstract:

Topology or layout optimization often gives better performing economic structures and is very helpful in the conceptual design phase. But traditionally it is being done in finite element-based optimization schemes which, although gives a good result, is very time-consuming especially in 3D structures. Among other alternatives machine learning, especially deep learning-based methods, have a very good potential in resolving this computational issue. Here convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) based variational auto encoder (VAE) is trained using a dataset generated from commercially available topology optimization code ABAQUS Tosca using solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) method for compliance minimization. The encoded data in latent space is then fed to a 3D generative adversarial network (3D-GAN) to generate the outcome in 64x64x64 size. Here the network consists of 3D volumetric CNN with rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation in between and sigmoid activation in the end. The proposed network is seen to provide almost optimal results with significantly reduced computational time, as there is no iteration involved.

Keywords: Deep learning, structural topology optimization, variational auto encoder

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75 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Escherichia coli, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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74 A New 3D Shape Descriptor Based on Multi-Resolution and Multi-Block CS-LBP

Authors: Nihad Karim Chowdhury, Mohammad Sanaullah Chowdhury, Muhammed Jamshed Alam Patwary, Rubel Biswas

Abstract:

In content-based 3D shape retrieval system, achieving high search performance has become an important research problem. A challenging aspect of this problem is to find an effective shape descriptor which can discriminate similar shapes adequately. To address this problem, we propose a new shape descriptor for 3D shape models by combining multi-resolution with multi-block center-symmetric local binary pattern operator. Given an arbitrary 3D shape, we first apply pose normalization, and generate a set of multi-viewed 2D rendered images. Second, we apply Gaussian multi-resolution filter to generate several levels of images from each of 2D rendered image. Then, overlapped sub-images are computed for each image level of a multi-resolution image. Our unique multi-block CS-LBP comes next. It allows the center to be composed of m-by-n rectangular pixels, instead of a single pixel. This process is repeated for all the 2D rendered images, derived from both ‘depth-buffer’ and ‘silhouette’ rendering. Finally, we concatenate all the features vectors into one dimensional histogram as our proposed 3D shape descriptor. Through several experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed 3D shape descriptor outperform the previous methods by using a benchmark dataset.

Keywords: CS-LBP, overlapped sub-images

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73 Domestic Led Lighting Designs Using Internet of Things

Authors: Gouresh Singhal, Rajib Kumar Panigrahi

Abstract:

In this paper, we try to examine historical and technological changes in lighting industry. We propose a (proto) technical solution at block diagram and circuit level. Untapped and upcoming technologies such as Cloud and 6LoWPAN are further explored. The paper presents a robust hardware realistic design. A mobile application is also provided to provide last mile user interface. The paper highlights the current challenges to be faced and concludes with a pragmatic view of lighting industry.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Mobile Application, LED

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72 Motion of an Infinitesimal Particle in Binary Stellar Systems: Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-16, Kepler-413

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

The present research was motivated by the recent discovery of the binary star systems. In this paper, we use the restricted three-body problem in the binary stellar systems, considering photogravitational effects of both the stars. The aim of this study is to investigate the motion of the infinitesimal mass in the vicinity of the Lagrangian points. The stability and periodic orbits of collinear points and the stability and trajectories of the triangular points are studied in stellar binary systems Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413 and Kepler-16 systems. A detailed comparison is made among periodic orbits and trajectories.

Keywords: Stability, Lagrangian points, exoplanetary systems, periodic orbit, restricted three body problem

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71 Thinned Elliptical Cylindrical Antenna Array Synthesis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: RAJIB KAR, Durbadal Mandal, Rajesh Bera, Sakti P. Ghoshal

Abstract:

This paper describes optimal thinning of an Elliptical Cylindrical Array (ECA) of uniformly excited isotropic antennas which can generate directive beam with minimum relative Side Lobe Level (SLL). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method, which represents a new approach for optimization problems in electromagnetic, is used in the optimization process. The PSO is used to determine the optimal set of ‘ON-OFF’ elements that provides a radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction. Optimization is done without prefixing the value of First Null Beam Width (FNBW). The variation of SLL with element spacing of thinned array is also reported. Simulation results show that the number of array elements can be reduced by more than 50% of the total number of elements in the array with a simultaneous reduction in SLL to less than -27dB.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, thinned array, Elliptical Cylindrical Array, Side Lobe Label

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70 Motion of a Dust Grain Type Particle in Binary Stellar Systems

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

In this present paper, we use the photogravitational version of the restricted three body problem (RTBP) in binary systems. In the photogravitational RTBP, an infinitesimal particle (dust grain) is moving under the gravitational attraction and radiation pressure from the two bigger primaries. The third particle does not affect the motion of two bigger primaries. The zero-velocity curves, zero-velocity surfaces and their projections on the plane are studied. We have used existing analytical method to solve the equations of motion. We have obtained the Lagrangian points in some binary stellar systems. It is found that mass reduction factor affects the Lagrangian points. The linear stability of Lagrangian points is studied and found that these points are unstable. Moreover, trajectories of the infinitesimal particle at the triangular points are studied.

