Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 335

Search results for: Paul C. Okolie

95 A Study of the Effects of Temperatures and Optimum pH on the Specific Methane Production of Perennial Ryegrass during Anaerobic Digestion Process under a Discontinuous Daily Feeding Condition

Authors: Uchenna Egwu, Paul Jonathan Sallis

Abstract:

Perennial ryegrass is an abundant renewable lignocellulosic biofuel feedstock for biomethane production through anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, six anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were set up in three pairs. Each pair of the CSTRs was then used to study the effects of operating temperatures – psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic, and optimum pH on the specific methane production (SMP) of the ryegrass during AD under discontinuous daily feeding conditions. The reactors were fed at an organic loading rate (OLR) ranging from 1-1.5 kgVS.L⁻¹d⁻¹ and hydraulic residence time, HRT=20 days for 140 days. The pH of the digesters was maintained at the range of 6.8-7.2 using 1 M NH₄HCO₃ solution, but this was replaced with biomass ash-extracts from day 105-140. The results obtained showed that the mean SMP of ryegrass measured between HRT 3 and 4 were 318.4, 425.4 and 335 N L CH₄ kg⁻¹VS.d⁻¹ for the psychrophilic (25 ± 2°C), mesophilic (40 ± 1°C) and thermophilic (60 ± 1°C) temperatures respectively. It was also observed that the buffering ability of the reactors increased with operating temperature, probably due to an increase in the solubility of ammonium bicarbonate (NH₄HCO₃) with temperature. The reactors also achieved a mean VS destruction of 61.9, 68.5 and 63.5%, respectively, which signifies that the mesophilic reactors achieved the highest specific methane production (SMP), while the psychrophilic reactors achieved the lowest. None of the reactors attained steady-state condition due to the discontinuous daily feeding times, and therefore, such feeding practice may not be the most effective for maximum biogas production over long periods of time. The addition of NH₄HCO₃ as supplement provided a good buffering condition in these AD digesters, but the digesters failed in the long run due to inhibition from the accumulation of free ammonia, which later led to decrease in pH, acidification, and souring of the digesters. However, the addition of biomass ash extracts was shown to potentially revive failed AD reactors by providing an adequate buffering and essential trace nutrient supplements necessary for optimal bacterial growth.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, discontinuous feeding, perennial ryegrass, specific methane production, supplements, temperature

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94 Effect of Madecassoside on the Antioxidant Status of Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetes in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: C. Mayuren, C. K. Paul Wang, K. Purushotham, C. Dinesh Kumar

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Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally. Although significant advances have led to better understanding of the condition and the development of effective therapies and preventive strategies, the pathway to cure remains elusive and DM prevails as a serious medical challenge in the 21st century. Oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to the progression and pathophysiological conditions of diabetes. Madecassoside (MA) a major pentacyclic triterpenoid, has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. However, no attempt has been made to study the antioxidant activity in diabetic rats. Therefore, the present study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of MA on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats. The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethical committee prior to the conduct of research. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used in the study. The animals were rendered diabetic with a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg). The diabetic animals after a stabilisation period of 14 days received various treatments (Madecassoside 50 mg/kg; Glimepiride 2.5 mg/kg) suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose orally, for a period of 28 days. The animals fasted overnight after the last treatment were sacrificed and the pancreas, liver and kidneys were isolated. The weighted quantity of the samples of various treatments were homogenised in ice-cold condition and were subjected to lipid peroxidation, catalase and superoxide dismutase assay. The data’s obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Diabetic rats showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in enzymatic antioxidant levels. All the treated groups had significantly higher SOD, CAT and reduced LPO activity in the pancreas, liver and kidney. Results suggest madecassoside to have potential antioxidant effect against the diabetic model. However further investigations are necessary to study the mechanism at the cellular level.

Keywords: antioxidant, diabetes, madecassoside, nicotinamide, streptozotocin

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93 Covalent Binding of Cysteine to a Sol-Gel Material for Cadmium Biosorption from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Claudiu Marcu, Cristina Paul, Adelina Andelescu, Corneliu Mircea Davidescu, Francisc Péter

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Heavy metal pollution has become a more serious environmental problem in the last several decades as a result of its toxicity and insusceptibility to the environment. Methods for removing metal ions from aqueous solution mainly consist of physical, chemical and biochemical procedures. Biosorption is defined as the removal of metal or metalloid species, compounds and particulates from solution by a biological material. Biosorption represents a very attractive method for the removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous effluents because it uses the ability of various biomass to bind the metal ions without the risk of releasing other toxic chemical compounds into the environment. The problem with using biomass or living cells as biosorbents is that their regeneration/reuse is often either impossible or very laborious. One of the most common chelating group found in biosorbents is the thiol group in cysteine. Therefore, we immobilized cysteine using covalent binding using glutaraldehyde as a linker on a synthetic sol-gel support obtained using 3-amino-propyl-trimetoxysilane and trimetoxysilane as precursors. The obtained adsorbents were used for removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions and the removal capacity was investigated in relation to the composition of the sol-gel hybrid composite, the loading of the biomolecule and the physical parameters of the biosorption process. In the same conditions, the bare sol-gel support without cysteine had no Cd removal effect, while the adsorbent with cysteine had an adsorption capacity up to 25.8 mg Cd/g adsorbent at pH 2.0 and 119 mg Cd/g adsorbent at pH 6.6, depending on cadmium concentration and adsorption conditions. We used atomic adsorption spectrometry to assess the cadmium concentration in the samples after the biosorbtion process. The parameters for the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms where calculated from plotting the results of the adsorption experiments. The results for cysteine immobilization show a good loading capacity of the sol-gel support which indicates it could be used to immobilize metal binding proteins and by doing so boosting the heavy metal adsorption capacity of the biosorbent.

Keywords: biosorbtion, cadmium, cysteine covalent binding, sol-gel

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92 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Use of COBLATION™ Knee Chondroplasty versus Mechanical Debridement in German Patients

Authors: Ayoade Adeyemi, Leo Nherera, Paul Trueman, Antje Emmermann

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Background and objectives: Radiofrequency (RF) generated plasma chondroplasty is considered a promising treatment alternative to mechanical debridement (MD) with a shaver. The aim of the study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing costs and outcomes following COBLATION chondroplasty versus mechanical debridement in patients with knee pain associated with a medial meniscus tear and idiopathic ICRS grade III focal lesion of the medial femoral condyle from a payer perspective. Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed comparing economic and clinical outcomes between the two treatment options in German patients following knee chondroplasty. Revision rates based on the frequency of repeat arthroscopy, osteotomy and conversion to total knee replacement, reimbursement costs and outcomes data over a 4-year time horizon were extracted from published literature. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainties around model parameters. Threshold analysis determined the revision rate at which model results change. All costs were reported in 2016 euros, future costs were discounted at a 3% annual rate. Results: Over a 4 year period, COBLATION chondroplasty resulted in an overall net saving cost of €461 due to a lower revision rate of 14% compared to 48% with MD. Threshold analysis showed that both options were associated with comparable costs if COBLATION revision rate was assumed to increase up to 23%. The initial procedure costs for COBLATION were higher compared to MD and outcome scores were significantly improved at 1 and 4 years post-operation versus MD. Conclusion: The analysis shows that COBLATION chondroplasty is a cost-effective option compared to mechanical debridement in the treatment of patients with a medial meniscus tear and idiopathic ICRS grade III defect of the medial femoral condyle.

