Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2557

Search results for: North Western of Libya

2557 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Western North Part of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila

Abstract:

A total of 13807 diabetic patients [(males 5893(42.68%), females 7914 (57.32%)] were on the registered in diabetic clinics in the western north of Libya at the end of 2012. Of the total clinic population, 865 patients had Type 1 IDDM (6.26%) and the rest cases had Type 2 NIDDM (93.74%). Diabetes mellitus was higher in females than in males (57.32% , 42.68%), the male to female ratio was (0.74 : 1).

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus (DM), gestational diabetes mellitus, North Western of Libya,

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2556 Ectoparasites Infestation of Free-Ranging Hedgehog (Etelerix Algirus) in North Western Libya

Authors: M. M. Hosni, A. A. El Maghrbi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human.

Keywords: ectoparasites, etelerix algirus, hedgehogs, Libya

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2555 The Grain Size Distribution of Sandy Soils in Libya

Authors: Massoud Farag Abouklaish

Abstract:

The main aim of the present study is to investigate and classify the particle size distribution of sandy soils in Libya. More than fifty soil samples collected from many regions in North, West and South of Libya. Laboratory sieve analysis tests performed on disturbed soil samples to determine grain size distribution. As well as to provide an indicator of general engineering behavior and good understanding, test results are presented and analysed. In addition, conclusions, recommendations are made.

Keywords: Libya, grain size, sandy soils, sieve analysis tests

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2554 Analysis of the Contribution of Coastal and Marine Physical Factors to Oil Slick Movement: Case Study of Misrata, Libya

Authors: Abduladim Maitieg, Mark Johnson

Abstract:

Developing a coastal oil spill management plan for the Misratah coast is the motivating factor for building a database for coastal and marine systems and energy resources. Wind direction and speed, currents, bathymetry, coastal topography and offshore dynamics influence oil spill deposition in coastal water. Therefore, oceanographic and climatological data can be used to understand oil slick movement and potential oil deposits on shoreline area and the behaviour of oil spill trajectories on the sea surface. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the coastal and marine physical factors under strong wave conditions and various bathymetric and coastal topography gradients in the western coastal area of Libya on the movement of oil slicks. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a GNOME simulation model based on current and wind speed/direction. The results in this paper show that (1) Oil slick might reach the Misratah shoreline area in two days in the summer and winter. Seasons. (2 ) The North coast of Misratah is the potential oil deposit area on the Misratah coast. (3) Tarball pollution was observed along the North coast of Misratah. (4) Two scenarios for the summer and the winter season were run, along the western coast of Libya . (5) The eastern coast is at a lower potential risk due to the influence of wind and current energy in the Gulf of Sidra. (6) The Misratah coastline is more vulnerable to oil spill movement in the summer than in winter seasons. (7) Oil slick takes from 2 to 5 days to reach the saltmarsh in the eastern Misratah coast. (8) Oil slick moves 300 km in 30 days from the spill resource location near the Libyan western border to the Misratah coast.(9) Bathymetric features have a profound effect on oil spill movement. (9)Oil dispersion simulations using GNOME are carried out taking into account high-resolution wind and current data.

Keywords: oil spill movement, coastal and marine physical factors, coast area, Libyan

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2553 The Failure of Democracy in Libya

Authors: Ali Musbah Mohamed Elwahishi

Abstract:

Democracy is demand for the majority of people in the whole world, Specifically in the regions that are still outside the democratic life such as Libya and other Arab countries. Although democracy has spread across the world through three waves of democratization, Libya is still outside the democratic process, even recently its regime has changed. The challenges of democracy in Libya are not new, they represent accumulations over time that impeded to achieve this goal. This paper concludes that the absence of democracy in Libya because of set of factors that include: colonial legacy, oil wealth, the lack of institutions, the lack of political parties, tribal factor and recently the spread of the armed groups. These factors prevented Libya to be democratic state whether during King Idris’, Qaddafi’s or even after Qaddafi rule.