Keywords: Trajectories, binary systems, Lagrangian points, linear stability, photogravitational RTBP

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69 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

Authors: RAJIB KAR, Durbadal Mandal, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal, Gopi Ram

Abstract:

A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO, and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords: circular arrays, first null beam width, side lobe level, FFA

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68 Effect of Interlayer Coupling in Co/Al2O3/Co

Authors: Niru Chowdhury, Subhankar Bedanta, Alexander Weber, Thomas Brueckel

Abstract:

We show the effect of interlayer coupling on magnetization reversal in purely dipolar coupled magnetic multilayers. Longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr microscopy (LMOKE) has been performed on [Co(10nm)/Al2O3(t)/Co(10nm)] for various thicknesses of Al2O3(t). We will show that inter-layer coupling interactions lead to layer-by-layer reversal in the magnetic multilayers. Also transverse component of magnetization was observed for higher thickness of the spacer layer.

Keywords: Magnetic Domains, Interlayer coupling, Magneto – Optic Kerr effect microscopy, Magnetization reversal, Magnetic thin film

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67 A Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System Using near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Remote Data Logging

Authors: Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury, Bodhayan Nandi

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a portable blood glucose monitoring device based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. The system supports Internet connectivity through WiFi and uploads the time series data of glucose concentration of patients to a server. In addition, the server is given sufficient intelligence to predict the future pathophysiological state of a patient given the current and past pathophysiological data. This will enable to prognosticate the approaching critical condition of the patient much before the critical condition actually occurs.The server hosts web applications to allow authorized users to monitor the data remotely.

Keywords: IoT, microcontroller, non invasive, blood glucose concentration, application server, database server

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66 Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Mahesh Kumar Jat, Rajib Sarkar

Abstract:

Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.

Keywords: Damping, Numerical Modelling, Shear Modulus, fiber reinforced soil

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65 Designing a Dispersion Flattened Single Mode PCF for E-Band to U-Band with Less Effective Area

Authors: Shabbir Chowdhury

Abstract:

A signal is broadened when it is gone through a channel, this phenomenon is known as dispersion. And dispersion is different for different wavelength. So bandwidth become limited. Research have tried to design an optical fiber with flattened dispersion to use more bandwidth and also for wavelength division multiplexing. In this paper, a single mode photonic crystal fiber with a flattened dispersion and less effective area has been proposed where silica is used as fiber materials. The effective dispersion varies from -1.996 to 0.1783 [ps/(nm-km)] for enter E-band to U-band. This fiber will take only 3.048 [micrometer^2] (for 1.75 micrometer wavelength). Silica is being used as the fiber material.

Keywords: Dispersion, bandwidth, photonic crystal fiber, chromatic dispersion, dispersion compensation, effective dispersion, effective area, effective refractive index

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64 Achieving Better Security by Using Nonlinear Cellular Automata as a Cryptographic Primitive

Authors: Swapan Maiti, Dipanwita Roy Chowdhury

Abstract:

Nonlinear functions are essential in different cryptoprimitives as they play an important role on the security of the cipher designs. Rule 30 was identified as a powerful nonlinear function for cryptographic applications. However, an attack (MS attack) was mounted against Rule 30 Cellular Automata (CA). Nonlinear rules as well as maximum period CA increase randomness property. In this work, nonlinear rules of maximum period nonlinear hybrid CA (M-NHCA) are studied and it is shown to be a better crypto-primitive than Rule 30 CA. It has also been analysed that the M-NHCA with single nonlinearity injection proposed in the literature is vulnerable against MS attack, whereas M-NHCA with multiple nonlinearity injections provide maximum length cycle as well as better cryptographic primitives and they are also secure against MS attack.

