Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: turbomachinery

12 Classifying Turbomachinery Blade Mode Shapes Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Ismail Abubakar, Hamid Mehrabi, Reg Morton


Currently, extensive signal analysis is performed in order to evaluate structural health of turbomachinery blades. This approach is affected by constraints of time and the availability of qualified personnel. Thus, new approaches to blade dynamics identification that provide faster and more accurate results are sought after. Generally, modal analysis is employed in acquiring dynamic properties of a vibrating turbomachinery blade and is widely adopted in condition monitoring of blades. The analysis provides useful information on the different modes of vibration and natural frequencies by exploring different shapes that can be taken up during vibration since all mode shapes have their corresponding natural frequencies. Experimental modal testing and finite element analysis are the traditional methods used to evaluate mode shapes with limited application to real live scenario to facilitate a robust condition monitoring scheme. For a real time mode shape evaluation, rapid evaluation and low computational cost is required and traditional techniques are unsuitable. In this study, artificial neural network is developed to evaluate the mode shape of a lab scale rotating blade assembly by using result from finite element modal analysis as training data. The network performance evaluation shows that artificial neural network (ANN) is capable of mapping the correlation between natural frequencies and mode shapes. This is achieved without the need of extensive signal analysis. The approach offers advantage from the perspective that the network is able to classify mode shapes and can be employed in real time including simplicity in implementation and accuracy of the prediction. The work paves the way for further development of robust condition monitoring system that incorporates real time mode shape evaluation.

Keywords: modal analysis, artificial neural network, mode shape, natural frequencies, pattern recognition

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11 3D Steady and Transient Centrifugal Pump Flow within Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM

Authors: Clement Leroy, Guillaume Boitel


This paper presents a comparative benchmarking review of a steady and transient three-dimensional (3D) flow computations in centrifugal pump using commercial (AnsysCFX) and open source (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. In centrifugal rotor-dynamic pump, the fluid enters in the impeller along to the rotating axis to be accelerated in order to increase the pressure, flowing radially outward into another stage, vaned diffuser or volute casing, from where it finally exits into a downstream pipe. Simulations are carried out at the best efficiency point (BEP) and part load, for single-phase flow with several turbulence models. The results are compared with overall performance report from experimental data. The use of CFD technology in industry is still limited by the high computational costs, and even more by the high cost of commercial CFD software and high-performance computing (HPC) licenses. The main objectives of the present study are to define OpenFOAM methodology for high-quality 3D steady and transient turbomachinery CFD simulation to conduct a thorough time-accurate performance analysis. On the other hand a detailed comparisons between computational methods, features on latest Ansys release 18 and OpenFOAM is investigated to assess the accuracy and industrial applications of those solvers. Finally an automated connected workflow (IoT) for turbine blade applications is presented.

Keywords: benchmarking, CFX, internet of things, openFOAM, time-accurate, turbomachinery

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10 Aeroelastic Stability Analysis in Turbomachinery Using Reduced Order Aeroelastic Model Tool

Authors: Chandra Shekhar Prasad, Ludek Pesek Prasad


In the present day fan blade of aero engine, turboprop propellers, gas turbine or steam turbine low-pressure blades are getting bigger, lighter and thus, become more flexible. Therefore, flutter, forced blade response and vibration related failure of the high aspect ratio blade are of main concern for the designers, thus need to be address properly in order to achieve successful component design. At the preliminary design stage large number of design iteration is need to achieve the utter free safe design. Most of the numerical method used for aeroelastic analysis is based on field-based methods such as finite difference method, finite element method, finite volume method or coupled. These numerical schemes are used to solve the coupled fluid Flow-Structural equation based on full Naiver-Stokes (NS) along with structural mechanics’ equations. These type of schemes provides very accurate results if modeled properly, however, they are computationally very expensive and need large computing recourse along with good personal expertise. Therefore, it is not the first choice for aeroelastic analysis during preliminary design phase. A reduced order aeroelastic model (ROAM) with acceptable accuracy and fast execution is more demanded at this stage. Similar ROAM are being used by other researchers for aeroelastic and force response analysis of turbomachinery. In the present paper new medium fidelity ROAM is successfully developed and implemented in numerical tool to simulated the aeroelastic stability phenomena in turbomachinery and well as flexible wings. In the present, a hybrid flow solver based on 3D viscous-inviscid coupled 3D panel method (PM) and 3d discrete vortex particle method (DVM) is developed, viscous parameters are estimated using boundary layer(BL) approach. This method can simulate flow separation and is a good compromise between accuracy and speed compared to CFD. In the second phase of the research work, the flow solver (PM) will be coupled with ROM non-linear beam element method (BEM) based FEM structural solver (with multibody capabilities) to perform the complete aeroelastic simulation of a steam turbine bladed disk, propellers, fan blades, aircraft wing etc. The partitioned based coupling approach is used for fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The numerical results are compared with experimental data for different test cases and for the blade cascade test case, experimental data is obtained from in-house lab experiments at IT CAS. Furthermore, the results from the new aeroelastic model will be compared with classical CFD-CSD based aeroelastic models. The proposed methodology for the aeroelastic stability analysis of gas turbine or steam turbine blades, or propellers or fan blades will provide researchers and engineers a fast, cost-effective and efficient tool for aeroelastic (classical flutter) analysis for different design at preliminary design stage where large numbers of design iteration are required in short time frame.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, beam element method (BEM), discrete vortex particle method (DVM), classical flutter, fluid-structure interaction (FSI), panel method, reduce order aeroelastic model (ROAM), turbomachinery, viscous-inviscid coupling

