Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1316

Search results for: musical code

1316 The Investigation of Psychological Motives of Creative Abilities in the Omani Musical Intelligence

Authors: Mohammed Talib Alkiyumi

Abstract:

The Sultanate of Oman is characterized by a huge musical heritage that remains mostly preserved. 142 different traditional musical genres and styles (funun) have been registered in the Sultanate. This large number is a unique phenomenon that is worthy of attention and study. These genres and styles are different from others in their origins, rhythms, melodies, poetry, dance movements, etc. Certainly, Oman is exposed to other cultures and there is a variety of ethnicities in the Sultanate; however, this musical diversity is mostly an Omani product. This paper investigates the psychological motives behind Omani musical creativity. This qualitative study is based on relevant documents, as well as an analysis of Omani performance in those genres through documentary films and direct observations. Musical genres are performed in social events such as weddings and celebrations; however, research has shown psychological motives that motivated Omani people to create these various genres, such as provocation of enthusiasm, meditation, religious motivations, poetic competition, and emotional motivation. For each motive, musical genres have been presented.

Keywords: traditional musical, creativity, musical intelligence, Sultanate of Oman

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1315 Attentional Differences in Musical Recall and Improvisation

Authors: Krzysztof T. Piotrowski

Abstract:

The main goal of the research was to investigate differences in attention in two kinds of musical performance - recall and improvisation. Musical recall is a sample of convergent production that requires intensively focused attention. Inversely, musical improvisation is a divergent task and probably requires a different way of attentional control. The study was designed in dual task paradigm. Participants were to remember a simple melody and then recall or improvise, simultaneously performing the spatial attentional test on computer screen. The result shows that improvising participants find spatial goals in more disperse way. The conclusion is that musical improvisation requires extensification of attention to occur.

Keywords: attention, creativity, divergent task, musical improvisation

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1314 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

Abstract:

Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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1313 The Subcategories of Folklore Dance for Children as Didactic Games for Developing Musical Ability in the Preschool Period

Authors: Eudjen Cinc, Mircea Maran, Jasmina Stolic

Abstract:

Viewed through the prism of folkloristics – ethnomusicology, the majority of didactic musical games belong to the category of folklore creative work of children, such games can be extremely useful for the development of musical ability in the preschool age. The paper gives a number of examples from the Romanian children folklore which were used in practice.

Keywords: musical games, children folklore, rhythmical system, melodica

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1312 Spatial Audio Player Using Musical Genre Classification

Authors: Jun-Yong Lee, Hyoung-Gook Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a smart music player that combines the musical genre classification and the spatial audio processing. The musical genre is classified based on content analysis of the musical segment detected from the audio stream. In parallel with the classification, the spatial audio quality is achieved by adding an artificial reverberation in a virtual acoustic space to the input mono sound. Thereafter, the spatial sound is boosted with the given frequency gains based on the musical genre when played back. Experiments measured the accuracy of detecting the musical segment from the audio stream and its musical genre classification. A listening test was performed based on the virtual acoustic space based spatial audio processing.

Keywords: automatic equalization, genre classification, music segment detection, spatial audio processing

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1311 A Rapid Code Acquisition Scheme in OOC-Based CDMA Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We propose a code acquisition scheme called improved multiple-shift (IMS) for optical code division multiple access systems, where the optical orthogonal code is used instead of the pseudo noise code. Although the IMS algorithm has a similar process to that of the conventional MS algorithm, it has a better code acquisition performance than the conventional MS algorithm. We analyze the code acquisition performance of the IMS algorithm and compare the code acquisition performances of the MS and the IMS algorithms in single-user and multi-user environments.

Keywords: code acquisition, optical CDMA, optical orthogonal code, serial algorithm

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1310 Musical Composition by Computer with Inspiration from Files of Different Media Types

Authors: Cassandra Pratt Romero, Andres Gomez de Silva Garza

Abstract:

This paper describes a computational system designed to imitate human inspiration during musical composition. The system is called MIS (Musical Inspiration Simulator). The MIS system is inspired by media to which human beings are exposed daily (visual, textual, or auditory) to create new musical compositions based on the emotions detected in said media. After building the system we carried out a series of evaluations with volunteer users who used MIS to compose music based on images, texts, and audio files. The volunteers were asked to judge the harmoniousness and innovation in the system's compositions. An analysis of the results points to the difficulty of computational analysis of the characteristics of the media to which we are exposed daily, as human emotions have a subjective character. This observation will direct future improvements in the system.