Keywords: cellular automata, maximum period nonlinear CA, Meier and Staffelbach attack, nonlinear functions

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63 Effectiveness of Physiotherapy in Hand Dysfunction of Leukemia Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Graft versus Host Disease Post Bone Marrow Transplant

Authors: Mohua Chatterjee, Rajib De

Abstract:

Introduction: Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) is often performed to treat patients with various types of leukemia. A majority of these patients develop complications like chronic musculoskeletal GVHD post-BMT where patients get scleroderma, pain and restricted range of motion of joints of hand. If not treated early, it may cause permanent deformity of hand. This study was done to find the effectiveness of physiotherapy in hand dysfunction caused due to chronic musculoskeletal GVHD of leukemia patients after BMT. Methodology: 23 patients diagnosed with leukemia and having musculoskeletal GVHD were treated with a set of exercises including active exercises and stretching. The outcome was measured by Cochin Hand Function Scale (CHFS) at baseline and after four weeks of intervention. Results: Two patients were not able to carry out exercises beyond two weeks due to relapse of disease and one patient defaulted. It was found that all the patients who received physiotherapy had significant improvement in hand function. Mean CHFS decreased from 63.67 to 27.43 (P value < 0.001) indicating improvement in hand function after four weeks of physiotherapy. Conclusion: Early intervention of physiotherapy is effective in reducing hand dysfunction of leukemia patients with musculoskeletal GVHD post-BMT.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Leukemia, bone marrow transplant, hand dysfunction, musculoskeletal graft versus host disease

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62 Development of Electromyography (Emg) Signal Acquisition System by Simple Electronic Circuits

Authors: Divya Pradip Roy, Md. Zahirul Alam Chowdhury

Abstract:

Electromyography (EMG) sensors are generally used to record the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. The conventional EMG sensors available in the market are expensive. This research suggests a low cost EMG sensor design which can be built with simple devices within our reach. In this research, one instrumentation amplifier, two high pass filters, two low pass filters and an inverting amplifier is connected sequentially. The output from the circuit exhibits electrical potential generated by the muscle cells when they are neurologically activated. This electromyography signal is used to control prosthetic devices, identifying neuromuscular diseases and for various other purposes. Keywords: EMG, high pass filter, instrumentation amplifier, inverting amplifier, low pass filter, neuromuscular

Keywords: EMG, Neuromuscular, Low pass filter, High Pass Filter, instrumentation amplifier, inverting amplifier

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61 Multistage Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Linear and Non-Linear Stiff System of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Ishak Hashim, M. S. H. Chowdhury

Abstract:

In this paper, linear and non-linear stiff systems of ordinary differential equations are solved by the classical Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the multi-stage Adomian decomposition method (MADM). The MADM is a technique adapted from the standard Adomian decomposition method (ADM) where standard ADM is converted into a hybrid numeric-analytic method called the multistage ADM (MADM). The MADM is tested for several examples. Comparisons with an explicit Runge-Kutta-type method (RK) and the classical ADM demonstrate the limitations of ADM and promising capability of the MADM for solving stiff initial value problems (IVPs).

Keywords: adomian decomposition method, stiff system of ODEs, Runge-Kutta Type Method, Multistage ADM

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60 An Analytical Study of the Concept of Emptiness Doctrine and Its Connection with Dependent Origination

Authors: Sanjoy Barua Chowdhury

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is an attempt to analyze the concept of emptiness from the early Buddhist teachings to subsequent Buddhist developmental schools, namely, Madhyamaka and Yogācāra Schools, along with attempting to examine an insightful bridge between the Buddha’s major teaching on dependent origination and the notion of emptiness. The initial part of this qualitative research focuses on the etymological term of emptiness (śūnyatā) and the Buddha’s teaching of emptiness from the Early Buddhist standpoint. Next, this research will seek to explain the concept of emptiness in the Madhyamaka School and Yogācāra School. This study further demonstrates the eradication of suffering is meant of understanding the concept emptiness from an ultimate standpoint with special concerning to focus the connection to the Buddha’s central teaching Dependent Origination.

Keywords: Madhyamaka, dependent origination, emptiness, early Buddhism, Yogacara

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
59 Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications

Authors: Maidul Islam, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Gagan Kumar

Abstract:

We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.