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9 Effect of Surface Quality of 3D Printed Impeller on the Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Nader Zirak, Mohammadali Shirinbayan, Abbas Tcharkhtchi


Additive manufacturing is referred to as a method for fabrication of parts with a mechanism of layer by layer. Suitable economic efficiency and the ability to fabrication complex parts have made this method the focus of studies and industry. In recent years many studies focused on the fabrication of impellers, which is referred to as a key component of turbomachinery, through this technique. This study considers the important effect of the final surface quality of the impeller on the performance of the system, investigates the fabricated printed rotors through the fused deposition modeling with different process parameters. In this regard, the surface of each impeller was analyzed through the 3D scanner. The results show the vital role of surface quality on the final performance of the centrifugal compressor.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, impeller, centrifugal compressor, performance

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8 Performance of Slot-Entry Hybrid Worn Journal Bearing under Turbulent Lubrication

Authors: Nathi Ram, Saurabh K. Yadav


In turbomachinery, the turbulent flow occurs due to the use of high velocity of low kinematic viscosity lubricants and used in many industrial applications. In the present work, the performance of symmetric slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under laminar and turbulent lubrication has been investigated. For turbulent lubrication, the Reynolds equation has been modified using Constantinescu turbulent model. This modified equation has been solved using the finite element method. The effect of turbulent lubrication on bearing’s performance has been presented for symmetric hybrid journal bearing. The slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under turbulent/laminar regimes have been investigated. It has been observed that the stiffness and damping coefficients are more for the bearing having slot width ratio (SWR) of 0.25 than the bearing with SWR of 0.5 and 0.75 under the turbulent regime. Further, it is also observed that for constant wear depth parameter, stability threshold speed gets increased for bearing operates at slot width ratio 0.25 under turbulent lubrication.

Keywords: hydrostatic bearings, journal bearings, restrictors, turbulent flow models, finite element technique

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7 Optimization of Turbocharged Diesel Engines

Authors: Ebrahim Safarian, Kadir Bilen, Akif Ceviz


The turbocharger and turbocharging have been the inherent component of diesel engines, so that critical parameters of such engines, as BSFC(Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) or thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, BMEP(Brake Mean Effective Pressure), the power density output and emission level have been improved extensively. In general, the turbocharger can be considered as the most complex component of diesel engines, because it has closely interrelated turbomachinery concepts of the turbines and the compressors to thermodynamic fundamentals of internal combustion engines and stress analysis of all components. In this paper, a waste gate for a conventional single stage radial turbine is investigated by consideration of turbochargers operation constrains and engine operation conditions, without any detail designs in the turbine and the compressor. Amount of opening waste gate which extended between the ranges of full opened and closed valve, is demonstrated by limiting compressor boost pressure ratio. Obtaining of an optimum point by regard above mentioned items is surveyed by three linked meanline modeling programs together which consist of Turbomatch®, Compal®, Rital®madules in concepts NREC® respectively.

Keywords: turbocharger, wastegate, diesel engine, concept NREC programs

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6 Predictions of Thermo-Hydrodynamic State for Single and Three Pads Gas Foil Bearings Operating at Steady-State Based on Multi-Physics Coupling Computer Aided Engineering Simulations

Authors: Tai Yuan Yu, Pei-Jen Wang


Oil-free turbomachinery is considered one of the critical technologies for future green power generation systems as rotor machinery systems. Oil-free technology allows clean, compact, and maintenance-free working, and gas foil bearings, abbreviated as GFBs, are important for the technology. Since the first applications in the auxiliary power units and air cycle machines in the 1970s, obvious improvement has been created to the computational models for dynamic rotor behavior. However, many technical issues are still poorly understood or remain unsolved, and some of those are thermal management and the pattern of how pressure will be distributed in bearing clearance. This paper presents a three-dimensional, abbreviated as 3D, fluid-structure interaction model of single pad foil bearings and three pad foil bearings to predict bearing working behavior that researchers could compare characteristics of those. The coupling analysis model involves dynamic working characteristics applied to all the gas film and mechanical structures. Therefore, the elastic deformation of foil structure and the hydrodynamic pressure of gas film can both be calculated by a finite element method program. As a result, the temperature distribution pattern could also be iteratively solved by coupling analysis. In conclusion, the working fluid state in a gas film of various pad forms of bearings working characteristic at constant rotational speed for both can be solved for comparisons with the experimental results.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, multi-physics simulations, gas foil bearing, oil-free, transient thermo-hydrodynamic