Keywords: COBLATION, cost-effectiveness, knee chondroplasty, mechanical debridement

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91 Epistemological and Ethical Dimensions of Current Concepts of Human Resilience in the Neurosciences

Authors: Norbert W. Paul

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Since a number of years, scientific interest in human resilience is rapidly increasing especially in psychology and more recently and highly visible in neurobiological research. Concepts of resilience are regularly discussed in the light of liminal experiences and existential challenges in human life. Resilience research is providing both, explanatory models and strategies to promote or foster human resilience. Surprisingly, these approaches attracted little attention so far in philosophy in general and in ethics in particular. This is even more astonishing given the fact that the neurosciences as such have been and still are of major interest to philosophy and ethics and even brought about the specialized field of neuroethics, which, however, is not concerned with concepts of resilience, so far. As a result of the little attention given to the topic of resilience, the whole concept has to date been a philosophically under-theorized. This abstinence of ethics and philosophy in resilience research is lamentable because resilience as a concept as well as resilience interventions based on neurobiological findings do undoubtedly pose philosophical, social and ethical questions. In this paper, we will argue that particular notions of resilience are crossing the sometimes fine line between maintaining a person’s mental health despite the impact of severe psychological or physical adverse events and ethically more debatable discourses of enhancement. While we neither argue for or against enhancement nor re-interpret resilience research and interventions by subsuming them strategies of psychological and/or neuro-enhancement, we encourage those who see social or ethical problems with enhancement technologies should also take a closer look on resilience and the related neurobiological concepts. We will proceed in three steps. In our first step, we will describe the concept of resilience in general and its neurobiological study in particular. Here, we will point out some important differences in the way ‘resilience’ is conceptualized and how neurobiological research understands resilience. In what follows we will try to show that a one-sided concept of resilience – as it is often presented in neurobiological research on resilience – does pose social and ethical problems. Secondly, we will identify and explore the social and ethical challenges of (neurobiological) enhancement. In the last and final step of this paper, we will argue that a one-sided reading of resilience can be understood as latent form of enhancement in transition and poses ethical questions similar to those discussed in relation to other approaches to the biomedical enhancement of humans.

Keywords: resilience, neurosciences, epistemology, bioethics

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90 Europium Chelates as a Platform for Biosensing

Authors: Eiman A. Al-Enezi, Gin Jose, Sikha Saha, Paul Millner

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Rare earth nanotechnology has gained a considerable amount of interest in the field of biosensing due to the unique luminescence properties of lanthanides. Chelating rare earth ions plays a significant role in biological labelling applications including medical diagnostics, due to their different excitation and emission wavelengths, variety of their spectral properties, sharp emission peaks and long fluorescence lifetimes. We aimed to develop a platform for biosensors based on Europium (Eu³⁺) chelates against biomarkers of cardiac injury (heart-type fatty acid binding protein; H-FABP3) and stroke (glial fibrillary acidic protein; GFAP). Additional novelty in this project is the use of synthetic binding proteins (Affimers), which could offer an excellent alternative targeting strategy to the existing antibodies. Anti-GFAP and anti-HFABP3 Affimer binders were modified to increase the number of carboxy functionalities. Europium nitrate then incubated with the modified Affimer. The luminescence characteristics of the Eu³⁺ complex with modified Affimers and antibodies against anti-GFAP and anti-HFABP3 were measured against different concentrations of the respective analytes on excitation wavelength of 395nm. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a control against the IgG/Affimer Eu³⁺ complexes. The emission spectrum of Eu³⁺ complex resulted in 5 emission peaks ranging between 550-750 nm with the highest intensity peaks were at 592 and 698 nm. The fluorescence intensity of Eu³⁺ chelates with the modified Affimer or antibodies increased significantly by 4-7 folder compared to the emission spectrum of Eu³⁺ complex. The fluorescence intensity of the Affimer complex was quenched proportionally with increased analyte concentration, but this did not occur with antibody complex. In contrast, the fluorescence intensity for Eu³⁺ complex increased slightly against increased concentration of BSA. These data demonstrate that modified Affimers Eu³⁺ complexes can function as nanobiosensors with potential diagnostic and analytical applications.

Keywords: lanthanides, europium, chelates, biosensors

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89 Highway Waste Management in Zambia Policy Preparedness and Remedies: The Case of Great East Road

Authors: Floyd Misheck Mwanza, Paul Boniface Majura

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The paper looked at highways/ roadside waste generation, disposal and the consequent environmental impacts. The dramatic increase in vehicular and paved roads in the recent past in Zambia, has given rise to the indiscriminate disposal of litter that now poses a threat to health and the environment. Primary data was generated by carrying out oral interviews and field observations for holistic and in–depth assessment of the environment and the secondary data was obtained from desk review method, information on effects of roadside wastes on environment were obtained from relevant literatures. The interviews were semi structured and a purposive sampling method was adopted and analyzed descriptively. The results of the findings showed that population growth and unplanned road expansion has exceeded the expected limit in recent time with resultant poor system of roadside wastes disposal. Roadside wastes which contain both biodegradable and non-biodegradable roadside wastes are disposed at the shoulders of major highways in temporary dumpsites and are never collected by a road development agency (RDA). There is no organized highway to highway or street to street collection of the wastes in Zambia by the key organization the RDA. The study revealed that roadside disposal of roadside wastes has serious impacts on the environment. Some of these impacts include physical nuisance of the wastes to the environment, the waste dumps also serve as hideouts for rodents and snakes which are dangerous. Waste are blown around by wind making the environment filthy, most of the wastes are also been washed by overland flow during heavy downpour to block drainage channels and subsequently lead to flooding of the environment. Most of the non- biodegradable wastes contain toxic chemicals which have serious implications on the environmental sustainability and human health. The paper therefore recommends that Government/ RDA should come up with proper orientation and environmental laws should be put in place for the general public and also to provide necessary facilities and arrange for better methods of collection of wastes.

