Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2766

Search results for: one fluid formulation

2766 Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction Using Two-Way Method

Authors: Samira Laidaoui, Mohammed Djermane, Nazihe Terfaya


The fluid-structure coupling is a natural phenomenon which reflects the effects of two continuums: fluid and structure of different types in the reciprocal action on each other, involving knowledge of elasticity and fluid mechanics. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. In this paper, a problem of fluid structure interaction is investigated with two-way coupling method. The formulation Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) was used, by considering a dynamic grid, where the solid is described by a Lagrangian formulation and the fluid by a Eulerian formulation. The simulation was made on the ANSYS software.

Keywords: ALE, coupling, FEM, fluid-structure, interaction, one-way method, two-way method

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
2765 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Physical Mass Transfer of CO₂ by N₂O Analogy Using One Fluid Formulation in OpenFOAM

Authors: Phanindra Prasad Thummala, Umran Tezcan Un, Ahmet Ozan Celik


Removal of CO₂ by MEA (monoethanolamine) in structured packing columns depends highly on the gas-liquid interfacial area and film thickness (liquid load). CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is used to find the interfacial area, film thickness and their impact on mass transfer in gas-liquid flow effectively in any column geometry. In general modeling approaches used in CFD derive mass transfer parameters from standard correlations based on penetration or surface renewal theories. In order to avoid the effect of assumptions involved in deriving the correlations and model the mass transfer based solely on fluid properties, state of art approaches like one fluid formulation is useful. In this work, the one fluid formulation was implemented and evaluated for modeling the physical mass transfer of CO₂ by N₂O analogy in OpenFOAM CFD software. N₂O analogy avoids the effect of chemical reactions on absorption and allows studying the amount of CO₂ physical mass transfer possible in a given geometry. The computational domain in the current study was a flat plate with gas and liquid flowing in the countercurrent direction. The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate, the concentration of MEA and angle of inclination on the physical mass transfer is studied in detail. Liquid side mass transfer coefficients obtained by simulations are compared to the correlations available in the literature and it was found that the one fluid formulation was effectively capturing the effects of interface surface instabilities on mass transfer coefficient with higher accuracy. The high mesh refinement near the interface region was found as a limiting reason for utilizing this approach on large-scale simulations. Overall, the one fluid formulation is found more promising for CFD studies involving the CO₂ mass transfer.

Keywords: one fluid formulation, CO₂ absorption, liquid mass transfer coefficient, OpenFOAM, N₂O analogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
2764 Efficient Monolithic FEM for Compressible Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

Authors: Santhosh A. K.


This work presents an efficient monolithic finite element strategy for solving thermo-fluid-structure interaction problems involving compressible fluids and linear-elastic structure. This formulation uses displacement variables for structure and velocity variables for the fluid, with no additional variables required to ensure traction, velocity, temperature, and heat flux continuity at the fluid-structure interface. Rate of convergence in each time step is quadratic, which is achieved in this formulation by deriving an exact tangent stiffness matrix. The robustness and good performance of the method is ascertained by applying the proposed strategy on a wide spectrum of problems taken from the literature pertaining to steady, transient, two dimensional, axisymmetric, and three dimensional fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer. It is shown that the current formulation gives excellent results on all the case studies conducted, which includes problems involving compressibility effects as well as problems where fluid can be treated as incompressible.

Keywords: linear thermoelasticity, compressible flow, conjugate heat transfer, monolithic FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2763 50/50 Oil-Water Ratio Invert Emulsion Drilling Mud Using Vegetable Oil as Continuous Phase

Authors: P. C. Ihenacho, M. Burby, G. G. Nasr, G. C. Enyi


Formulation of a low oil-water ratio drilling mud with vegetable oil continuous phase without adversely affecting the mud rheology and stability has been a major challenge. A low oil-water ratio is beneficial in producing low fluid loss which is essential for wellbore stability. This study examined the possibility of 50/50 oil-water ratio invert emulsion drilling mud using a vegetable oil continuous phase. Jatropha oil was used as continuous phase. 12 ml of egg yolk which was separated from the albumen was added as the primary emulsifier additive. The rheological, stability and filtration properties were examined. The plastic viscosity and yield point were found to be 36cp and 17 Ib/100 ft2 respectively. The electrical stability at 48.9ºC was 353v and the 30 minutes fluid loss was 6ml. The results compared favourably with a similar formulation using 70/30 oil - water ratio giving plastic viscosity of 31cp, yield point of 17 Ib/100 ft2, electrical stability value of 480v and 12ml for the 30 minutes fluid loss. This study indicates that with a good mud composition using guided empiricism, 50/50 oil-water ratio invert emulsion drilling mud is feasible with a vegetable oil continuous phase. The choice of egg yolk as emulsifier additive is for compatibility with the vegetable oil and environmental concern. The high water content with no fluid loss additive will also minimise the cost of mud formulation.