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5 Design of Low-Emission Catalytically Stabilized Combustion Chamber Concept

Authors: Annapurna Basavaraju, Andreas Marn, Franz Heitmeir


The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is cognizant for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Moreover small turbo engines have higher fuel specific emissions compared to large engines due to their limited combustion chamber size. In order to fulfill these requirements, novel combustion concepts are essential. This motivates to carry out the research on the current state of art, catalytic stabilized combustion chamber using hydrogen in small jet engines which are designed and investigated both numerically and experimentally during this project. Catalytic combustion concepts can also be adopted for low caloric fuels and are therefore not constrained to only hydrogen. However, hydrogen has high heating value and has the major advantage of producing only the nitrogen oxides as pollutants during the combustion, thus eliminating the interest on other emissions such as Carbon monoxides etc. In the present work, the combustion chamber is designed based on the ‘Rich catalytic Lean burn’ concept. The experiments are conducted for the characteristic operating range of an existing engine. This engine has been tested successfully at Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics (ITTM), Technical University Graz. One of the facts that the efficient combustion is a result of proper mixing of fuel-air mixture, considerable significance is given to the selection of appropriate mixer. This led to the design of three diverse configurations of mixers and is investigated experimentally and numerically. Subsequently the best mixer would be equipped in the main combustion chamber and used throughout the experimentation. Furthermore, temperatures and pressures would be recorded at various locations inside the combustion chamber and the exhaust emissions will also be analyzed. The instrumented combustion chamber would be inspected at the engine relevant inlet conditions for nine different sets of catalysts at the Hot Flow Test Facility (HFTF) of the institute.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, gas turbine, hydrogen, mixer, NOx emissions

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4 Effect of Volute Tongue Shape and Position on Performance of Turbo Machinery Compressor

Authors: Anuj Srivastava, Kuldeep Kumar


This paper proposes a numerical study of volute tongue design, which affects the centrifugal compressor operating range and pressure recovery. Increased efficiency has been the traditional importance of compressor design. However, the increased operating range has become important in an age of ever-increasing productivity and energy costs in the turbomachinery industry. Efficiency and overall operating range are the two most important parameters studied to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressor. Volute is one of the components that have significant effect on these two parameters. Choice of volute tongue geometry has major role in compressor performance, also affects performance map. The author evaluates the trade-off on using pull-back tongue geometry on centrifugal compressor performance. In present paper, three different tongue positions and shapes are discussed. These designs are compared in terms of pressure recovery coefficient, pressure loss coefficient, and stable operating range. The detailed flow structures for various volute geometries and pull back angle near tongue are studied extensively to explore the fluid behavior. The viscous Navier-Stokes equations are used to simulate the flow inside the volute. The numerical calculations are compared with thermodynamic 1-D calculations. Author concludes that the increment in compression ratio accompanies with more uniform pressure distribution in the modified tongue shape and location, a uniform static pressure around the circumferential which build a more uniform flow in the impeller and diffuser. Also, the blockage at the tongue of the volute was causing circumferentially nonuniformed pressure along the volute. This nonuniformity may lead impeller and diffuser to operate unstably. However, it is not the volute that directly controls the stall.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor volute, tongue geometry, pull-back, compressor performance, flow instability

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3 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: Sayyed Benyamin Alavi, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui, Ambra Giovannelli, Stefano Mazzoni


Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants.

Keywords: Refrigeration Plant, Vapour Pressure Amplifier, Compressor, Expander, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Power Saving

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2 Economic Analysis of a Carbon Abatement Technology

Authors: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pericles Pilidis Pagone Emmanuele, Agbadede Roupa, Allison Isaiah