Keywords: the failure of democracy, political transition, the lack of institutions, Libya, Arab countries

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2552 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in Al-Khoms City-Libya

Authors: Mustafa S. Agha, Asma M. Eshahriy

Abstract:

The propagation of electromagnetic waves in millimeter band is severely affected by rain, and dust particles in terms of attenuation and de-polarization. The computations of dust and/or sand storms require knowledge of electrical properties of the scattering particles and climate conditions at the studied region in the west north region of Libya. (Al -Khoms) To compute the effect of dust and sand particles on the propagation of electromagnetic waves, it is required to collect the sand particles carried out by the wind, measure the particles size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and carry chemical analysis of the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The main object of this paper is to study the effect of sand and dust storms on wireless communication, such as microwave links, in the north region of Libya (Al -Khoms) of Libya (Nagaza stations, Al-khoms center stations, Al-khoms gateway stations) by determining of the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change due to the effect of sand and dust storms on wireless communication systems (GSM signal). The result showed that there is some consideration that has to be taken into account in the communication power budget .

Keywords: attenuation, scattering, transmission loss, electromagnetic waves

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2551 The Morocco's Return to the African Union: A New Era in the Kingdom's Foreign Policy

Authors: L. Ponomarenko, Rachid Kaouar

Abstract:

Morocco has rejoined the African Union and more than 30 years after it left the continental body due to the recognition of the Arabic Republic of Western Sahara. Morocco was readmitted after a one year campaign led by the King himself, who was visiting the Eastern African country with the aim to expend the kingdom presence in new region in Africa after that it managed to build a large influence net in the West Africa region. The return of Morocco can be a beginning of a new era in the foreign policy of Morocco, specially, in the policy towards the state-quo of the Western Sahara conflict, which is considerate as one the biggest obstacle for the cooperation and integration process in the region of North Africa. As a member-state of the African Union Morocco has lot more to lose, according to that the Moroccan position must be more flexible.

Keywords: African Union, Algeria, Morocco, North African Region, Western Sahara

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
2550 Italian Colonial Strategy in Libya and the Conflict of Super Powers

Authors: Mohamed Basheer Abdul Atti Hassan

Abstract:

This research paper will follow the main outlines of the Italian colonization in Libya in a historical geopolitical approach; before we reach the contemporary map. In this study, we are also concerned with following the chain's links, not as drama in time, but as a strategy in place, so that it draws to us a map of power and the distribution of political formations throughout this period within and around Libya. From the sum of these variable distributions and successive balances, we can come up with the basic principles that determined the Italian history in Libya and formed its political entity, which is a compass of guidance and an indication of the future.

Keywords: conflict, Mediterranean, colonization, political history

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2549 An Appraisal of the Level of Civil Servants Participation in Recreational Activities

Authors: Isyaku Labaran Fagge

Abstract:

This study investigated on appraisal of civil servants level of participation in recreational activities in North Western States of Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, a descriptive survey was employed for the designed questionnaire which were administered on 300 respondents, who served as subject for this study, in North Western States of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics of simple frequency count, percentage and Chi square (x2) statistical techniques at 0.05 alpha level were used for all statistical tests of significance. The findings of the study revealed that senior civil servants by (gender, status and location) do participate in recreational activities. On the knowledgeable personnels, all the recreational centres (by gender, status and location) had no knowledgeable personnels to handle the centres across North Western States. Many recreational centers should be create. Government should train and employ more knowledgeable personnel to handle the centres. Civil servants in urban areas do participate more than the civil servants in rural areas.