Keywords: biodegradable, disposal, environment, impacts

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88 Policy Recommendations for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Kenya's Electricity Generation, 2015-2030

Authors: Paul Kipchumba

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Kenya is an East African Country lying at the Equator. It had a population of 46 million in 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.7%, making a population of at least 65 million in 2030. Kenya’s GDP in 2015 was about 63 billion USD with per capita GDP of about 1400 USD. The rural population is 74%, whereas urban population is 26%. Kenya grapples with not only access to energy but also with energy security. There is direct correlation between economic growth, population growth, and energy consumption. Kenya’s energy composition is at least 74.5% from renewable energy with hydro power and geothermal forming the bulk of it; 68% from wood fuel; 22% from petroleum; 9% from electricity; and 1% from coal and other sources. Wood fuel is used by majority of rural and poor urban population. Electricity is mostly used for lighting. As of March 2015 Kenya had installed electricity capacity of 2295 MW, making a per capital electricity consumption of 0.0499 KW. The overall retail cost of electricity in 2015 was 0.009915 USD/ KWh (KES 19.85/ KWh), for installed capacity over 10MW. The actual demand for electricity in 2015 was 3400 MW and the projected demand in 2030 is 18000 MW. Kenya is working on vision 2030 that aims at making it a prosperous middle income economy and targets 23 GW of generated electricity. However, cost and non-cost factors affect generation and consumption of electricity in Kenya. Kenya does not care more about CO2 emissions than on economic growth. Carbon emissions are most likely to be paid by future costs of carbon emissions and penalties imposed on local generating companies by sheer disregard of international law on C02 emissions and climate change. The study methodology was a simulated application of carbon tax on all carbon emitting sources of electricity generation. It should cost only USD 30/tCO2 tax on all emitting sources of electricity generation to have solar as the only source of electricity generation in Kenya. The country has the best evenly distributed global horizontal irradiation. Solar potential after accounting for technology efficiencies such as 14-16% for solar PV and 15-22% for solar thermal is 143.94 GW. Therefore, the paper recommends adoption of solar power for generating all electricity in Kenya in order to attain zero carbon electricity generation in the country.

Keywords: co2 emissions, cost factors, electricity generation, non-cost factors

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87 Comparison between the Roller-Foam and Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Flexibility of Hamstrings Muscles

Authors: Paolo Ragazzi, Olivier Peillon, Paul Fauris, Mathias Simon, Raul Navarro, Juan Carlos Martin, Oriol Casasayas, Laura Pacheco, Albert Perez-Bellmunt

Abstract:

Introduction: The use of stretching techniques in the sports world is frequent and widely used for its many effects. One of the main benefits is the gain in flexibility, range of motion and facilitation of the sporting performance. Recently the use of Roller-Foam (RF) has spread in sports practice both at elite and recreational level for its benefits being similar to those observed in stretching. The objective of the following study is to compare the results of the Roller-Foam with the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) (one of the stretchings with more evidence) on the hamstring muscles. Study design: The design of the study is a single-blind, randomized controlled trial and the participants are 40 healthy volunteers. Intervention: The subjects are distributed randomly in one of the following groups; stretching (PNF) intervention group: 4 repetitions of PNF stretching (5seconds of contraction, 5 second of relaxation, 20 second stretch), Roller-Foam intervention group: 2 minutes of Roller-Foam was realized on the hamstring muscles. Main outcome measures: hamstring muscles flexibility was assessed at the beginning, during (30’’ of intervention) and the end of the session by using the Modified Sit and Reach test (MSR). Results: The baseline results data given in both groups are comparable to each other. The PNF group obtained an increase in flexibility of 3,1 cm at 30 seconds (first series) and of 5,1 cm at 2 minutes (the last of all series). The RF group obtained a 0,6 cm difference at 30 seconds and 2,4 cm after 2 minutes of application of roller foam. The results were statistically significant when comparing intragroups but not intergroups. Conclusions: Despite the fact that the use of roller foam is spreading in the sports and rehabilitation field, the results of the present study suggest that the gain of flexibility on the hamstrings is greater if PNF type stretches are used instead of RF. These results may be due to the fact that the use of roller foam intervened more in the fascial tissue, while the stretches intervene more in the myotendinous unit. Future studies are needed, increasing the sample number and diversifying the types of stretching.

Keywords: hamstring muscle, stretching, neuromuscular facilitation stretching, roller foam

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86 Renovating Language Laboratories for Pedagogical and Technological Advancements in the New Era

Authors: Paul Lam, Chi Him Chan, Alan Tse

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Language laboratories have been widely used in language learning, starting in the middle of the last century as one of the earliest forms of educational technology. They are designed to assist students’ language learning with technological innovations. Traditional language laboratories provide individual workstations that allow students to access multimedia language resources. In this type of facility, students can train their listening and speaking abilities, and teachers can also assess the performance of an individual student. Although such a setting promotes a student-centered pedagogy by encouraging students to work at their own pace and according to their own needs, it still favours a traditional, behaviourist language learning pedagogy which focuses on repetitive drilling. The change of pedagogies poses challenges to both the teachers and the facilities. The peer-learning pedagogy advocates that language learning should focus on the social aspect, which emphasizes the importance of everyday communication in language learning. The self-access, individual workstation language laboratories may not be able to provide the flexibility for interaction in the new pedagogies. Modern advancement in technology is another factor that drove our language laboratory renovation. In particular, mobile and wireless technology enabled the use of smaller and more flexible devices, making possible much clever use of space. The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) renovated nine existing language laboratories to provide lighter and more advanced equipment, movable tables, and round desks. These facilities allow more flexibility and encourage students’ interaction. It is believed that the renovated language laboratories can serve different peer learning activities and thus support peer-learning pedagogies in language teaching and learning. A survey has been conducted to collect comments from the teachers who have used the renovated language laboratories and received forty-four response. The teachers’ comments reveal that they experienced different challenges in using the renovated language laboratories, and there is a need to provide guidance to teachers during the technological and pedagogical transition. For example, teachers need instruction on using the newly installed devices such as touch-monitor and visualizer. They also need advice on planning new teaching and learning activities. Nevertheless, teachers appreciated that the renovated language laboratories are flexible and provide more spaces for different learning activities.