Keywords: environmental compatibility, low cost of mud formulation, low fluid loss, wellbore stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
2762 Transient Response of Elastic Structures Subjected to a Fluid Medium

Authors: Helnaz Soltani, J. N. Reddy


Presence of fluid medium interacting with a structure can lead to failure of the structure. Since developing efficient computational model for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems has broader impact to realistic problems encountered in aerospace industry, ship industry, oil and gas industry, and so on, one can find an increasing need to find a method in order to investigate the effect of fluid domain on structural response. A coupled finite element formulation of problems involving FSI issue is an accurate method to predict the response of structures in contact with a fluid medium. This study proposes a finite element approach in order to study the transient response of the structures interacting with a fluid medium. Since beam and plate are considered to be the fundamental elements of almost any structure, the developed method is applied to beams and plates benchmark problems in order to demonstrate its efficiency. The formulation is a combination of the various structure theories and the solid-fluid interface boundary condition, which is used to represent the interaction between the solid and fluid regimes. Here, three different beam theories as well as three different plate theories are considered to model the solid medium, and the Navier-Stokes equation is used as the theoretical equation governed the fluid domain. For each theory, a coupled set of equations is derived where the element matrices of both regimes are calculated by Gaussian quadrature integration. The main feature of the proposed methodology is to model the fluid domain as an added mass; the external distributed force due to the presence of the fluid. We validate the accuracy of such formulation by means of some numerical examples. Since the formulation presented in this study covers several theories in literature, the applicability of our proposed approach is independent of any structure geometry. The effect of varying parameters such as structure thickness ratio, fluid density and immersion depth, are studied using numerical simulations. The results indicate that maximum vertical deflection of the structure is affected considerably in the presence of a fluid medium.

Keywords: beam and plate, finite element analysis, fluid-structure interaction, transient response

Procedia PDF Downloads 498
2761 Fluid Structure Interaction of Flow and Heat Transfer around a Microcantilever

Authors: Khalil Khanafer


This study emphasizes on analyzing the effect of flow conditions and the geometric variation of the microcantilever’s bluff body on the microcantilever detection capabilities within a fluidic device using a finite element fluid-structure interaction model. Such parameters include inlet velocity, flow direction, and height of the microcantilever’s supporting system within the fluidic cell. The transport equations are solved using a finite element formulation based on the Galerkin method of weighted residuals. For a flexible microcantilever, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis is utilized and the fluid domain is described by an Arbitrary-Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation that is fully coupled to the structure domain. The results of this study showed a profound effect on the magnitude and direction of the inlet velocity and the height of the bluff body on the deflection of the microcantilever. The vibration characteristics were also investigated in this study. This work paves the road for researchers to design efficient microcantilevers that display least errors in the measurements.

Keywords: fluidic cell, FSI, microcantilever, flow direction

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2760 Acceleration of Lagrangian and Eulerian Flow Solvers via Graphics Processing Units

Authors: Pooya Niksiar, Ali Ashrafizadeh, Mehrzad Shams, Amir Hossein Madani


There are many computationally demanding applications in science and engineering which need efficient algorithms implemented on high performance computers. Recently, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have drawn much attention as compared to the traditional CPU-based hardware and have opened up new improvement venues in scientific computing. One particular application area is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), in which mature CPU-based codes need to be converted to GPU-based algorithms to take advantage of this new technology. In this paper, numerical solutions of two classes of discrete fluid flow models via both CPU and GPU are discussed and compared. Test problems include an Eulerian model of a two-dimensional incompressible laminar flow case and a Lagrangian model of a two phase flow field. The CUDA programming standard is used to employ an NVIDIA GPU with 480 cores and a C++ serial code is run on a single core Intel quad-core CPU. Up to two orders of magnitude speed up is observed on GPU for a certain range of grid resolution or particle numbers. As expected, Lagrangian formulation is better suited for parallel computations on GPU although Eulerian formulation represents significant speed up too.