Keywords: recreation, civil servants, participation, recreational activities

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2548 Mobile Phone Banking Applies and Customer Intention: A Case Study in Libya

Authors: Iman E. Bouthahab, Badea B. Geador

Abstract:

Aim of this paper is to explore the prospect of a new approach of mobile phone banking in Libya. This study evaluates customer knowledge on commercial mobile banking in Libya. To examine the relationship between age, occupation and intention for using mobile banking for commercial purpose, a survey was conducted to gather information from one hundred Libyan bank clients. The results indicate that Libyan customers have accepted the new technology and they are ready to use it. There is no significant joint relationship between age and occupation found in intention to use mobile banking in Libya. On the other hand, the customers’ knowledge about mobile banking has a greater relationship with the intention. This study has implications for demographic researches and consumer behaviour disciplines. It also has profitable implications for banks and managers in Libya, as it will assist in better understanding of the Libyan consumers and their activities, when they develop their market strategies and new service.

Keywords: mobile banking, intention, customer knowledge, banks in Libya

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2547 The Re-Emergence of Slavery in Libya Is a Crime against Humanity That Must Be Eradicated without Delay

Authors: Vincent Jones

Abstract:

The North African country of Libya is in crisis and is currently a humanitarian disaster. The current American ‘hands off’ foreign policy appear to have contributed to this crisis. The research upon which this paper is based focused on a qualitative analysis of migration to Libya and its history with slavery, current conditions that have contributed to the re-emergence of slavery, an analysis of available resources in the effected region, and an analysis of legal remedies pursuant to international law. In addition, a qualitative analysis of American foreign policy from the Reagan Administration through the current Trump administration has been a focus of analysis. The major findings of this research are: (1) Since the removal of Muammar Gadhafi, a move that the United States played a major role in achieving, the nation of Libya has been in free fall and the rule of law has all but disappeared. As a major port stop for refugees and migrants fleeing atrocities in sub-Saharan African states, Libya has become the gate way to European ports of asylum. The problem is these migrant refugees are unwanted, caught between rival and often ineffective governments, profiteers, and inaction from the international community. (2) The outlook for these refugees is bleak: the ineffective government of Libya is ill-equipped to handle the large influx, European refugee destination states like Italy and Greece are already overburdened by the Syrian refugee crisis and are reluctant to accept more refugees, leaving the powerful and armed Libyan militia in control of a situation that is ripe for exploitation. (3) The combined intervention of the international community, led by a newly committed and engaged American foreign policy. In conclusion, a new American foreign policy approach along with the active engagement of the United Nations, EU, and the African Union can effectively resolve this humanitarian crisis.

Keywords: slavery, Libya, migrants, slave auction

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2546 Effect of Political and Social Context in Libya on Accounting Information System to Meet Development Needs

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia, Almuetaz R. Boubakr

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show how Libya’s legal, economic, political, social, and cultural systems have shaped Libyan development. This will provide a background to develop an understanding of the current role of the accounting information system in Libya and the challenges facing the design of the aeronautical information system to meet the development needs of Libya. Our knowledge of the unified economic operating systems of the world paves the way for the economic development of every developing country. In order to achieve this understanding, every developing country should be provided with a high-efficiency communications system in order to be able to interact globally. From the point of view of the theory of globalization, Libya's understanding of its socio-economic and political systems is vital in order to be able to adopt and apply accounting techniques that will assist in the economic development of Libya.

Keywords: accounting, economic development, globalisation theory, information system

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2545 Epidemiology of Bone Hydatidosis in Eastern Libya from 1995 to 2013

Authors: Sadek A. Makhlouf, Hassan M. Nouh

Abstract:

Bone hydatidosis is an infection in worldwide distribution. Although there is no evidence in literature on Bone Hydatid disease in Libya, we tried to present the first epidemiological study of this disease in Eastern Libya through retrospective study from 1995 to 2013. Our data were collected from 3 hospitals in Eastern Libya particularly the sheep-raising areas with total number of musculoskeletal infection cases of two thousand one hundred ninety-four (2,194). There were five (5) five cases of bone infection, four (4) of it have been diagnosed after more than three (3) months. Our study is comparable to other international study but this type of bone infection need further studies for effective control strategies for all dogs to avoid serious complications that might happened from the delay in diagnosing this type of disease.