Keywords: language laboratories, language learning, peer-learning, student interaction

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85 Mindfulness in a Secular Age: Framing and Contextualising the Conversation in the Irish Context

Authors: Thomas P. Carroll

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The phenomenon of mindfulness has become ever more popular in an increasingly pluralist Western society. Mindfulness practice has penetrated secular contexts that would otherwise be closed to religious influence, including state schools, hospitals, and commerce. The contemporary understanding of mindfulness has its origins in Buddhist meditation. However, since Jon Kabat-Zinn’s pioneering work in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, the concept has developed and sometimes mutated into various forms of practice which are disembedded from their original spiritual philosophy. This project will explore the spiritual climate within which mindfulness is currently flourishing through dialogue with three interlocutors. The first interlocutor is the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor whose seminal work, ‘A Secular Age’, outlines three distinct modes of secularity. Taylor examines how the conditions of belief have changed and how the self seeks meaning in an age where belief in the divine is no longer axiomatic. The next interlocutor is Czech theologian and psychotherapist Tomáš Halík who offers a unique perspective of a Catholic who belongs to a section of society outnumbered by secular counterparts, with a theological hermeneutic best described as 'Den Fremden verstehen- understanding the stranger'. Finally, Irish theologian Michael Paul Gallagher offers a theological perspective on how the Christian faith can be translated into dialogue with Irish secular culture, as well as addressing the crisis of imagination and culture rather than the crisis of faith in Ireland. These interlocutors will illustrate that there are sometimes striking differences in how to interpret the religious signs of the times. However, these approaches also reveal significant similarities in how they address and explore the meaning of religious belief and experience today. In this way, themes will emerge that will help to frame the conversation about mindfulness in the West. These themes will include; the failure of the secularization thesis to pass, the growth of a diverse marketplace of religions and beliefs and the growth of a demographic who identify as spiritual but not religious. Such research is paramount in enabling a richer dialogue between Christian faith and mindfulness in a fragmented, postmodern Western context.

Keywords: culture, mindfulness, secularism, spirituality

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84 High Heating Value Bio-Chars from a Bio-Oil Upgrading Process

Authors: Julius K. Gane, Mohamad N. Nahil, Paul T. Williams

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In today’s world of rapid population growth and a changing climate, one way to mitigate various negative effects is via renewable energy solutions. Energy and power as basic requirements in almost all human endeavours are also the banes of the changing climate and the impacts thereof. Thus it is crucial to develop innovative and environmentally friendly energy options to ameliorate various negative repercussions. Upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oil via hydro-treatment offers such opportunities, as quality renewable liquid transportation fuels can be produced. The process, however, is typically accompanied by bio-char formation as a by-product. The goal of this work was to study the yield and some properties of bio-chars formed from a hydrotreatment process, with an overall aim to promote the valuable utilization of wastes or by-products from renewable energy technologies. It is assumed that bio-chars that have comparable energy contents with coals will be more desirable as solid energy materials due to renewability and environmental friendliness. Therefore, the analytical work in this study focused mainly on determining the higher heating value (HHV) of the chars. The method involved the reaction of bio-oil in an autoclave supplied by the Parr Instrument Company, IL, USA. Two main parameters (different temperatures and resident times) were investigated. The chars were characterized using a Thermo EA2000 CHNS analyser, then oxygen contents and HHVs computed based on the literature. From the results, these bio-chars can readily serve as feedstocks for the production of renewable solid fuels. Their HHVs ranged between 29.26-39.18 MJ/kg, affected by different temperatures and retention times. There was an inverse relationship between the oxygen content and the HHVs of the chars. It can, therefore, be concluded that it is possible to optimize the process efficiency of the hydrotreatment process used through the production of renewable energy materials from the 'waste’ char by-products. Future work should consider developing a suitable balance between the primary objective of bio-oil upgrading processes (which is to improve the quality of the liquid fuels) and the conversion of its solid wastes into value-added products such as smokeless briquettes.

Keywords: bio-char, renewable solid biofuels, valorisation, waste-to-energy

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83 Modeling Biomass and Biodiversity across Environmental and Management Gradients in Temperate Grasslands with Deep Learning and Sentinel-1 and -2

Authors: Javier Muro, Anja Linstadter, Florian Manner, Lisa Schwarz, Stephan Wollauer, Paul Magdon, Gohar Ghazaryan, Olena Dubovyk

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Monitoring the trade-off between biomass production and biodiversity in grasslands is critical to evaluate the effects of management practices across environmental gradients. New generations of remote sensing sensors and machine learning approaches can model grasslands’ characteristics with varying accuracies. However, studies often fail to cover a sufficiently broad range of environmental conditions, and evidence suggests that prediction models might be case specific. In this study, biomass production and biodiversity indices (species richness and Fishers’ α) are modeled in 150 grassland plots for three sites across Germany. These sites represent a North-South gradient and are characterized by distinct soil types, topographic properties, climatic conditions, and management intensities. Predictors used are derived from Sentinel-1 & 2 and a set of topoedaphic variables. The transferability of the models is tested by training and validating at different sites. The performance of feed-forward deep neural networks (DNN) is compared to a random forest algorithm. While biomass predictions across gradients and sites were acceptable (r2 0.5), predictions of biodiversity indices were poor (r2 0.14). DNN showed higher generalization capacity than random forest when predicting biomass across gradients and sites (relative root mean squared error of 0.5 for DNN vs. 0.85 for random forest). DNN also achieved high performance when using the Sentinel-2 surface reflectance data rather than different combinations of spectral indices, Sentinel-1 data, or topoedaphic variables, simplifying dimensionality. This study demonstrates the necessity of training biomass and biodiversity models using a broad range of environmental conditions and ensuring spatial independence to have realistic and transferable models where plot level information can be upscaled to landscape scale.

Keywords: ecosystem services, grassland management, machine learning, remote sensing

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82 Identification of New Familial Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes: Are We There Yet?

Authors: Ian Campbell, Gillian Mitchell, Paul James, Na Li, Ella Thompson

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The genetic cause of the majority of multiple-case breast cancer families remains unresolved. Next generation sequencing has emerged as an efficient strategy for identifying predisposing mutations in individuals with inherited cancer. We are conducting whole exome sequence analysis of germ line DNA from multiple affected relatives from breast cancer families, with the aim of identifying rare protein truncating and non-synonymous variants that are likely to include novel cancer predisposing mutations. Data from more than 200 exomes show that on average each individual carries 30-50 protein truncating mutations and 300-400 rare non-synonymous variants. Heterogeneity among our exome data strongly suggest that numerous moderate penetrance genes remain to be discovered, with each gene individually accounting for only a small fraction of families (~0.5%). This scenario marks validation of candidate breast cancer predisposing genes in large case-control studies as the rate-limiting step in resolving the missing heritability of breast cancer. The aim of this study is to screen genes that are recurrently mutated among our exome data in a larger cohort of cases and controls to assess the prevalence of inactivating mutations that may be associated with breast cancer risk. We are using the Agilent HaloPlex Target Enrichment System to screen the coding regions of 168 genes in 1,000 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer cases and 1,000 cancer-naive controls. To date, our interim analysis has identified 21 genes which carry an excess of truncating mutations in multiple breast cancer families versus controls. Established breast cancer susceptibility gene PALB2 is the most frequently mutated gene (13/998 cases versus 0/1009 controls), but other interesting candidates include NPSR1, GSN, POLD2, and TOX3. These and other genes are being validated in a second cohort of 1,000 cases and controls. Our experience demonstrates that beyond PALB2, the prevalence of mutations in the remaining breast cancer predisposition genes is likely to be very low making definitive validation exceptionally challenging.