Keywords: human inspiration, musical composition, musical composition by computer, theory of sensation and human perception

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1309 A Possible Determinant of Musical Preference in Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Peter S. Kim

Abstract:

The increasing availability of music facilitated by new technology and open sourcing has eliminated many traditional limiting factors in musical taste, creating a culture of choice. This study tested 191 international subjects, mostly young adults more decisively shaped by emerging technologies like Facebook, the platform for the study. Using an aggregated Big Five personality test, subjects were asked to self-report on questions related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Subsequently, subjects listened to five pairs of musical works reflecting opposite extremes of one of five musical qualities: tempo (fast/slow), complexity (simple/complex), degree of dissonance (tonal/atonal), familiarity (familiar/unfamiliar), and extra-musical significance (significant/not significant). Subjects were then asked to record listening times and preferences among the selections. Strikingly, this study shows a relatively high positive correlation between agreeableness and musical preferences (predicting preferences for simple, familiar, and fast music), as compared to extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Thus, this research suggests that the not yet well-understood relationship between personality traits and musical qualities merits further study.

Keywords: music perception, psychology, cognition, musical preference

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1308 Creativity and Expressive Interpretation of Musical Drama in Children with Special Needs (Down Syndrome) in Special Schools Yayasan Pendidikan Anak Cacat, Medan, North Sumatera

Authors: Junita Batubara

Abstract:

Children with special needs, especially those with disability in mental, physical or social/emotional interactions, are marginalized. Many people still view them as troublesome, inconvenience, having learning difficulties, unproductive and burdensome to society. This study intends to investigate; how musical drama can develop the ability to control the coordination of mental functions; how musical dramas can assist children to work together; how musical dramas can assist to maintain the child's emotional and physical health; how musical dramas can improve children creativity. The objectives of the research are: To know whether musical drama can control the coordination of mental function of children; to know whether musical drama can improve communication ability and expression of children; to know whether musical drama can help children work with people around them; to find out if musical dramas can develop the child's emotional and physical health; to find out if musical drama can improve children's creativity. The study employed a qualitative research approach. Data was collecting by listening, observing in depth through public hearings that select the key informants who were teachers and principals, parents and children. The data obtained from each public hearing was then processed (reduced), conclusion drawing/verification, presentation of data (data display). Furthermore, the model obtained was implementing for musical performance, where the benefits of the show are: musical drama can improve language skills; musical dramas are capable of developing memory and storage of information; developing communication skills and express themselves; helping children work together; assisting emotional and physical health; enhancing creativity.

Keywords: children Down syndrome, music, drama script, performance

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1307 The Musical Imagination: Re-Imagining a Sound Education through Musical Boundary Play

Authors: Michael J. Cutler

Abstract:

This paper presents what musical boundary play can look like when beginning music learners work with professional musicians with an emphasis on composition. Music education can be re-imagined through the lenses of boundary objects and boundary play by engaging non-professional musicians in collaborative sound creation, improvisation and composition along with professional musicians. To the author’s best knowledge, no similar study exists on boundary objects and boundary play in music education. The literature reviewed for this paper explores the epistemological perspectives connected to music education and situates musical boundary play as an alternative approach to the more prevalent paradigms of music education in K-12 settings. A qualitative multiple-case study design was chosen to seek an in-depth understanding of the role of boundary objects and musical boundary play. The constant comparative method was utilized in analyzing and interpreting the data resulting in the development of effective, transferable theory. The study gathered relevant data using audio and video recordings of musical boundary play, artifacts, interviews, and observations. Findings from this study offer insight into the development of a more inclusive music education and yield a pedagogical framework for music education based on musical boundary play. Through the facilitation of musical boundary play, it is possible for music learners to experience musical sound creation, improvisation and composition in the same way an instrumentalist or vocalist would without the acquisition of complex component operations required to play a traditional instrument or sing in a proficient manner.