Keywords: bone infection, hydatidosis, Eastern Libya, sheep-raising areas

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2544 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in North West Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles causing signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the North West region of Libya (Al-Khoms). The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza station, Al-Khoms center station, Al-Khoms gateway station) for determining the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change. Dust particles are collected along the region of the study, to measure the particle size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and chemically analyze the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The results show that humidity and dust, antenna height and the visibility affect both attenuation and phase shift; in which, a few considerations must be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: : Attenuation, scattering, transmission loss.

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2543 The Current Situation and Perspectives of Electricity Demand and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Efficiency

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Aldali

Abstract:

This article presents a current and future energy situation in Libya. The electric power efficiency and operating hours in power plants are evaluated from 2005 to 2010. Carbon dioxide emissions in most of power plants are estimated. In 2005, the efficiency of steam power plants achieved a range of 20% to 28%. While, the gas turbine power plants efficiency ranged between 9% and 25%, this can be considered as low efficiency. However, the efficiency improvement has clearly observed in some power plants from 2008 to 2010, especially in the power plant of North Benghazi and west Tripoli. In fact, these power plants have modified to combine cycle. The efficiency of North Benghazi power plant has increased from 25% to 46.6%, while in Tripoli it is increased from 22% to 34%. On the other hand, the efficiency improvement is not observed in the gas turbine power plants. When compared to the quantity of fuel used, the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from electricity generation plants were very high. Finally, an estimation of the energy demand has been done to the maximum load and the annual load factor (i.e., the ratio between the output power and installed power).

Keywords: power plant, efficiency improvement, carbon dioxide emissions, energy situation in Libya

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2542 A Review of Paleo-Depositional Environment and Thermal Alteration Index of Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic of A1-9 Well, NW Libya

Authors: M. A. Alrabib, Y. Sherif, A. K. Mohamed, E. A. Elfandi, E. I. Fandi

Abstract:

This paper introduces a paleo-environmental and hydrocarbon show in this well was identified in the interval of Dembaba formation to the Hassaona Formation was poor to very poor oil show. And from palaeo-environmental analysis there is neither particularly good reservoir nor source rock have been developed in the area. Recent palaeo-environment work undertakes that the sedimentary succession in this area comprises the Upper Paleozoic rock of the Carboniferous and Permian and the Mesozoic (Triassic) sedimentary sequences. No early Paleozoic rocks have been found in this area, these rocks were eroding during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian time. During Latest Permian and earliest Triassic time evidence for major marine transgression has occurred. From depths 5930-5940 feet, to 10800-10810 feet, the TAI of the Al Guidr, the Bir Al Jaja Al Uotia, Hebilia and the top varies between 3+ to 4-(mature-dry gas). This interval corporate the rest part of the Dembaba Formation. From depth 10800- 10810 feet, until total sediment depth (11944 feet Log) which corporate the rest of the Dembaba and underlying equivalents of the Assedjefar and M Rar Formations and the underlying Indeterminate unit (Hassouna Formation) the TAI varies between 4 and 5 (dry gas-black and deformed).

Keywords: paleoenvironmental, thermal alteration index, north western Libya, hydrocarbon

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2541 Responsibility to Protect in Practice: Libya and Syria

Authors: Guram Esakia, Giorgi Goguadze

Abstract:

The following paper is written due to overview the concept of R2P, this new dimension in International Relations field. Paper contains the general description of previously mentioned concept, its advantages and disadvantages. We also compare each other R2P and“humanitarian intervention“, trying to make clear division between these two approaches in conflict solution. There is also discussed R2P in real action, successful one in Libya and yet failed in Syria. Essay doesn’t claim to be the part of scientific chain and is based only on personal subjection as well on information gathered from various scholars and UN resolutions.