Keywords: CFD, Eulerian formulation, graphics processing units, Lagrangian formulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
2759 Finite Element Approximation of the Heat Equation under Axisymmetry Assumption

Authors: Raphael Zanella


This works deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric problems. The weak formulation of the heat equation under the axisymmetry assumption is established for continuous finite elements. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with implicit march-in-time. The code is verified by space and time convergence tests using a manufactured solution. The solving of an example problem with an axisymmetric formulation is compared to that with a full-3D formulation. Both formulations lead to the same result, but the code based on the axisymmetric formulation is much faster due to the lower number of degrees of freedom. This confirms the correctness of our approach and the interest in using an axisymmetric formulation when it is possible.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, continuous finite elements, heat equation, weak formulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2758 The Influence of Viscosifier Concentration on Rheological Properties of Invert Emulsion Mud

Authors: Suzan Ibrahim


Oil-based muds are the most regularly used rotary drilling methods in the oil and gas industry. However, they have a negative impact on the environment, which leads to restrictions of their application in many countries of the world. Consequently, looking for new eco-friendly alternative formulations of oil-based drilling fluids for the exploration of troublesome formations. As one of the developments of Novel formulation of environmentally friendly drilling fluids and investigation of the formulation for jatropha oil-based drilling fluid samples at different concentrations of viscosifiers such as low viscosity polyanionic cellulose (PAC- LV), high viscosity polyanionic cellulose (PAC-V) and local Egyptian bentonite. The oil-water ratio was taken as 70:30, which is beneficial in producing a low fluid loss. 15 drilling fluid samples were formulated different concentrations of bentonite, PAC- LV and PAC-V individually and their mud density, rheological properties, electrical stability and filtration loss properties were determined. The rheological performance showed at higher concentrations of viscosifier, the trend of viscosity increment of PAC performed in a similar way to bentonite. The best result of electrical stability by using the lowest concentration of viscosifier was achieved with PAC-V. The lowest fluid loss volumes were obtained by using the highest concentrations (4 g) of viscosifiers. Mud cake thickness of samples increased by using viscosifiers; however, a lower range was achieved compared to API specification. From the overall experiment, it can be concluded that as the concentrations of viscosifier increase, the viscosity trend increase in a similar way to both PAC-V and bentonite. But we must note that the PAC-V is a more environmentally friendly additive and a renewable resource, cheaper than bentonite and improves properties of eco-friendly OBMs well. It is a preferable choice for oil-based drilling fluids.

Keywords: invert emulsion mud, oil-based mud, rheological properties, viscosifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
2757 The Exact Specification for Consumption of Blood-Pressure Regulating Drugs with a Numerical Model of Pulsatile Micropolar Fluid Flow in Elastic Vessel

Authors: Soroush Maddah, Houra Asgarian, Mahdi Navidbakhsh


In the present paper, the problem of pulsatile micropolar blood flow through an elastic artery has been studied. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation for the governing equations has been produced to model the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and has been solved numerically using finite difference scheme by exploiting a mesh generation technique which leads to a uniformly spaced grid in the computational plane. Effect of the variations of cardiac output and wall artery module of elasticity on blood pressure with blood-pressure regulating drugs like Atenolol has been determined. Also, a numerical model has been produced to define precisely the effects of various dosages of a drug on blood flow in arteries without the numerous experiments that have many mistakes and expenses.

Keywords: arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, Atenolol, fluid structure interaction, micropolar fluid, pulsatile blood flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
2756 An Eulerian Method for Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation Applied to Wave Damping by Elastic Structures

Authors: Julien Deborde, Thomas Milcent, Stéphane Glockner, Pierre Lubin


A fully Eulerian method is developed to solve the problem of fluid-elastic structure interactions based on a 1-fluid method. The interface between the fluid and the elastic structure is captured by a level set function, advected by the fluid velocity and solved with a WENO 5 scheme. The elastic deformations are computed in an Eulerian framework thanks to the backward characteristics. We use the Neo Hookean or Mooney Rivlin hyperelastic models and the elastic forces are incorporated as a source term in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The velocity/pressure coupling is solved with a pressure-correction method and the equations are discretized by finite volume schemes on a Cartesian grid. The main difficulty resides in that large deformations in the fluid cause numerical instabilities. In order to avoid these problems, we use a re-initialization process for the level set and linear extrapolation of the backward characteristics. First, we verify and validate our approach on several test cases, including the benchmark of FSI proposed by Turek. Next, we apply this method to study the wave damping phenomenon which is a mean to reduce the waves impact on the coastline. So far, to our knowledge, only simulations with rigid or one dimensional elastic structure has been studied in the literature. We propose to place elastic structures on the seabed and we present results where 50 % of waves energy is absorbed.