Keywords: predisposition, familial, exome sequencing, breast cancer

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81 Physics-Based Earthquake Source Models for Seismic Engineering: Analysis and Validation for Dip-Slip Faults

Authors: Percy Galvez, Anatoly Petukhin, Paul Somerville, Ken Miyakoshi, Kojiro Irikura, Daniel Peter

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Physics-based dynamic rupture modelling is necessary for estimating parameters such as rupture velocity and slip rate function that are important for ground motion simulation, but poorly resolved by observations, e.g. by seismic source inversion. In order to generate a large number of physically self-consistent rupture models, whose rupture process is consistent with the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of past earthquakes, we use multicycle simulations under the heterogeneous rate-and-state (RS) friction law for a 45deg dip-slip fault. We performed a parametrization study by fully dynamic rupture modeling, and then, a set of spontaneous source models was generated in a large magnitude range (Mw > 7.0). In order to validate rupture models, we compare the source scaling relations vs. seismic moment Mo for the modeled rupture area S, as well as average slip Dave and the slip asperity area Sa, with similar scaling relations from the source inversions. Ground motions were also computed from our models. Their peak ground velocities (PGV) agree well with the GMPE values. We obtained good agreement of the permanent surface offset values with empirical relations. From the heterogeneous rupture models, we analyzed parameters, which are critical for ground motion simulations, i.e. distributions of slip, slip rate, rupture initiation points, rupture velocities, and source time functions. We studied cross-correlations between them and with the friction weakening distance Dc value, the only initial heterogeneity parameter in our modeling. The main findings are: (1) high slip-rate areas coincide with or are located on an outer edge of the large slip areas, (2) ruptures have a tendency to initiate in small Dc areas, and (3) high slip-rate areas correlate with areas of small Dc, large rupture velocity and short rise-time.

Keywords: earthquake dynamics, strong ground motion prediction, seismic engineering, source characterization

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80 Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles for Novel Applications

Authors: Hanan. Al Chaghouri, Mohammad Azad Malik, P. John Thomas, Paul O’Brien

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The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great interest over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulphide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulphides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be applied to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferro-fluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Noble metal like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.

Keywords: assembling nanoparticles, liquid/liquid interface, thin film, core/shell, solar cells, recording media

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79 Canthin-6-One Alkaloid Inhibits NF-κB and AP-1 Activity: An Inhibitory Action At Transcriptional Level

Authors: Fadia Gafri, Kathryn Mckintosh, Louise Young, Alan Harvey, Simon Mackay, Andrew Paul, Robin Plevin

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Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor found originally to play a key role in regulating inflammation. However considerable evidence links this pathway to the suppression of apoptosis, cellular transformation, proliferation and invasion (Aggarwal et al., 2006). Moreover, recent studies have also linked inflammation to cancer progression making NF-κB overall a promising therapeutic target for drug discovery (Dobrovolskaia & Kozlov, 2005). In this study we examined the effect of the natural product canthin-6-one (SU182) as part of a CRUK small molecule drug discovery programme for effects upon the NF-κB pathway. Initial studies demonstrated that SU182 was found to have good potency against the inhibitory kappa B kinases (IKKs) at 30M in vitro. However, at concentrations up to 30M, SU182 had no effect upon TNFα stimulated loss in cellular IκBα or p65 phosphorylation in the keratinocyte cell line NCTC2544. Nevertheless, 30M SU182 reduced TNF-α / PMA-induced NF-κB-linked luciferase reporter activity to (22.9 ± 5%) and (34.6± 3 %, P<0.001) respectively, suggesting an action downstream of IKK signalling. Indeed, SU182 neither decreased NF-κB-DNA binding as assayed by EMSA nor prevented the translocation of p65 (NF-κB) to the nucleus assessed by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation. In addition to the inhibition of transcriptional activity of TNFα-induced NF-κB reporter activity SU182 significantly reduced PMA-induced AP-1-linked luciferase reporter activity to about (48± 9% at 30M, P<0.001) . This mode of inhibition was not sufficient to prevent the activation of NF-κB dependent induction of other proteins such as COX-2 and iNOS, or activated MAP kinases (p38, JNK and ERK1/2) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Taken together these data indicate the potential for SU182 to interfere with the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 at transcriptional level. However, no potential anti-inflammatory effect was indicated, further investigation for other NF-κB dependent proteins linked to survival are also required to identify the exact mechanism of action.

Keywords: Canthin-6-one, NF-κB, AP-1, phosphorylation, Nuclear translocation, DNA-binding activity, inflammatory proteins.

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78 What Happens When We Try to Bridge the Science-Practice Gap? An Example from the Brazilian Native Vegetation Protection Law

Authors: Alice Brites, Gerd Sparovek, Jean Paul Metzger, Ricardo Rodrigues

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The segregation between science and policy in decision making process hinders nature conservation efforts worldwide. Scientists have been criticized for not producing information that leads to effective solutions for environmental problems. In an attempt to bridge this gap between science and practice, we conducted a project aimed at supporting the implementation of the Brazilian Native Vegetation Protection Law (NVPL) implementation in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil. To do so, we conducted multiple open meetings with the stakeholders involved in this discussion. Throughout this process, we raised stakeholders' demands for scientific information and brought feedbacks about our findings. However, our main scientific advice was not taken into account during the NVPL implementation in SP. The NVPL has a mechanism that exempts landholders who converted native vegetation without offending the legislation in place at the time of the conversion from restoration requirements. We found out that there were no accurate spatialized data for native vegetation cover before the 1960s. Thus, the initial benchmark for the mechanism application should be the 1965 Brazilian Forest Act. Even so, SP kept the 1934 Brazilian Forest Act as the initial legal benchmark for the law application. This decision implies the use of a probabilistic native vegetation map that has uncertainty and subjectivity as its intrinsic characteristics, thus its use can lead to legal queries, corruption, and an unfair benefit application. But why this decision was made even after the scientific advice was vastly divulgated? We raised some possible reasons to explain it. First, the decision was made during a government transition, showing that circumstantial political events can overshadow scientific arguments. Second, the debate about the NVPL in SP was not pacified and powerful stakeholders could benefit from the confusion created by this decision. Finally, the native vegetation protection mechanism is a complex issue, with many technical aspects that can be hard to understand for a non-specialized courtroom, such as the one that made the final decision at SP. This example shows that science and decision-makers still have a long way ahead to improve their way to interact and that science needs to find its way to be heard above the political buzz.