Climate change represents one of the single most challenging problems facing the world today. According to the National Oceanic and Administrative Association, Atmospheric temperature rose almost 25% since 1958, Artic sea ice has shrunk 40% since 1959 and global sea levels have risen more than 5.5cm since 1990. Power plants are the major culprits of GHG emission to the atmosphere. Several technologies have been proposed to reduce the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere from power plant, one of which is the less researched Advanced zero-emission power plant. The advanced zero emission power plants make use of mixed conductive membrane (MCM) reactor also known as oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) for oxygen transfer. The MCM employs membrane separation process. The membrane separation process was first introduced in 1899 when Walter Hermann Nernst investigated electric current between metals and solutions. He found that when a dense ceramic is heated, the current of oxygen molecules move through it. In the bid to curb the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere, the membrane separation process was applied to the field of power engineering in the low carbon cycle known as the Advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP cycle). The AZEP cycle was originally invented by Norsk Hydro, Norway and ABB Alstom power (now known as Demag Delaval Industrial turbomachinery AB), Sweden. The AZEP drew a lot of attention because its ability to capture ~100% CO2 and also boasts of about 30-50% cost reduction compared to other carbon abatement technologies, the penalty in efficiency is also not as much as its counterparts and crowns it with almost zero NOx emissions due to very low nitrogen concentrations in the working fluid. The advanced zero emission power plants differ from a conventional gas turbine in the sense that its combustor is substituted with the mixed conductive membrane (MCM-reactor). The MCM-reactor is made up of the combustor, low-temperature heat exchanger LTHX (referred to by some authors as air preheater the mixed conductive membrane responsible for oxygen transfer and the high-temperature heat exchanger and in some layouts, the bleed gas heat exchanger. Air is taken in by the compressor and compressed to a temperature of about 723 Kelvin and pressure of 2 Mega-Pascals. The membrane area needed for oxygen transfer is reduced by increasing the temperature of 90% of the air using the LTHX; the temperature is also increased to facilitate oxygen transfer through the membrane. The air stream enters the LTHX through the transition duct leading to inlet of the LTHX. The temperature of the air stream is then increased to about 1150 K depending on the design point specification of the plant and the efficiency of the heat exchanging system. The amount of oxygen transported through the membrane is directly proportional to the temperature of air going through the membrane. The AZEP cycle was developed using the Fortran software and economic analysis was conducted using excel and Matlab followed by optimization case study. The Simple bleed gas heat exchange layout (100 % CO2 capture), Bleed gas heat exchanger layout with flue gas turbine (100 % CO2 capture), Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout)–AZEP 85% (85% CO2 capture) and Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) with flue gas turbine–AZEP 85% (85% CO2 capture). This paper discusses monte carlo risk analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle.

Keywords: gas turbine, global warming, green house gas, fossil fuel power plants

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1 Workflow Based Inspection of Geometrical Adaptability from 3D CAD Models Considering Production Requirements

Authors: Tobias Huwer, Thomas Bobek, Gunter Spöcker


Driving forces for enhancements in production are trends like digitalization and individualized production. Currently, such developments are restricted to assembly parts. Thus, complex freeform surfaces are not addressed in this context. The need for efficient use of resources and near-net-shape production will require individualized production of complex shaped workpieces. Due to variations between nominal model and actual geometry, this can lead to changes in operations in Computer-aided process planning (CAPP) to make CAPP manageable for an adaptive serial production. In this context, 3D CAD data can be a key to realizing that objective. Along with developments in the geometrical adaptation, a preceding inspection method based on CAD data is required to support the process planner by finding objective criteria to make decisions about the adaptive manufacturability of workpieces. Nowadays, this kind of decisions is depending on the experience-based knowledge of humans (e.g. process planners) and results in subjective decisions – leading to a variability of workpiece quality and potential failure in production. In this paper, we present an automatic part inspection method, based on design and measurement data, which evaluates actual geometries of single workpiece preforms. The aim is to automatically determine the suitability of the current shape for further machining, and to provide a basis for an objective decision about subsequent adaptive manufacturability. The proposed method is realized by a workflow-based approach, keeping in mind the requirements of industrial applications. Workflows are a well-known design method of standardized processes. Especially in applications like aerospace industry standardization and certification of processes are an important aspect. Function blocks, providing a standardized, event-driven abstraction to algorithms and data exchange, will be used for modeling and execution of inspection workflows. Each analysis step of the inspection, such as positioning of measurement data or checking of geometrical criteria, will be carried out by function blocks. One advantage of this approach is its flexibility to design workflows and to adapt algorithms specific to the application domain. In general, within the specified tolerance range it will be checked if a geometrical adaption is possible. The development of particular function blocks is predicated on workpiece specific information e.g. design data. Furthermore, for different product lifecycle phases, appropriate logics and decision criteria have to be considered. For example, tolerances for geometric deviations are different in type and size for new-part production compared to repair processes. In addition to function blocks, appropriate referencing systems are important. They need to support exact determination of position and orientation of the actual geometries to provide a basis for precise analysis. The presented approach provides an inspection methodology for adaptive and part-individual process chains. The analysis of each workpiece results in an inspection protocol and an objective decision about further manufacturability. A representative application domain is the product lifecycle of turbine blades containing a new-part production and a maintenance process. In both cases, a geometrical adaptation is required to calculate individual production data. In contrast to existing approaches, the proposed initial inspection method provides information to decide between different potential adaptive machining processes.

Keywords: adaptive, CAx, function blocks, turbomachinery

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