Keywords: Sensors, Plasmonics, terahertz, sub-wavelength structures

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58 Pattern of Refractive Error, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Eye Health among the Primary School Children in Bangladesh

Authors: Husain Rajib, D. G. Jewel, K. S. Kishor

Abstract:

Background: Uncorrected refractive error is a common cause of preventable visual impairment in pediatric age group which can be lead to blindness but early detection of visual impairment can reduce the problem that will have good effective in education and more involve in social activities. Glasses are the cheapest and commonest form of correction of refractive errors. To achieve this, patient must exhibit good compliance to spectacle wear. Patient’s attitude and perception of glasses and eye health could affect compliance. Material and method: A Prospective community based cross sectional study was designed in order to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices about refractive errors and eye health amongst the primary school going children. Result: Among 140 respondents, 72 were males and 68 were females. We found 50 children were myopic and out of them 26 were male and 24 were female, 27 children were hyperopic and out of them 14 were male and 13 were female. About 63 children were astigmatic and out of them 32 were male and 31 were female. The level of knowledge, attitude was satisfactory. The attitude of the students, teachers and parents was cooperative which helps to do cycloplegic refraction. Practice was not satisfactory due to social stigma and information gap. Conclusion: Knowledge of refractive error and acceptance of glasses for the correction of uncorrected refractive error. Public awareness program such as vision screening program, eye camp, and teachers training program are more beneficial for wearing and prescribing spectacle.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practice, attitude, stigma, refractive error

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57 Improvement of Visual Acuity in Patient Undergoing Occlusion Therapy

Authors: Rajib Husain, Mohammad Shamsal Islam, Mezbah Uddin, Rabeya Siddiquee

Abstract:

Purpose: To determine the improvement of visual acuity in patients undergoing occlusion therapy. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of newly diagnosed of amblyopia seen at the pediatric clinic of Chittagong Eye Infirmary & Training Complex. There were 32 refractive amblyopia subjects were examined & questionnaire was piloted. Included were all patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia between 5 to 8 years, without previous amblyopia treatment, and whose parents were interested to participate in the study. Patients diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia were excluded. Patients were first corrected with the best correction for a month. When the VA in the amblyopic eye did not improve over a month, then occlusion treatment was started. Occlusion was done daily for 6-8 h together with vision therapy. The occlusion was carried out for three months. Results: Out of study 32 children, 31 of them have a good compliance of amblyopic treatment whereas one child has poor compliance. About 6% Children have amblyopia from Myopia, 7% Hyperopia, 32% from myopic astigmatism, 42% from hyperopic astigmatism and 13% have mixed astigmatism. The mean and Standard deviation of present average VA was 0.452±0.275 Log MAR and after an intervention of amblyopia therapy with vision therapy mean and Standard deviation VA was 0.155±0.157 Log MAR. Out of total respondent 21.85% have BCVA in range from (0-.2) log MAR, 37.5% have BCVA in range from (0.22-0.5) log MAR, 35.95% have in range from (0.52-0.8) log MAR, 4.7% have in range from (0.82-1) log MAR and after intervention of occlusion therapy with vision therapy 76.6% have VA in range from (0-.2) log MAR, 21.85% have VA in range from (0.22-0.5) log MAR, 1.5% have in range from (0.52-0.8) log MAR. Conclusion: Amblyopia is a most important factor in pediatric age group because it can lead to visual impairment. Thus, this study concludes that occlusion therapy with vision therapy is probably one of the best treatment methods for amblyopic patients (age 5-8 years), and compliance and age were the most critical factor predicting a successful outcome.

Keywords: amblyopia, Vision Therapy, occlusion therapy, eccentric fixation, visuoscopy

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56 The Impact of HRM Practices and Brand Performance on Financial Institution Performance: An Empirical Study

Authors: M. Khasro Miah, Chowdhury Hossan Golam, Muhammed Siddique Hossain

Abstract:

Recently, financial institution brand image is turning out to be pretty weak due to the presence of strong local competitors and this in term is affecting their firm performance also. In this study, four major HR practices, namely employee commitment, empowerment, loyalty, and engagement are considered in order to measure its effects on the brand and financial performance of banking organization. This study finds that the banking institutions of Bangladesh are more customer oriented rather than internal employee oriented, which makes it quite obvious that the internal HR practices will have little or no effect on the banks brand performance. Employee Commitment has emerged out to be the most important predictor, followed by employee loyalty and empowerment. The employees are well-empowered, engaged, and shows loyalty towards the organization, but their activities are not well linked with the brand. Firms should concentrate to create a congenial working atmosphere and employees should feel like a part of the organization.