Keywords: Brazil, forest act, science-based dialogue, science-policy interface

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77 Tender Systems and Processes within the Mauritian Construction Industry: Investigating the Predominance of International Firms and the Lack of Absorptive Capacity in Local Firms

Authors: K. Appasamy, P. Paul

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Mauritius, a developing small-island-state, is facing a recession which is having a considerable economic impact particularly on its construction sector. Further, the presence of foreign entities, both as companies and workers, within this sector is creating a very competitive environment for local firms. This study investigates the key drivers that allow foreign firms to participate in this sector, in particular looking at the international and local tender processes, and the capacity of local industry to participate. This study also looks at how the current set up may hinder the latter’s involvement. The methodology used included qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with established foreign companies, local companies, and public bodies. Study findings indicate: there is an adequate availability of professional skills and expertise within the Mauritian construction industry but a lack of skilled labour especially at the operative level; projects awarded to foreign firms are either due to their uniqueness and hence lack of local knowledge, or due to foreign firms having lower tender bids; tendering systems and processes are weak, including monitoring and enforcement, which encourages corruption and favouritism; a high level of ignorance of this sector’s characteristics and opportunities exists amongst the local population; local entities are very profit oriented and have short term strategies that discourage long term investment in workforce training and development; but most importantly, stakeholders do not grasp the importance of encouraging youngsters to join this sector, they have no long term vision, and there is a lack of mutual involvement and collaboration between them. Although local industry is highly competent, qualified and experienced, the tendering and procurement systems in Mauritius are not conducive enough to allow for effective strategic planning and an equitable allocation of projects during an economic downturn so that the broadest spread of stakeholders’ benefit. It is of utmost importance that all sector and government entities collaborate to formulate strategies and reforms on tender processes and capacity building to ensure fairness and continuous growth of this sector in Mauritius.

Keywords: construction industry, tender process, international firms, local capacity, Mauritius

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76 Deploying a Transformative Learning Model in Technological University Dublin to Assess Transversal Skills

Authors: Sandra Thompson, Paul Dervan

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Ireland’s first Technological University (TU Dublin) was established on 1st January 2019, and its creation is an exciting new milestone in Irish Higher Education. TU Dublin is now Ireland’s biggest University supporting 29,000 students across three campuses with 3,500 staff. The University aspires to create work-ready graduates who are socially responsible, open-minded global thinkers who are ambitious to change the world for the better. As graduates, they will be enterprising and daring in all their endeavors, ready to play their part in transforming the future. Feedback from Irish employers and students coupled with evidence from other authoritative sources such as the World Economic Forum points to a need for greater focus on the development of students’ employability skills as they prepare for today’s work environment. Moreover, with an increased focus on Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and inclusiveness, there is recognition that students are more than a numeric grade value. Robust grading systems have been developed to track a student’s performance around discipline knowledge but there is little or no global consensus on a definition of transversal skills nor on a unified framework to assess transversal skills. Education and industry sectors are often assessing one or two skills, and some are developing their own frameworks to capture the learner’s achievement in this area. Technological University Dublin (TU Dublin) have discovered and implemented a framework to allow students to develop, assess and record their transversal skills using transformative learning theory. The model implemented is an adaptation of Student Transformative Learning Record - STLR which originated in the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO). The purpose of this paper therefore, is to examine the views of students, staff and employers in the context of deploying a Transformative Learning model within the University to assess transversal skills. It will examine the initial impact the transformative learning model is having socially, personally and on the University as an organization. Crucially also, to identify lessons learned from the deployment in order to assist other Universities and Higher Education Institutes who may be considering a focused adoption of Transformative Learning to meet the challenge of preparing students for today’s work environment.

Keywords: assessing transversal skills, higher education, transformative learning, students

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75 Novel Routes to the Synthesis and Functionalization of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles

Authors: Hanan. Al Chaghouri, Mohammad Azad Malik, P. John Thomas, Paul O’Brien

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The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great deal of attention over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties as compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: Firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulfide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulfides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferrofluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Coinage metals like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors, ferromagnetic properties, closed loop recycling, liquid/liquid interface

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74 Conceptualizing Conflict in the Gray Zone: A Comparative Analysis of Diplomatic, Military and Political Lenses

Authors: John Hardy, Paul Lushenko

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he twenty-first century international security order has been fraught with challenges to the credibility and stability of the post-Cold War status quo. Although the American-led international system has rarely been threatened directly by dissatisfied states, an underlying challenge to the international security order has emerged in the form of a slow-burning abnegation of small but significant aspects of the status quo. Meanwhile, those security challenges which have threatened to destabilize order in the international system have not clearly belonged to the traditional notions of diplomacy and armed conflict. Instead, the main antagonists have been both states and non-state actors, the issues have crossed national and international boundaries, and contestation has occurred in a ‘gray zone’ between peace and war. Gray zone conflicts are not easily categorized as military operations, national security policies or political strategies, because they often include elements of diplomacy, military operations, and statecraft in complex combinations. This study applies three approaches to conceptualizing the gray zone in which many contemporary conflicts take place. The first approach frames gray zone conflicts as a form of coercive diplomacy, in which armed force is used to add credibility and commitment to political threats. The second approach frames gray zone conflicts as a form of discrete military operation, in which armed force is used sparingly and is limited to a specific issue. The third approach frames gray zones conflicts as a form of proxy war, in which armed force is used by or through third parties, rather than directly between belligerents. The study finds that each approach to conceptualizing the gray zone accounts for only a narrow range of issues which fall within the gap between traditional notions of peace and war. However, in combination, all three approaches are useful in explicating the gray zone and understanding the character of contemporary security challenges which defy simple categorization. These findings suggest that coercive diplomacy, discrete military operations, and proxy warfare provide three overlapping lenses for conceptualizing the gray zone and for understanding the gray zone conflicts which threaten international security in the early twenty-first century.