Keywords: damping wave, Eulerian formulation, finite volume, fluid structure interaction, hyperelastic material

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2755 Validation of a Fluid-Structure Interaction Model of an Aortic Dissection versus a Bench Top Model

Authors: K. Khanafer


The aim of this investigation was to validate the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of type B aortic dissection with our experimental results from a bench-top-model. Another objective was to study the relationship between the size of a septectomy that increases the outflow of the false lumen and its effect on the values of the differential of pressure between true lumen and false lumen. FSI analysis based on Galerkin’s formulation was used in this investigation to study flow pattern and hemodynamics within a flexible type B aortic dissection model using boundary conditions from our experimental data. The numerical results of our model were verified against the experimental data for various tear size and location. Thus, CFD tools have a potential role in evaluating different scenarios and aortic dissection configurations.

Keywords: aortic dissection, fluid-structure interaction, in vitro model, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2754 Evaluation of the Nutritional Potential of a Developed Spice Formulation for nah poh (An Emulsion-Based Gravy): Physicochemical and Techno-Functional Characterisations

Authors: Djiazet Stève, Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine, Ravi Pullakhandam, Bethala L. A. Prabhavathi Devi, Tchiegang Clergé, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty


The nutritional potential of a developed spice formulation for nah poh was evaluated. It was found that when spices were used for the formulation for nah poh, the concentration of some nutrients is diluted while that of some of them increases. The proportion of unsaturated fats was estimated to be 76.2% of the total fat content while the chemical score varied between 31 to 39%. The contents of some essential minerals of nutritional interest in mg are as follows for 100g of spice: 2372.474 ± 0.007 for potassium, 16.447 ± 0.010 for iron, 4.772 ± 0.005 for zinc, 0.537 ± 0.001 for cupper, 0.138 ± 0.005 for selenium, and 112.954 ± 0.003 for manganese. This study shows that the consumption of these spices in the form of formulation significantly contributes to meet the mineral requirements of the populations whose food habits regularly require these spices.

Keywords: spice formulation, characterisation, nutritional potential, nah poh, techno functional properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2753 Thermal Analysis of Automobile Radiator Using Nanofluids

Authors: S. Sumanth, Babu Rao Ponangi, K. N. Seetharamu


As the technology is emerging day by day, there is a need for some better methodology which will enhance the performance of radiator. Nanofluid is the one area which has promised the enhancement of the radiator performance. Currently, nanofluid has got a well effective solution for enhancing the performance of the automobile radiators. Suspending the nano sized particle in the base fluid, which has got better thermal conductivity value when compared to a base fluid, is preferably considered for nanofluid. In the current work, at first mathematical formulation has been carried out, which will govern the performance of the radiator. Current work is justified by plotting the graph for different parameters. Current work justifies the enhancement of radiator performance using nanofluid.

Keywords: nanofluid, radiator performance, graphene, gamma aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3), titanium dioxide (TiO2)

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
2752 Multiobjective Optimization of a Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Regression Method

Authors: J. Satya Eswari, Ch. Venkateswarlu


The formulation of a commercial pharmaceutical product involves several composition factors and response characteristics. When the formulation requires to satisfy multiple response characteristics which are conflicting, an optimal solution requires the need for an efficient multiobjective optimization technique. In this work, a regression is combined with a non-dominated sorting differential evolution (NSDE) involving Naïve & Slow and ε constraint techniques to derive different multiobjective optimization strategies, which are then evaluated by means of a trapidil pharmaceutical formulation. The analysis of the results show the effectiveness of the strategy that combines the regression model and NSDE with the integration of both Naïve & Slow and ε constraint techniques for Pareto optimization of trapidil formulation. With this strategy, the optimal formulation at pH=6.8 is obtained with the decision variables of micro crystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and compression pressure. The corresponding response characteristics of rate constant and release order are also noted down. The comparison of these results with the experimental data and with those of other multiple regression model based multiobjective evolutionary optimization strategies signify the better performance for optimal trapidil formulation.