Keywords: Finance, Empowerment, HR in bank, employee commitment, loyalty and engagement

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55 Exhaustive Study of Essential Constraint Satisfaction Problem Techniques Based on N-Queens Problem

Authors: Md. Ahsan Ayub, Kazi A. Kalpoma, Humaira Tasnim Proma, Syed Mehrab Kabir, Rakib Ibna Hamid Chowdhury

Abstract:

Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is observed in various applications, i.e., scheduling problems, timetabling problems, assignment problems, etc. Researchers adopt a CSP technique to tackle a certain problem; however, each technique follows different approaches and ways to solve a problem network. In our exhaustive study, it has been possible to visualize the processes of essential CSP algorithms from a very concrete constraint satisfaction example, NQueens Problem, in order to possess a deep understanding about how a particular constraint satisfaction problem will be dealt with by our studied and implemented techniques. Besides, benchmark results - time vs. value of N in N-Queens - have been generated from our implemented approaches, which help understand at what factor each algorithm produces solutions; especially, in N-Queens puzzle. Thus, extended decisions can be made to instantiate a real life problem within CSP’s framework.

Keywords: arc consistency (AC), backjumping algorithm (BJ), backtracking algorithm (BT), constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), forward checking (FC), least constrained values (LCV), maintaining arc consistency (MAC), minimum remaining values (MRV), N-Queens problem

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54 FPGA Implementation of Novel Triangular Systolic Array Based Architecture for Determining the Eigenvalues of Matrix

Authors: Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury, Soumitr Sanjay Dubey, Rahul Shrestha

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented a novel approach of calculating eigenvalues of any matrix for the first time on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Triangular Systolic Arra (TSA) architecture. Conventionally, additional computation unit is required in the architecture which is compliant to the algorithm for determining the eigenvalues and this in return enhances the delay and power consumption. However, recently reported works are only dedicated for symmetric matrices or some specific case of matrix. This works presents an architecture to calculate eigenvalues of any matrix based on QR algorithm which is fully implementable on FPGA. For the implementation of QR algorithm we have used TSA architecture, which is further utilising CORDIC (CO-ordinate Rotation DIgital Computer) algorithm, to calculate various trigonometric and arithmetic functions involved in the procedure. The proposed architecture gives an error in the range of 10−4. Power consumption by the design is 0.598W. It can work at the frequency of 900 MHz.

Keywords: coordinate rotation digital computer, three angle complex rotation, triangular systolic array, QR algorithm

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53 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, M. Alamgir Hossain

Abstract:

The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Molecular Characterization, Bangladesh, Echinococcus granulosus, Cox1

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52 Examining Procrastination and Delay among Individuals with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: S. Chowdhury, S. J. Taylor, T. A. Pychyl

Abstract:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and procrastination are often discussed in relation to problems with self-regulation and executive functioning (EF). The small body of extant research that has explored the relations between these variables has many limitations particularly in terms of the samples used and the measurement of procrastination. In this study, we recruited a sample of undergraduate students with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of ADHD (n = 48, 66.7% females) as well as a sample of student volunteers without ADHD (n = 68, 75.8% females) to investigate the relations between ADHD subtypes, EF, procrastination and other forms of delay. We used the newly developed Multidimensional Measure of Academic Procrastination and Delay Questionnaire. As hypothesized, the results revealed that individuals with ADHD displayed significantly more irrational delay, general procrastination and academic procrastination compared to individuals without ADHD. This study contributed to the research literature indicating that individuals with ADHD struggle with procrastination as a result of symptoms of ADHD and EF deficits. Theses results provide support for adopting a new language when describing procrastination problems among individuals with ADHD, and they have implications for the nature of academic accommodations and interventions for individuals with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, Self-regulation, delay, procrastination, executive functioning

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51 An Innovative Green Cooling Approach Using Peltier Chip in Milling Operation for Surface Roughness Improvement

Authors: Md. Anayet U. Patwari, Mohammad Ahsan Habib, Md. Tanzib Ehsan, Md Golam Ahnaf, Md. S. I. Chowdhury

Abstract:

Surface roughness is one of the key quality parameters of the finished product. During any machining operation, high temperatures are generated at the tool-chip interface impairing surface quality and dimensional accuracy of products. Cutting fluids are generally applied during machining to reduce temperature at the tool-chip interface. However, usages of cutting fluids give rise to problems such as waste disposal, pollution, high cost, and human health hazard. Researchers, now-a-days, are opting towards dry machining and other cooling techniques to minimize use of coolants during machining while keeping surface roughness of products within desirable limits. In this paper, a concept of using peltier cooling effects during aluminium milling operation has been presented and adopted with an aim to improve surface roughness of the machined surface. Experimental evidence shows that peltier cooling effect provides better surface roughness of the machined surface compared to dry machining.