Keywords: boundary play, boundary objects, music education, music pedagogy, musical boundary play

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1306 The Last National Anthem of the Ottoman Empire: Musical Code, Sociopolitical Control and Historical Realities

Authors: Nuray Ocakli

Abstract:

19th century was the era of changes and transformations for the Ottoman Empire. The first sultan of this century, Mahmud II (1808-1839), was the architect of Ottoman modernization and fundamental changes. The most radical of these was abolishing the Janissary corps and the traditional Ottoman military band, Mehteran. Mahmud II introduced modernized military corps as well as western style royal and military music. Mahmut II invited the Italian composer Giuseppe Donizetti to establish a modern military band for the new army and to compose the Sultan’s royal anthem. In 1828, Donizetti composed the first western-style Ottoman anthem, Mahmudiyye anthem. During the 19th and early 20th century, four other western style Ottoman anthems (Aziziyye, Mecidiyye, Hamidiyye, and Resadiyye) were composed but the last anthem adopted in the reign of Mehmet VI (r. 1918-1922) was again Mahmudiyye anthem. This paper aims to analyze the Mahmudiyye anthem composed as royal anthem in 1828 but adopted as national anthem in 1918. Research questions of this paper are as follows: What were the characteristics of the Mahmudiyye anthem making it the best choice of the last sultan for the last national anthem? Are there specific reasons of the last sultan to adopt Mahmudiyye anthem or not to adopt any of the other four anthems? The musical characteristics of the anthem are analyzed based on the Cerulo’s empirical research. Cerulo examined the musical structures of 124 western style anthems from 150 countries in the 1580-1976 period. Cerulo’s research categorizes musical codes of the anthems as basic and embellished related with the level of sociopolitical control. Musical analysis of the anthem indicates that the basic musical code of the anthem implies a high level of socio-political control during the reign of both Mahmut II and Mehmet VI. Historical analysis of each sultans’ reign shows that both sultans were autocratic. Mahmut II designed authoritarian government policies to suppress possible reactions against his reforms. On the other hand, authoritarian policies of Mehmet VI are related with the domestic and international political conditions following the World War I. Historical analysis of the research questions show that compared to the other western style Ottoman anthems, Mahmudiyye anthem remained the only neutral anthem symbolizing modernization and westernization of the empire. Other anthems were all the symbols of failed ideologies such as Ottomanism, pan-Islamism, and pan-Turkism. In the early 20th century, there were a few common things remained among the diverse communities of the Ottoman Empire: The land they shared as homeland and the idea of modernization to save the homeland. For this reason, the last sultan Mehmet VI adopted Mahmudiyye anthem as the memory of a unified empire under the rule of a powerful and modernist sultan. The last sultan’s reign lasted just for four years, and the Ottoman Empire disintegrated in 1922, but his adaptation of the Mahmudiyye anthem indicates his unifying policies, his attitudes to save the empire and the caliphate.

Keywords: Mahmudiyye anthem, musical code, national anthem, Ottoman Empire, royal anthem

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1305 Predictive Relationship between Motivation Strategies and Musical Creativity of Secondary School Music Students

Authors: Lucy Lugo Mawang

Abstract:

Educational Psychologists have highlighted the significance of creativity in education. Likewise, a fundamental objective of music education concern the development of students’ musical creativity potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motivation strategies and musical creativity, and establish the prediction equation of musical creativity. The study used purposive sampling and census to select 201 fourth-form music students (139 females/ 62 males), mainly from public secondary schools in Kenya. The mean age of participants was 17.24 years (SD = .78). Framed upon self- determination theory and the dichotomous model of achievement motivation, the study adopted an ex post facto research design. A self-report measure, the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) was used in data collection for the independent variable. Musical creativity was based on a creative music composition task and measured by the Consensual Musical Creativity Assessment Scale (CMCAS). Data collected in two separate sessions within an interval of one month. The questionnaire was administered in the first session, lasting approximately 20 minutes. The second session was for notation of participants’ creative composition. The results indicated a positive correlation r(199) = .39, p ˂ .01 between musical creativity and intrinsic music motivation. Conversely, negative correlation r(199) = -.19, p < .01 was observed between musical creativity and extrinsic music motivation. The equation for predicting musical creativity from music motivation strategies was significant F(2, 198) = 20.8, p < .01, with R2 = .17. Motivation strategies accounted for approximately (17%) of the variance in participants’ musical creativity. Intrinsic music motivation had the highest significant predictive value (β = .38, p ˂ .01) on musical creativity. In the exploratory analysis, a significant mean difference t(118) = 4.59, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity for intrinsic and extrinsic music motivation was observed in favour of intrinsically motivated participants. Further, a significant gender difference t(93.47) = 4.31, p ˂ .01 in musical creativity was observed, with male participants scoring higher than females. However, there was no significant difference in participants’ musical creativity based on age. The study recommended that music educators should strive to enhance intrinsic music motivation among students. Specifically, schools should create conducive environments and have interventions for the development of intrinsic music motivation since it is the most facilitative motivation strategy in predicting musical creativity.