Keywords: pharmaceutical formulation, multiple regression model, response surface method, radial basis function network, differential evolution, multiobjective optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
2751 Design, Development and Evaluation of Ketoconazole Loaded Nanosponges in Hydrogel for the Management of Topical Fungal Infections

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani


This work aims at investigating the use of β-Cyclodextrin as a cross linker, in an attempt to formulate nanosponges containing ketoconazole. The nanosponges were prepared by cross-linking method. The excipients used in this study did not alter the physicochemical properties of a drug as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. Studies on various formulation variables revealed that all the variables are inter-related with the formulation. The ideal batch among the formulation was selected based on the higher entrapment efficiency and drug loading. The in vitro release studies of ketoconazole nanosponges in hydrogel exhibited a sustained release over a period of 24 hours. Mathematical analysis of drug release from the formulation followed non-Fickian diffusion obeying first order kinetics. The anti-fungal activity of the formulation exhibited better zone of inhibition when compared to pure drug (ketoconazole) against Tinea corporis.

Keywords: nanosponges, beta-cyclodextrin, ketoconazole, tinea corporis

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2750 Development of Agomelatine Loaded Proliposomal Powders for Improved Intestinal Permeation: Effect of Surface Charge

Authors: Rajasekhar Reddy Poonuru, Anusha Parnem


Purpose: To formulate proliposome powder of agomelatine, an antipsychotic drug, and to evaluate physicochemical, in vitro characters and effect of surface charge on ex vivo intestinal permeation. Methods: Film deposition technique was employed to develop proliposomal powders of agomelatin with varying molar ratios of lipid Hydro Soy PC L-α-phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and cholesterol with fixed sum of drug. With the aim to derive free flowing and stable proliposome powder, fluid retention potential of various carriers was examined. Liposome formation and number of vesicles formed for per mm3 up on hydration, vesicle size, and entrapment efficiency was assessed to deduce an optimized formulation. Sodium cholate added to optimized formulation to induce surface charge on formed vesicles. Solid-state characterization (FTIR, DSC, and XRD) was performed with the intention to assess native crystalline and chemical behavior of drug. The in vitro dissolution test of optimized formulation along with pure drug was evaluated to estimate dissolution efficiency (DE) and relative dissolution rate (RDR). Effective permeability co-efficient (Peff(rat)) in rat and enhancement ratio (ER) of drug from formulation and pure drug dispersion were calculated from ex vivo permeation studies in rat ileum. Results: Proliposomal powder formulated with equimolar ratio of HSPC and cholesterol ensued in higher no. of vesicles (3.95) with 90% drug entrapment up on hydration. Neusilin UFL2 was elected as carrier because of its high fluid retention potential (4.5) and good flow properties. Proliposome powder exhibited augmentation in DE (60.3 ±3.34) and RDR (21.2±01.02) of agomelation over pure drug. Solid state characterization studies demonstrated the transformation of native crystalline form of drug to amorphous and/or molecular state, which was in correlation with results obtained from in vitro dissolution test. The elevated Peff(rat) of 46.5×10-4 cm/sec and ER of 2.65 of drug from charge induced proliposome formulation with respect to pure drug dispersion was assessed from ex vivo intestinal permeation studies executed in ileum of wistar rats. Conclusion: Improved physicochemical characters and ex vivo intestinal permeation of drug from charge induced proliposome powder with Neusilin UFL2 unravels the potentiality of this system in enhancing oral delivery of agomelatin.

Keywords: agomelatin, proliposome, sodium cholate, neusilin

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2749 Herschel-Bulkley Fluid Flow through Narrow Tubes

Authors: Santhosh Nallapu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya


A two-fluid model of Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow through tubes of small diameters is studied. It is assumed that the core region consists of Herschel-Bulkley fluid and Newtonian fluid in the peripheral region. The analytical solutions for velocity, flow flux, effective viscosity, core hematocrit and mean hematocrit have been derived and the effects of various relevant parameters on these flow variables have been studied. It has been observed that the effective viscosity and mean hematocrit increase with yield stress, power-law index, hematocrit and tube radius. Further, the core hematocrit decreases with hematocrit and tube radius.