Keywords: Aluminium, milling operation, surface roughness, peltier cooling effect

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50 Accumulation of Phlorotannins in Abalone Haliotis discus Hannai after Feeding with Eisenia bicyclis

Authors: Bangoura Issa, Ji-Young Kang, M. T. H. Chowdhury, Ji-Eun Lee, Yong-Ki Hong

Abstract:

Investigation was carried out for the production of value-added abalone Haliotis discus hannai containing bioactive phlorotannin by feeding phlorotannin-rich seaweed Eisenia bicyclis 2 weeks prior to harvesting. Accumulation of phlorotannins was proceded by feeding with E. bicyclis after 4 days of starvation. HPLC purification afforded two major phlorotannins. Mass spectrometry and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis clarified their structures to be as 7-phloroeckol and eckol. Throughout the feeding period of 20 days, 7-phloroeckolol was accumulated in the muscle (foot muscle tissue) up to 0.18±0.12 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 12 days. Eckol reached 0.21±0.03 mg g-1 dry weight of tissue after 18 days. By feeding Laminaria japonica as reference, abalone showed no detection of phlorotannins in the muscle tissue. Seaweed consumption and growth rate of abalone revealed almost similar when feed with E. bicyclis or L. japonicain 20 days. Phlorotannins reduction to half-maximal accumulation values took 1.0 day and 2.7 days for 7-phloroeckol and eckol respectively, after replacing the feed to L. japonica.

Keywords: accumulation, abalone, eisenia bicyclis, phlorotannins

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49 Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process

Authors: Amit Kumar Bhandary, Rajib Dey, Prithviraj Gupta, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Keywords: Refractory, beneficiation, apparent porosity, low-grade chromite, spinel compounds, slag resistance

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48 Psychological Aspects in the Doctrine of Dependent Origination

Authors: Sanjoy Barua Chowdhury

Abstract:

This research is an attempt to examine psychological aspect of the Buddha’s most cardinal and fundamental doctrine of Dependent Origination (paṭiccasamuppāda) along with drawing out a clear picture of the constituents from the law of causation and analyzes the mental states and motivational factors behind each constituent among twelvefold links. Meticulous research into the doctrine of Dependent Origination reveals how the main links from the doctrine of dependent origination provide a framework for psychological analysis through volitional formation (saṅkhāra), consciousness (viññāna), mentality and materiality (nāma-rūpa), contact (phassa), feeling (vedanā), craving (tanhā) and clinging (upādāna). This paper further illustrates the notion of perception (saññā) which can be found in the function of volitional formation (saṅkhāra) - a contributing factor, according to modern psychology, in the role of understanding human (puggala) motivation. The psychological analysis of dependent origination expounds the concept of personality highlighting present existence through the inter-relationship of the five faculties (pañcaupadānakkhandhā), viz., form (rūpa), feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), volitional formation (saṅkhārā) and consciousness (viññāṇa).

Keywords: Perception, Feelings, motivational factors, dependent origination

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47 Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and the Effect of Chemical Preservative to Enhance Shelf Life of Khoa

Authors: Tanima Chowdhury, Sanjay Chattopadhaya, Narayan Ch. Saha

Abstract:

Khoa is an indigenous heat desiccated milk product having very poor shelf life. At ambient condition, shelf-life of khoa is normally only 2 days. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of benzoic acid as preservative as well as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology to enhance shelf life of khoa at 27±2°C and 65% RH. During storage, analysis of chemical, sensory as well as microbiological characteristics were taken into consideration to mark distinguishable changes between the package of modified atmosphere technology (MAP) and ordinarily packed khoa (with and without preservative) samples. The results indicated a significant decrease of moisture content, pH and sensory scores and increase in titratable acidity, standard plate count and yeast and mould count during storage, irrespective of the type of packaging conditions. However, the rate of changes in characteristics of product packed in modified atmosphere was found to be slow. The storage study indicated that the khoa packed in ordinary packaging, with and without preservative, was acceptable for 4 and 8 days, respectively, whereas for modified atmosphere packed samples, it was consumable up to 8 and 12 days, respectively.

Keywords: Shelf Life, benzoic acid, khoa, modified atmosphere packaging

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