Keywords: the concept of R2P, humanitarian intervention, Libya, Syria

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2540 An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Formation in Libya (1970–2010)

Authors: Khaled Ramadan Elbeydi

Abstract:

This study is carried out to provide an insight into the analysis of the impact of selected macro-economic variables on gross fixed capital formation in Libya using annual data over the period (1970-2010). The importance of this study comes from the ability to show the relative important factors that impact the Libyan gross fixed capital formation. This understanding would give indications to decision makers on which policy they must focus to stimulate the economy. An Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling process is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base, and trade openness on gross fixed capital formation in Libya. The results of this study reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between capital formation and its determinants. The results also indicate that GDP and trade openness largely explain the pattern of capital formation in Libya. The findings and recommendations provide vital information relevant for policy formulation and implementation aimed to improve capital formation in Libya.

Keywords: ARDL, bounds test, capital formation, co-integration, Libya

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2539 A Hybrid Curriculum: Privileging Indigenous knowledges Over Western knowledges In The School Curriculum In Kenya

Authors: Rose Mutuota

Abstract:

Western knowledge have influenced the Kenyan education system through colonisation and policies borrowed from the global North. Researchers argue that studies of education and systems based on Northernframeworks ignore the lived experiences of the global South. The history of colonization is one such example. In light of this, there is a need for schools to consider the lived experience of the Kenyan child and integrate Indigenous knowledge in the education system. The study reported here explored the possibility of creating a blended/hybrid curriculum that values Indigenous knowledge and practices but also selectively use side as from the global North. Acasestudyformat was employed. Teachers and principals in four schools were interviewed. The findings indicated that teachers and students brought indigenous knowledge to the classroom but were limited in their use by existing educational policies.AnotherfindingwasthatpoliciesborrowedfromtheglobalNorthdid not suit the context in the Southincountries with a history of colonization. There was the need for policymakers to ensure the policies borrowed from the North suit the Kenyan context. The recommendations included the deliberate and mandated use of indigenous knowledge in classrooms including indigenous languages for instruction, the use of locally available assets to support students with disabilities in mainstream classrooms, and the use of a hybrid curriculum that privileges indigenous knowledge over Westernknowledgesintheschoolcurriculum.

Keywords: global North, global South, inclusive educate indigenous knowledges

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
2538 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in West North Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles by way of signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents the effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the west north region of Libya (Al-Khoms), experimental procedure to study the effects mentioned above. The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza stations, Al-Khoms center stations, Al-Khoms gateway stations) to determining of the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change which coverage in the studied region, it is required to collect the dust particles carried out by the wind, measure the particles size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and carry chemical analysis of the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The result showed that effect of the humidity and dust, the antenna height, the visibility, on the complex permittivity effects both attenuation and phase shift, there is some consideration that has to be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: attenuation, de-polarization, scattering, transmission loss

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2537 Cultural Studies: The Effect of Western Culture on Muslim Lifestyle

Authors: Farah Wahida Binti Mohamad Said

Abstract:

Islamic culture is the way of life a Muslim is defined by the Qur’an and Sunnah. On the other hand, Western culture is fashioned by a host of people; Capitalists, atheists, people who believe in same-gender marriages and others of a similar nature. The main issue that faced by the Muslim in Malaysia is the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This is because of the influence from western culture that dominates mind of the Muslim and also impressed on their lifestyle. Practically, majority all things have connected with western culture. However, the main objective for this project is to develop the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This project also focuses on a few aspects that relate with cultural of Muslim and western culture nowadays. This paper will include a few method .The methods for this project are a video, interview etc. Another methodology we will put on next paper for more detail information. As a result, this research found that western cultural will be effect on Muslim lifestyle.