Keywords: two-layered model, non-Newtonian fluid, hematocrit, Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect, plug flow

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2748 Soret-Driven Convection in a Binary Fluid with Coriolis Force

Authors: N. H. Z. Abidin, N. F. M. Mokhtar, S. S. A. Gani


The influence of diffusion of the thermal or known as Soret effect in a heated Binary fluid model with Coriolis force is investigated theoretically. The linear stability analysis is used, and the eigenvalue is obtained using the Galerkin method. The impact of the Soret and Coriolis force on the onset of stationary convection in a system is analysed with respect to various Binary fluid parameters and presented graphically. It is found that an increase of the Soret values, destabilize the Binary fluid layer system. However, elevating the values of the Coriolis force helps to lag the onset of convection in a system.

Keywords: Benard convection, binary fluid, Coriolis, Soret

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2747 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer


This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
2746 Stochastic Programming and C-Somga: Animal Ration Formulation

Authors: Pratiksha Saxena, Dipti Singh, Neha Khanna


A self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm(C-SOMGA) is developed for animal diet formulation. This paper presents animal diet formulation using stochastic and genetic algorithm. Tri-objective models for cost minimization and shelf life maximization are developed. These objectives are achieved by combination of stochastic programming and C-SOMGA. Stochastic programming is used to introduce nutrient variability for animal diet. Self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm provides exact and quick solution and presents an innovative approach towards successful application of soft computing technique in the area of animal diet formulation.

Keywords: animal feed ration, feed formulation, linear programming, stochastic programming, self-migrating genetic algorithm, C-SOMGA technique, shelf life maximization, cost minimization, nutrient maximization

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
2745 A Monolithic Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite Element Strategy for Partly Submerged Solid in Incompressible Fluid with Mortar Method for Modeling the Contact Surface

Authors: Suman Dutta, Manish Agrawal, C. S. Jog


Accurate computation of hydrodynamic forces on floating structures and their deformation finds application in the ocean and naval engineering and wave energy harvesting. This manuscript presents a monolithic, finite element strategy for fluid-structure interaction involving hyper-elastic solids partly submerged in an incompressible fluid. A velocity-based Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation has been used for the fluid and a displacement-based Lagrangian approach has been used for the solid. The flexibility of the ALE technique permits us to treat the free surface of the fluid as a Lagrangian entity. At the interface, the continuity of displacement, velocity and traction are enforced using the mortar method. In the mortar method, the constraints are enforced in a weak sense using the Lagrange multiplier method. In the literature, the mortar method has been shown to be robust in solving various contact mechanics problems. The time-stepping strategy used in this work reduces to the generalized trapezoidal rule in the Eulerian setting. In the Lagrangian limit, in the absence of external load, the algorithm conserves the linear and angular momentum and the total energy of the system. The use of monolithic coupling with an energy-conserving time-stepping strategy gives an unconditionally stable algorithm and allows the user to take large time steps. All the governing equations and boundary conditions have been mapped to the reference configuration. The use of the exact tangent stiffness matrix ensures that the algorithm converges quadratically within each time step. The robustness and good performance of the proposed method are demonstrated by solving benchmark problems from the literature.

Keywords: ALE, floating body, fluid-structure interaction, monolithic, mortar method

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2744 MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe

Authors: Ziya Uddin


This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical investigation of magneto-hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a nano fluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling of electronic components and different type of machines. To incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nano thermal layer formed around the nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nano particles etc., appropriate models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of nano fluids. To model the rotation of nano particles inside the base fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz. nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and wedge angle etc. It is found that the wedge angle, presence of magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc. have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the considered configuration.

Keywords: nanofluids, wedge shaped wick, heat pipe, numerical modeling, particle swarm optimization, nanofluid applications, Heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
2743 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin


In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2742 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study

Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali


In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.

Keywords: Navier’s condition, Newtonian fluid model, chemical reaction, heat source/sink

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2741 Spillage Prediction Using Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation with Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique

Authors: Ravi Soni, Irfan Pathan, Manish Pande


The current product development process needs simultaneous consideration of different physics. The performance of the product needs to be considered under both structural and fluid loads. Examples include ducts and valves where structural behavior affects fluid motion and vice versa. Simulation of fluid-structure interaction involves modeling interaction between moving components and the fluid flow. In these scenarios, it is difficult to calculate the damping provided by fluid flow because of dynamic motions of components and the transient nature of the flow. Abaqus Explicit offers general capabilities for modeling fluid-structure interaction with the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) method. The Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian technique has been used to simulate fluid spillage through fuel valves during dynamic closure events. The technique to simulate pressure drops across Eulerian domains has been developed using stagnation pressure. Also, the fluid flow is calculated considering material flow through elements at the outlet section of the valves. The methodology has been verified on Eaton products and shows a good correlation with the test results.