Keywords: extrinsic music motivation, intrinsic music motivation, musical creativity, music composition

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1304 Transporting the Setting of the Beloved Musical, Peter Pan, to Colonial India

Authors: R. Roznowski

Abstract:

This paper is an examination of a recent Michigan State University production of the classic musical, Peter Pan. In this production, approved by the licensor, the action was moved to Colonial India transforming the musical’s message to include themes of cultural identity, racism, classism and ultimately inclusion. Major character changes and casting decisions expanded the scope of the musical while still retaining the original book and score. Major changes included reframing the Darlings as British Colonials stationed in India. The Lost Boy’s as mixed race children of British officials and their Indian nannies, the Pirates were a female 'fishing fleet' a group of women sent from England to keep the British soldiers from mixing with the locals and the Michigan State University Bhangra Dance Team played the Indians in the production. Traditional Indian theatrical techniques were also employed in the storytelling. The presentation will cover the key changes to the musical, the rehearsal process, historical accuracy and audience reaction. A final analysis of cultural appropriation versus historical reframing will be examined.

Keywords: directing, history, musical theatre, producing

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1303 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code FORSDRAM Controller

Authors: N. Pitcheswara Rao

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

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1302 On Musical Information Geometry with Applications to Sonified Image Analysis

Authors: Shannon Steinmetz, Ellen Gethner

Abstract:

In this paper, a theoretical foundation is developed for patterned segmentation of audio using the geometry of music and statistical manifold. We demonstrate image content clustering using conic space sonification. The algorithm takes a geodesic curve as a model estimator of the three-parameter Gamma distribution. The random variable is parameterized by musical centricity and centric velocity. Model parameters predict audio segmentation in the form of duration and frame count based on the likelihood of musical geometry transition. We provide an example using a database of randomly selected images, resulting in statistically significant clusters of similar image content.

Keywords: sonification, musical information geometry, image, content extraction, automated quantification, audio segmentation, pattern recognition

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1301 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code for SDRAM Controller

Authors: Pitcheswara Rao Nelapati

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

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1300 Musical Instruments Classification Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Bhalke D. G., Bormane D. S., Kharate G. K.

Abstract:

This paper presents classification of musical instrument using machine learning techniques. The classification has been carried out using temporal, spectral, cepstral and wavelet features. Detail feature analysis is carried out using separate and combined features. Further, instrument model has been developed using K-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Benchmarked McGill university database has been used to test the performance of the system. Experimental result shows that SVM performs better as compared to KNN classifier.

Keywords: feature extraction, SVM, KNN, musical instruments

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1299 A Resistant-Based Comparative Study between Iranian Concrete Design Code and Some Worldwide Ones

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani

Abstract:

The design in most counties should be inevitably carried out by their native code such as Iran. Since the Iranian concrete code does not exist in structural design software, most engineers in this country analyze the structures using commercial software but design the structural members manually. This point motivated us to make a communication between Iranian code and some other well-known ones to create facility for the engineers. Finally, this paper proposes the so-called interpretation charts which help specify the position of Iranian code in comparison of some worldwide ones.

Keywords: beam, concrete code, strength, interpretation charts

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1298 Automatic Music Score Recognition System Using Digital Image Processing

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Zhong-Xian Peng, Li-Der Jeng

Abstract:

Music has always been an integral part of human’s daily lives. But, for the most people, reading musical score and turning it into melody is not easy. This study aims to develop an Automatic music score recognition system using digital image processing, which can be used to read and analyze musical score images automatically. The technical approaches included: (1) staff region segmentation; (2) image preprocessing; (3) note recognition; and (4) accidental and rest recognition. Digital image processing techniques (e.g., horizontal /vertical projections, connected component labeling, morphological processing, template matching, etc.) were applied according to musical notes, accidents, and rests in staff notations. Preliminary results showed that our system could achieve detection and recognition rates of 96.3% and 91.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we presented an effective automated musical score recognition system that could be integrated in a system with a media player to play music/songs given input images of musical score. Ultimately, this system could also be incorporated in applications for mobile devices as a learning tool, such that a music player could learn to play music/songs.