Keywords: gray zone, international security, military operations, national security, strategy

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73 Development of a Coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological Model to Simulate Impacts of Temperature on Waste Stabilization at a Landfill in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Simran Kaur, Paul J. Van Geel

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A coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological (TMB) model was developed for the analysis of impacts of temperatures on waste stabilization at a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill in Quebec, Canada using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element-based software. For waste placed in landfills in Northern climates during winter months, it can take months or even years before the waste approaches ideal temperatures for biodegradation to occur. Therefore, the proposed model links biodegradation induced strain in MSW to waste temperatures and corresponding heat generation rates as a result of anaerobic degradation. This provides a link between the thermal-biological and mechanical behavior of MSW. The thermal properties of MSW are further linked to density which is tracked and updated in the mechanical component of the model, providing a mechanical-thermal link. The settlement of MSW is modelled based on the concept of viscoelasticity. The specific viscoelastic model used is a single Kelvin – Voight viscoelastic body in which the finite element response is controlled by the elastic material parameters – Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The numerical model was validated with 10 years of temperature and settlement data collected from a landfill in Ste. Sophie, Quebec. The coupled TMB modelling framework, which simulates placement of waste lifts as they are placed progressively in the landfill, allows for optimization of several thermal and mechanical parameters throughout the depth of the waste profile and helps in better understanding of temperature dependence of MSW stabilization. The model is able to illustrate how waste placed in the winter months can delay biodegradation-induced settlement and generation of landfill gas. A delay in waste stabilization will impact the utilization of the approved airspace prior to the placement of a final cover and impact post-closure maintenance. The model provides a valuable tool to assess different waste placement strategies in order to increase airspace utilization within landfills operating under different climates, in addition to understanding conditions for increased gas generation for recovery as a green and renewable energy source.

Keywords: coupled model, finite element modeling, landfill, municipal solid waste, waste stabilization

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72 Insight into Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Clay Minerals

Authors: Mardin Abdalqadir, Paul Adzakro, Tannaz Pak, Sina Rezaei Gomari

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Climate change and global warming recently became significant concerns due to the massive emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, predominantly CO2 gases. Therefore, it is necessary to find sustainable and inexpensive methods to capture the greenhouse gasses and protect the environment for live species. The application of naturally available and cheap adsorbents of carbon such as clay minerals became a great interest. However, the minerals prone to low storage capacity despite their high affinity to adsorb carbon. This paper aims to explore ways to improve the pore volume and surface area of two selected clay minerals, ‘montmorillonite and kaolinite’ by acid treatment to overcome their low storage capacity. Montmorillonite and kaolinite samples were treated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.5, 1.2 and 2.5 M) at 40 °C for 8 hours to achieve the above aim. The grain size distribution and morphology of clay minerals before and after acid treatment were explored with Scanning Electron Microscope to evaluate surface area improvement. The ImageJ software was used to find the porosity and pore volume of treated and untreated clay samples. The structure of the clay minerals was also analyzed using an X-ray Diffraction machine. The results showed that the pore volume and surface area were increased substantially through acid treatment, which speeded up the rate of carbon dioxide adsorption. XRD pattern of kaolinite did not change after sulfuric acid treatment, which indicates that acid treatment would not affect the structure of kaolinite. It was also discovered that kaolinite had a higher pore volume and porosity than montmorillonite before and after acid treatment. For example, the pore volume of untreated kaolinite was equal to 30.498 um3 with a porosity of 23.49%. Raising the concentration of acid from 0.5 M to 2.5 M in 8 hours’ time reaction led to increased pore volume from 30.498 um3 to 34.73 um3. The pore volume of raw montmorillonite was equal to 15.610 um3 with a porosity of 12.7%. When the acid concentration was raised from 0.5 M to 2.5 M for the same reaction time, pore volume also increased from 15.610 um3 to 20.538 um3. However, montmorillonite had a higher specific surface area than kaolinite. This study concludes that clay minerals are inexpensive and available material sources to model the realistic conditions and apply the results of carbon capture to prevent global warming, which is one of the most critical and urgent problems in the world.

Keywords: acid treatment, kaolinite, montmorillonite, pore volume, porosity, surface area

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71 Model Order Reduction of Complex Airframes Using Component Mode Synthesis for Dynamic Aeroelasticity Load Analysis

Authors: Paul V. Thomas, Mostafa S. A. Elsayed, Denis Walch

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Airframe structural optimization at different design stages results in new mass and stiffness distributions which modify the critical design loads envelop. Determination of aircraft critical loads is an extensive analysis procedure which involves simulating the aircraft at thousands of load cases as defined in the certification requirements. It is computationally prohibitive to use a Global Finite Element Model (GFEM) for the load analysis, hence reduced order structural models are required which closely represent the dynamic characteristics of the GFEM. This paper presents the implementation of Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) method for the generation of high fidelity Reduced Order Model (ROM) of complex airframes. Here, sub-structuring technique is used to divide the complex higher order airframe dynamical system into a set of subsystems. Each subsystem is reduced to fewer degrees of freedom using matrix projection onto a carefully chosen reduced order basis subspace. The reduced structural matrices are assembled for all the subsystems through interface coupling and the dynamic response of the total system is solved. The CMS method is employed to develop the ROM of a Bombardier Aerospace business jet which is coupled with an aerodynamic model for dynamic aeroelasticity loads analysis under gust turbulence. Another set of dynamic aeroelastic loads is also generated employing a stick model of the same aircraft. Stick model is the reduced order modelling methodology commonly used in the aerospace industry based on stiffness generation by unitary loading application. The extracted aeroelastic loads from both models are compared against those generated employing the GFEM. Critical loads Modal participation factors and modal characteristics of the different ROMs are investigated and compared against those of the GFEM. Results obtained show that the ROM generated using Craig Bampton CMS reduction process has a superior dynamic characteristics compared to the stick model.

Keywords: component mode synthesis, craig bampton reduction method, dynamic aeroelasticity analysis, model order reduction

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70 The Development of Documentary Filmmaking in Early Independent India

Authors: Camille Deprez

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This paper proposes to present research findings of an ongoing Hong Kong government-funded project on ‘The Documentary Film in India (1948-1975)’ (GRF 1240314), for which an extensive research fieldwork has been carried out in various archives in India. This project investigates the role and significance of the Indian documentary film sector from the inauguration of the state-sponsored Films Division one year after independence in 1948 until the declaration of a ‘State of Emergency’ in 1975. The documentary film production of this first period of national independence was characterised by increasing formal experimentation and analytical social and political enquiry, and by a complex, mixed structure of state-sponsored monopoly and free-market operation. However, that production remains significantly under-researched. What were the main production, distribution and exhibition strategies over this period? What were the recurrent themes and stylistic features of the films produced? In the new context of national independence (in which the State considered film as means of mass persuasion), consolidation of the commercial film, and the emergence of television and art cinema, what role did official, professional and creative factors play in the development of the documentary film sector? What were the impact of such films and the challenges faced by the documentary film in India? Based upon the crossed-analysis of primary written research documents, interviews and relevant films, this study interweaves empirical study of the sector's financing, production, distribution and exhibition strategies, as well as the films' content and form, with the larger historical context of India over the period from 1948 to 1975. Whilst most of the films made within the sector explored social issues, they were rarely able to do so from an overtly critical perspective. However, this paper proposes to analyse the contribution of important filmmakers and producers, including Ezra Mir, Paul Zils, Jean Bhownagary, S. Sukhdev, S. N. S. Sastri, and P. Pati, to the development of the Indian documentary film sector and style within and outside the remits of Films Division. It will more specifically assess the extent to which they criticised the State, showed the inequalities in Indian society and explored film form.