Keywords: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique, fluid structure interaction, spillage prediction, stagnation pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2740 Numerical Investigation of Pressure and Velocity Field Contours of Dynamics of Drop Formation

Authors: Pardeep Bishnoi, Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha


This article represents the numerical investigation of the pressure and velocity field variation of the dynamics of pendant drop formation through a capillary tube. Numerical simulations are executed using volume of fluid (VOF) method in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this problem, Non Newtonian fluid is considered as dispersed fluid whereas air is considered as a continuous fluid. Pressure contours at various time steps expose that pressure varies nearly hydrostatically at each step of the dynamics of drop formation. A result also shows the pressure variation of the liquid droplet during free fall in the computational domain. The evacuation of the fluid from the necking region is also shown by the contour of the velocity field. The role of surface tension in the Pressure contour of the dynamics of drop formation is also studied.

Keywords: pressure contour, surface tension, volume of fluid, velocity field

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
2739 An Evaluation on the Methodology of Manufacturing High Performance Organophilic Clay at the Most Efficient and Cost Effective Process

Authors: Siti Nur Izati Azmi, Zatil Afifah Omar, Kathi Swaran, Navin Kumar


Organophilic Clays, also known as Organoclays, is used as a viscosifier in Oil based Drilling fluids. Most often, Organophilic clay are produced from modified Sodium and Calcium based Bentonite. Many studies and data show that Organophilic Clay using Hectorite based clays provide the best yield and good fluid loss properties in an oil-based drilling fluid at a higher cost. In terms of the manufacturing process, the two common methods of manufacturing organophilic clays are a Wet Process and a Dry Process. Wet process is known to produce better performance product at a higher cost while Dry Process shorten the production time. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the various formulation of an organophilic clay and its performance vs. the cost, as well as to determine the most efficient and cost-effective method of manufacturing organophilic clays.

Keywords: organophilic clay, viscosifier, wet process, dry process

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2738 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Comparison of Flow through Mechanical Heart Valve Using Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid

Authors: D. Šedivý, S. Fialová


The main purpose of this study is to show differences between the numerical solution of the flow through the artificial heart valve using Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. The simulation was carried out by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package based on finite-volume method. An aortic bileaflet heart valve (Sorin Bicarbon) was used as a pattern for model of real heart valve replacement. Computed tomography (CT) was used to gain the accurate parameters of the valve. Data from CT were transferred in the commercial 3D designer, where the model for CFD was made. Carreau rheology model was applied as non-Newtonian fluid. Physiological data of cardiac cycle were used as boundary conditions. Outputs were taken the leaflets excursion from opening to closure and the fluid dynamics through the valve. This study also includes experimental measurement of pressure fields in ambience of valve for verification numerical outputs. Results put in evidence a favorable comparison between the computational solutions of flow through the mechanical heart valve using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.

Keywords: computational modeling, dynamic mesh, mechanical heart valve, non-Newtonian fluid

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2737 Formulation Development and Evaluation Chlorpheniramine Maleate Containing Nanoparticles Loaded Thermo Sensitive in situ Gel for Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

Authors: Vipin Saini, Manish Kumar, Shailendra Bhatt, A. Pandurangan


The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermo sensitive gel containing Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of allergic rhinitis. Chitosan based nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation method followed by the addition of developed NPs within the Poloxamer 407 and carbopol 934P based mucoadhesive thermo-reversible gel. Developed formulations were evaluated for Particle size, PDI, % entrapment efficiency and % cumulative drug permeation. NP3 formulation was found to be optimized on the basis of minimum particle size (143.9 nm), maximum entrapment efficiency (80.10±0.414 %) and highest drug permeation (90.92±0.531 %). The optimized formulation NP3 was then formulated into thermo reversible in situ gel. This intensifies the contact between nasal mucosa and the drug, increases and facilitates the drug absorption which results in increased bioavailability. G4 formulation was selected as the optimize on the basis of gelation ability and mucoadhesive strength. Histology was carried out to examine the damage caused by the optimized G4 formulation. Results revealed no visual signs of tissue damage thus indicated safe nasal delivery of nanoparticulate in situ gel formulation G4. Thus, intranasal CPM NP-loaded in situ gel was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

Keywords: chitosan, nanoparticles, in situ gel, chlorpheniramine maleate, poloxamer 407

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