Keywords: connected component labeling, image processing, morphological processing, optical musical recognition

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1297 Code-Switching in Facebook Chatting Among Maldivian Teenagers

Authors: Aaidha Hammad

Abstract:

This study examines the phenomenon of code switching among teenagers in the Maldives while they carry out conversations through Facebook in the form of “Facebook Chatting”. The current study aims at evaluating the frequency of code-switching and it investigates between what languages code-switching occurs. Besides the study identifies the types of words that are often codeswitched and the triggers for code switching. The methodology used in this study is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approach. In this regard, the chat log of a group conversation between 10 teenagers was collected and analyzed. A questionnaire was also administered through online to 24 different teenagers from different corners of the Maldives. The age of teenagers ranged between 16 and 19 years. The findings of the current study revealed that while Maldivian teenagers chat in Facebook they very often code switch and these switches are most commonly between Dhivehi and English, but some other languages are also used to some extent. It also identified the different types of words that are being often code switched among the teenagers. Most importantly it explored different reasons behind code switching among the Maldivian teenagers in Facebook chatting.

Keywords: code-switching, Facebook, Facebook chatting Maldivian teenagers

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1296 The Role of Tempo in the Perception of Musical Grouping

Authors: Marina B. Cottrell

Abstract:

Tempo plays a significant role in the perception of metrical groupings, with faster tempi tending to increase the number of beats in a given metrical unit. Previous research has shown a correlation between the perception of metric grouping and native language, but little is currently known about other possible musical factors that contribute to metric grouping tendencies. This study aims to find the tempo boundaries at which the perceptual groupings of a melodic pattern changes and to correlate these regions with self-reported musical experience. Participants were presented with looping melodies (divided between major and minor keys). Using a slider bar that controlled the tempo, subjects were asked to locate the point at which they heard the metric grouping doubled or halved. This region was shown to primarily be affected by the mode and time signature of the stimulus. The results also suggest a correlation between the level of musical training and the region of perceived grouping change.

Keywords: meter, metric grouping, mode, tempo

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1295 Mikrophonie I (1964) by Karlheinz Stockhausen - Between Idea and Auditory Image

Authors: Justyna Humięcka-Jakubowska

Abstract:

1. Background in music analysis. Traditionally, when we think about a composer’s sketches, the chances are that we are thinking in terms of the working out of detail, rather than the evolution of an overall concept. Since music is a “time art’, it follows that questions of a form cannot be entirely detached from considerations of time. One could say that composers tend to regard time either as a place gradually and partially intuitively filled, or they can look for a specific strategy to occupy it. In my opinion, one thing that sheds light on Stockhausen's compositional thinking is his frequent use of 'form schemas', that is often a single-page representation of the entire structure of a piece. 2. Background in music technology. Sonic Visualiser is a program used to study a musical recording. It is an open source application for viewing, analysing, and annotating music audio files. It contains a number of visualisation tools, which are designed with useful default parameters for musical analysis. Additionally, the Vamp plugin format of SV supports to provide analysis such as for example structural segmentation. 3. Aims. The aim of my paper is to show how SV may be used to obtain a better understanding of the specific musical work, and how the compositional strategy does impact on musical structures and musical surfaces. I want to show that ‘traditional” music analytic methods don’t allow to indicate interrelationships between musical surface (which is perceived) and underlying musical/acoustical structure. 4. Main Contribution. Stockhausen had dealt with the most diverse musical problems by the most varied methods. A characteristic which he had never ceased to be placed at the center of his thought and works, it was the quest for a new balance founded upon an acute connection between speculation and intuition. In the case with Mikrophonie I (1964) for tam-tam and 6 players Stockhausen makes a distinction between the "connection scheme", which indicates the ground rules underlying all versions, and the form scheme, which is associated with a particular version. The preface to the published score includes both the connection scheme, and a single instance of a "form scheme", which is what one can hear on the CD recording. In the current study, the insight into the compositional strategy chosen by Stockhausen was been compared with auditory image, that is, with the perceived musical surface. Stockhausen's musical work is analyzed both in terms of melodic/voice and timbre evolution. 5. Implications The current study shows how musical structures have determined of musical surface. My general assumption is this, that while listening to music we can extract basic kinds of musical information from musical surfaces. It is shown that an interactive strategies of musical structure analysis can offer a very fruitful way of looking directly into certain structural features of music.