Keywords: documentary film, film archives, film history, India

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69 Effects of Vegetable Oils Supplementation on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production in Buffaloes

Authors: Avijit Dey, Shyam S. Paul, Satbir S. Dahiya, Balbir S. Punia, Luciano A. Gonzalez

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Methane emitted from ruminant livestock not only reduces the efficiency of feed energy utilization but also contributes to global warming. Vegetable oils, a source of poly unsaturated fatty acids, have potential to reduce methane production and increase conjugated linoleic acid in the rumen. However, characteristics of oils, level of inclusion and composition of basal diet influences their efficacy. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of sunflower (SFL) and cottonseed (CSL) oils on methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids composition and feed fermentation pattern by in vitro gas production (IVGP) test. Four concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4ml /30ml buffered rumen fluid) of each oil were used. Fresh rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from two rumen cannulated buffalo steers fed a mixed ration. In vitro incubation was carried out with sorghum hay (200 ± 5 mg) as substrate in 100 ml calibrated glass syringes following standard IVGP protocol. After 24h incubation, gas production was recorded by displacement of piston. Methane in the gas phase and volatile fatty acids in the fermentation medium were estimated by gas chromatography. Addition of oils resulted in increase (p<0.05) in total gas production and decrease (p<0.05) in methane production, irrespective of type and concentration. Although the increase in gas production was similar, methane production (ml/g DM) and its concentration (%) in head space gas was lower (p< 0.01) in CSL than in SFL at corresponding doses. Linear decrease (p<0.001) in degradability of DM was evident with increasing doses of oils (0.2ml onwards). However, these effects were more pronounced with SFL. Acetate production tended to decrease but propionate and butyrate production increased (p<0.05) with addition of oils, irrespective of type and doses. The ratio of acetate to propionate was reduced (p<0.01) with addition of oils but no difference between the oils was noted. It is concluded that both the oils can reduce methane production. However, feed degradability was also affected with higher doses. Cotton seed oil in small dose (0.1ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) exerted greater inhibitory effects on methane production without impeding dry matter degradability. Further in vivo studies need to be carried out for their practical application in animal ration.

Keywords: buffalo, methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, vegetable oils

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68 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand

Abstract:

The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: wheat, wild relatives, pre-breeding, genomics, photosynthesis

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67 Non-Invasive Assessment of Peripheral Arterial Disease: Automated Ankle Brachial Index Measurement and Pulse Volume Analysis Compared to Ultrasound Duplex Scan

Authors: Jane E. A. Lewis, Paul Williams, Jane H. Davies

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Introduction: There is, at present, a clear and recognized need to optimize the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), particularly in non-specialist settings such as primary care, and this arises from several key facts. Firstly, PAD is a highly prevalent condition. In 2010, it was estimated that globally, PAD affected more than 202 million people and furthermore, this prevalence is predicted to further escalate. The disease itself, although frequently asymptomatic, can cause considerable patient suffering with symptoms such as lower limb pain, ulceration, and gangrene which, in worse case scenarios, can necessitate limb amputation. A further and perhaps the most eminent consequence of PAD arises from the fact that it is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and therefore is a powerful predictor of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Objective: This cross sectional study aimed to individually and cumulatively compare sensitivity and specificity of the (i) ankle brachial index (ABI) and (ii) pulse volume waveform (PVW) recorded by the same automated device, with the presence or absence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) being verified by an Ultrasound Duplex Scan (UDS). Methods: Patients (n = 205) referred for lower limb arterial assessment underwent an ABI and PVW measurement using volume plethysmography followed by a UDS. Presence of PAD was recorded for ABI if < 0.9 (noted if > 1.30) if PVW was graded as 2, 3 or 4 or a hemodynamically significant stenosis > 50% with UDS. Outcome measure was agreement between measured ABI and interpretation of the PVW for PAD diagnosis, using UDS as the reference standard. Results: Sensitivity of ABI was 80%, specificity 91%, and overall accuracy 88%. Cohen’s kappa revealed good agreement between ABI and UDS (k = 0.7, p < .001). PVW sensitivity 97%, specificity 81%, overall accuracy 84%, with a good level of agreement between PVW and UDS (k = 0.67, p < .001). The combined sensitivity of ABI and PVW was 100%, specificity 76%, and overall accuracy 85% (k = 0.67, p < .001). Conclusions: Combing these two diagnostic modalities within one device provided a highly accurate method of ruling out PAD. Such a device could be utilized within the primary care environment to reduce the number of unnecessary referrals to secondary care with concomitant cost savings, reduced patient inconvenience, and prioritization of urgent PAD cases.

Keywords: ankle brachial index, peripheral arterial disease, pulse volume waveform, ultrasound duplex scan

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66 Developing Social Responsibility Values in Nascent Entrepreneurs through Role-Play: An Explorative Study of University Students in the United Kingdom

Authors: David W. Taylor, Fernando Lourenço, Carolyn Branston, Paul Tucker

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There are an increasing number of students at Universities in the United Kingdom engaging in entrepreneurship role-play to explore business start-up as a career alternative to employment. These role-play activities have been shown to have a positive influence on students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Universities also play a role in developing graduates’ awareness of social responsibility. However, social responsibility is often missing from these entrepreneurship role-plays. It is important that these role-play activities include the development of values that support social responsibility, in-line with those running hybrid, humane and sustainable enterprises, and not simply focus on profit. The Young Enterprise (YE) Start-Up programme is an example of a role-play activity that is gaining in popularity amongst United Kingdom Universities seeking ways to give students insight into a business start-up. A Post-92 University in the North-West of England has adapted the traditional YE Directorship roles (e.g., Marketing Director, Sales Director) by including a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Director in all of the team-based YE Start-Up businesses. The aim for introducing this Directorship was to observe if such a role would help create a more socially responsible value-system within each company and in turn shape business decisions. This paper investigates role-play as a tool to help enterprise educators develop socially responsible attitudes and values in nascent entrepreneurs. A mixed qualitative methodology approach has been used, which includes interviews, role-play, and reflection, to help students develop positive value characteristics through the exploration of unethical and selfish behaviors. The initial findings indicate that role-play helped CSR Directors learn and gain insights into the importance of corporate social responsibility, influenced the values and actions of their YE Start-Ups, and increased the likelihood that if the participants were to launch a business post-graduation, that the intent would be for the business to be socially responsible. These findings help inform educators on how to develop socially responsible nascent entrepreneurs within a traditionally profit orientated business model.

Keywords: student entrepreneurship, young enterprise, social responsibility, role-play, values

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