Keywords: automated analysis, composer's strategy, mikrophonie I, musical surface, stockhausen

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1294 The Comparative Electroencephalogram Study: Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Children Evaluate Classical Music in Different Ways

Authors: Galina Portnova, Kseniya Gladun

Abstract:

In our EEG experiment participated 27 children with ASD with the average age of 6.13 years and the average score for CARS 32.41 and 25 healthy children (of 6.35 years). Six types of musical stimulation were presented, included Gluck, Javier-Naida, Kenny G, Chopin and other classic musical compositions. Children with autism showed orientation reaction to the music and give behavioral responses to different types of music, some of them might assess stimulation by scales. The participants were instructed to remain calm. Brain electrical activity was recorded using a 19-channel EEG recording device, 'Encephalan' (Russia, Taganrog). EEG epochs lasting 150 s were analyzed using EEGLab plugin for MatLab (Mathwork Inc.). For EEG analysis we used Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), analyzed Peak alpha frequency (PAF), correlation dimension D2 and Stability of rhythms. To express the dynamics of desynchronizing of different rhythms we've calculated the envelope of the EEG signal, using the whole frequency range and a set of small narrowband filters using Hilbert transformation. Our data showed that healthy children showed similar EEG spectral changes during musical stimulation as well as described the feelings induced by musical fragments. The exception was the ‘Chopin. Prelude’ fragment (no.6). This musical fragment induced different subjective feeling, behavioral reactions and EEG spectral changes in children with ASD and healthy children. The correlation dimension D2 was significantly lower in autists compared to healthy children during musical stimulation. Hilbert envelope frequency was reduced in all group of subjects during musical compositions 1,3,5,6 compositions compared to the background. During musical fragments 2 and 4 (terrible) lower Hilbert envelope frequency was observed only in children with ASD and correlated with the severity of the disease. Alfa peak frequency was lower compared to the background during this musical composition in healthy children and conversely higher in children with ASD.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), emotional perception, ASD, musical perception, childhood Autism rating scale (CARS)

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1293 Expectation during Improvisation: The Way It Influences the Musical Dialogue

Authors: Elisa Negretto

Abstract:

Improvisation is a fundamental form of musical practice and an increasing amount of literature shows a particular interest on the consequences it might have in different kinds of social contexts. A relevant aspect of the musical experience is the ability to create expectations, which reflects a basic strategy of the human mind, an intentional movement toward the future which is based on previous experiences. Musical Expectation – an unconscious tendency to project forward in time, to predict future sound events and the ongoing of a musical experience – can be regarded as a process that strongly influences the listeners’ emotional and affective response to music, as well as their social and aesthetic experience. While improvising, composers, interpreters and listeners generate and exchange expectations, thus creating a dynamic dialogue and meaningful relationships. The aim of this paper is to investigate how expectation contributes to the creation of such a dialogue during the unfolding of the musical experience and to what extent it influences the meaning music acquires during the performance. The difference between the ability to create expectations and the anticipation of the future ongoing of music will be questioned. Does it influence in different ways the meaning of music and the kind of dialogical relationship established between musicians and between performers and audience? Such questions will be investigated with reference to recent research in music cognition and the analysis of a particular case: a free jazz performance during which musicians improvise and/or change the location of the sound source. The present paper is an attempt to provide new insights for investigating and understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying improvisation as a musical and social practice. They contribute to the creation of a model that we can find in many others social practices in which people have to build meaningful relationships and responses to environmental stimuli.

Keywords: anticipation, expectation, improvisation, meaning, musical dialogue

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1292 Musical Culture of Sea Gypsies in Bulon Archipelago

Authors: Rewadee Ungpho

Abstract:

The research on the musical culture of Sea Gypsies in Bulon archipelago, Satun Province, is considered as an anthropology research. Research objectives were to study the history and information culture and also to find the basis information for the restoration and preservation of the music culture of Sea Gypsies who live in Bulon archipelago. Findings of the research are as follows: 1) Musical characteristics of Sea Gypsies in Bulon archipelago is still traditional. It does not mix with any external musical influence such as musical instruments, language, and other musical characteristics. There are various kind of songs which can play a complete melody and rhythm, including a total of 8 songs as follows; Lagu-Ayam-Dide, Lagu-Sitipayong, Lagu-Bulong-pute, Lagu-Chemamat, Laguduwo, Lagu-Ma-I-nang, Lagu-Mana-Ikan. 2) The roles of culture/music in Bulon archipelago correlate with Urak Lawoi society. They use music in the ceremony of votive offering, in the floating ceremony held in Lipe Island and in various festivals. Therefore, music is a spiritual sacrifice and a spiritual instrument that conveys an Urak Lawoi, which makes the Urak Lawoi still unique and has a sense of ethnic identity. 3) The inheritance of Urak Lawoi music is still being made in a traditional way, as an oral tradition with no record. The teaching and learning must be one on one, and it required length of time to practice and accumulate the knowledge. Due to above mentioned reasons, a few people attend in the inheritance. Those who are interested may not be able to practice constantly. As a result, there is only a few, or even none, descendants left.

Keywords: sea gypsy, music, Bulon archipelago, ethnomusicology

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1291 Development of Fem Code for 2-D Elasticity Problems Using Quadrilateral and Triangular Elements

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Waseem Sakawat

Abstract:

This study presents the development of FEM code using Quadrilateral 4-Node (Q4) and Triangular 3-Node (T3) elements. Code is formulated using MATLAB language. Instead of using both elements in the same code, two separate codes are written. Quadrilateral element is difficult to handle directly, that is why natural coordinates (eta, ksi) are used. Due to this, Q4 code includes numerical integration (Gauss quadrature). In this case, complete numerical integration is performed using 2 points. On the other hand, T3 element can be modeled directly, by using direct stiffness approach. Axially loaded element, cantilever (special constraints) and Patch test cases were analyzed using both codes and the results were verified by using Ansys.

Keywords: FEM code, MATLAB, numerical integration, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
1290 Constructing a Grounded Theory of Parents' Musical Engagement with Their Premature Baby Contributing to Their Emerging Parental Identity in a Neonatal Unit

Authors: Elizabeth McLean, Katrina Skewes-McFerran, Grace Thompson

Abstract:

Scholarship highlights the need to further examine and better understand and foster the process of becoming a parent to a premature baby in the neonatal context to support the critical development of the parent-infant relationship. Music therapy research documents significant benefits of music therapy on neonatal physiological and neurodevelopmental function, reduced maternal anxiety and validating parents’ relationship with their premature baby, yet limited studies examine the role of music in supporting parental identity. This was a multi-site study, exploring parents’ musical engagement with their hospitalised baby and parental identity in a NU. In-depth interviews with nine parents of a premature baby across varying time points in their NU journey took place. Data collection and analysis was influenced by Constructive Grounded Theory methodology. Findings in the form of a substantive grounded theory illuminated the contribution of parents’ musical engagement on their sense of parental identity in the NU. Specifically, the significance of their baby’s level and type of response during musical interactions in influencing parents’ capacity to engage in musical dialogue with their baby emerged. Specific conditions that acted as both barriers and fosters in parents’ musical engagement across a high- risk pregnancy and NU admission also emerged. Recommendations for future research into the role of music and music therapy in supporting parental coping and transition to parenthood during a high-risk pregnancy and birth and beyond the NU will be discussed.

Keywords: grounded theory, musical engagement, music therapy, parental identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
1289 Code Switching: A Case Study Of Lebanon

Authors: Wassim Bekai

Abstract:

Code switching, as its name states, is altering between two or more languages in one sentence. The speaker tends to use code switching in his/her speech for better clarification of his/her message to the receiver. It is commonly used in sociocultural countries such as Lebanon because of the various cultures that have come across its lands through history, considering Lebanon is geographically located in the heart of the world, and hence between many cultures and languages. In addition, Lebanon was occupied by Turkish authorities for about 400 years, and later on by the French mandate, where both of these countries forced their languages in official papers and in the Lebanese educational system. In this paper, the importance of code switching in the Lebanese workplace will be examined, stressing the efficiency and amount of the production resulting from code switching in the workplace (factories, universities among other places) in addition to exploring the social, education, religious and cultural factors behind this phenomenon in Lebanon.

Keywords: code switching, Lebanon, cultural, factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1288 Features of Testing of the Neuronetwork Converter Biometrics-Code with Correlation Communications between Bits of the Output Code

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, A. I. Ivanov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. Y. Malygin, K. Mukapil, S. D. Tolybayev

Abstract:

The article examines the testing of the neural network converter of biometrics code. Determined the main reasons that prevented the use adopted in the works of foreign researchers classical a Binomial Law when describing distribution of measures of Hamming "Alien" codes-responses.

Keywords: biometrics, testing, neural network, converter of biometrics-code, Hamming's measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
1287 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based on Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 447