Keywords: effect of western culture, Muslim lifestyle, western culture, western and Muslim culture

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2536 Studies on Phylogeny of Helicoverpa armigera Populations from North Western Himalaya Region with Help of Cytochromeoxidase I Sequence

Authors: R. M. Srivastava, Subbanna A.R.N.S, Md Abbas Ahmad, S. P.More, Shivashankar, B. Kalyanbabu

Abstract:

The similar morphology associated with high genetic variability poses problems in phylogenetic studies of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). To identify genetic variation of North Western Himalayan population’s, partial (Mid to terminal region) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene was amplified and sequenced for three populations collected from Pantnagar, Almora, and Chinyalisaur. The alignment of sequences with other two populations, Nagpur representing central India population and Anhui, China representing complete COX-1 sequence revealed unanimity in middle region with eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Nagpur populations. However, the consensus is missing when approaching towards terminal region, which is associated with 15 each SNPs and pair base substitutions in Chinyalisaur populations. In minimum evolution tree, all the five populations were majorly separated into two clades, one comprising of only Nagpur population and the other with rest. Amongst, North Western populations, Chinyalisaur one is promising by farming a separate clade. The pairwise genetic distance ranges from 0.025 to 0.192 with the maximum between H. armigera populations of Nagpur and Chinyalisaur. This genetic isolation of populations can be attributed to a key role of topological barriers of weather and mountain ranges and temporal barriers due to cropping patterns.

Keywords: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, northwestern Himalayan population, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), phylogenetic relationship, genetic variation

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2535 Order vs. Justice: The Cases of Libya and Syria from the Perspective of the English School Theory

Authors: A. Gün Güneş

Abstract:

This study aims to explicate the functionality of the responsibility to protect (R2P) in terms of order and justice within the context of the main traditions of the English School theory. The conflicts in Libya and Syria and the response of the international society to these crises are analyzed in the pluralism-solidarism dichotomy of the English School. In this regard, the intervention under R2P in Libya exemplifies the solidaristic side emphasizing justice, while the non-intervention in Syria exemplifies the pluralistic side emphasizing order. This study discusses the cases of Libya and Syria on the basis of Great Powers.

Keywords: English school theory, international society, order, justice, responsibility to protect

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2534 The Reality of the Application of Environmental Accounting in the Iron and Steel Sector in Libya: A Case Study in the Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata, Libya

Authors: Eltaib Elzarrouk E. E. Abdalmajeed

Abstract:

This research aims at shedding the light on environmental accounting, which is considered to be one of the most important areas in accounting discipline. It also studies the reality of the application of environmental accounting in the iron and steel sector in Libya. The questionnaire of this study was used for data collection from respondents who are employed in the Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata – Libya (LISC). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was also used for the analysis. Several important results were revealed include that the (LISC) relatively applies environmental accounting, and it faces some obstacles in conducting its application. Furthermore, the researched company realizes the importance of applying environmental accounting as a need for quality procedures. It was suggested that training courses should be held periodically to spread the awareness of environmental accounting environment. In addition, social responsibility and sustainability should be taken into consideration in the company's strategic plan.

Keywords: environment, environmental accounting, environmental accounting disclosure, The Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata- Libya (LISC)

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2533 Prevalence of Nasal Botfly Cephalopenia titillator in Camels in Tripoli-Libya

Authors: A. S. El Naas, K. S. Ganghish, A. O. Booker, O. Elwaer

Abstract:

10 out of 40 camels examined at Tripoli slaughter places were infected with the camel nasal bot fly Cephalopenia titillator. The larvae occurred mainly in the nasopharynx and occasionally the larvae were found embedded between turbinated bones. The nasal cavity was congested and filled with mucus in which some larvae were entangled. This work is undertaken to determine the Prevalence of Cephalopenia titillator of camel slaughtered in Tripoli-Libya.

Keywords: Cephalopenia titillator, camels, Libya, larvae, nasopharynx

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2532 Heritage of the Ancient Greco-Roman Cities and Harbors in the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Wessam Fekry Ibrahim Moussa

Abstract:

The northwest coast of Egypt embraces about 500 km of the Mediterranean coastline. The area covered extends from Alexandria on the East to the village of Sallum at Egypt's border with Libya in the west with an average depth of 20-70 km. When one looks at this long strip of land, one is struck by the fact that, from the archaeological point of view, one knows relatively little about this region during ancient times, its history, villages, inhabitants, and heritage. According to classical writers, in antiquity, the area seemed to be more populated and characterized by its rich buildings and inhabitants. They mentioned several Greco-Roman towns and harbors scattered along the coast nearly 2 thousand years ago. Strabo, for instance, in his book 17, confirmed the existence of about 12 several clusters along the coast, which varied between cities, villages, harbors, and small islands. Claudius Ptolemaeus also enumerated many marina sites as well as some small cities and villages. Unfortunately, nowadays, most of them have been lost either due to the extensive development of the north coast, Natural Disasters, or Erosion Factors. However, recent excavations carried out within the area revealed just a little of these settlements. The aim of this study is to reveal the secrets of the hidden heritage of those ancient sites and shed light on the role they played in the past, as some of them used to be stops on the trade route between Libya and Egypt (Strabo 17) or major centers for some of the international imports. The study will explore the archeological evidence using the analytical methodology to analyze each site and identify its features and significances in order to conclude the importance and role it once played during the past. Findings could be used by authorities and policymakers to utilize these heritage resources to improve cultural tourism within the area and enhance the tourist's experience.

Keywords: Greco Roman, heritage, ancient cities, north west coast

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2531 Prevalence of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Women of Childbearing Age in the North-West of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila, Basma Nuri Kajruba, Hanan Elhadi, Rehab Ramadan Wali

Abstract:

Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by a decrease of Hb (hemoglobin), serum iron, ferritin, and RBC (red blood cells) (shape and size). Also, it is characterized by an increase in total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Red blood cells become microctytic and hypochromic due to a decrease in iron content. This study was conducted in the north west of Libya and included 210 women in childbearing age (18-45 years) who were visiting women clinic. After filling the questionnaire, blood samples were taken and analyzed for hematological and biochemical profiles. Biochemical tests included measurement of serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Among the total sample (210 women), there were 87 (41.42%) pregnant and 123 (58.57%) non-pregnant women (includes married and single). Pregnant women (87) were classified according to the gestational age into first, second, and third trimesters. The means of biochemical and hematological parameters in the studied samples were: Hb = 10.37± 2.02 g/dl, RBC = 3.78± 1.037 m/m3, serum iron 61.86± 40.28 µg/dl, and TIBC = 386.01 ± 94.91 µg/dl. In this study, we considered that any women have hemoglobin below 11.5 g/dl is anemic. 89.1%, 69.5%, and 47.8% of pregnant women who belong to third trimester had low (below normal value) Hb, serum iron, and ferritin, i.e. iron deficiency anemia was more common in third trimester among the first and the second trimesters. Third trimester pregnant women also had high TIBC more than first and second trimesters.

Keywords: red blood cells, hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity, ferritin

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2530 Transition Economies, Typology, and Models: The Case of Libya

Authors: Abderahman Efhialelbum

Abstract:

The period since the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, and the collapse of the former Soviet Union in December 1985 has seen a major change in the economies and labour markets of Eastern Europe. The events also had reverberating effects across Asia and South America and parts of Africa, including Libya. This article examines the typologies and the models of transition economies. Also, it sheds light on the Libyan transition in particular and the impact of Qadhafi’s regime on the transition process. Finally, it illustrates how the Libyan transition process followed the trajectory of other countries using economic indicators such as free trade, property rights, and inflation.

Keywords: transition, economy, typology, model, Libya

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2529 Political Alienation and Corruption in Libya

Authors: Mabroka B. Al-Werfalli

Abstract:

This paper looks at some aspects of Libya’s political culture relating to corruption and tries to map the links that bond political alienation to corruption. The subject was approached by surveying opinion. The study, of which culture of corruption was part, concerned the phenomena of political alienation in Libya. It was based on a survey conducted in winter 2001 and targeted a sample of 877 participants from the city of Benghazi. The questions were designed to determine the extent to which corruption is seen, by the Libyans, as a national problem. It also describes perceptions about levels, types and causes of corruption; trust in governmental institutions and senior officials of the State and assessments of anti-corruption regulations and actions taken by the regime.

Keywords: anti-corruption, corruption, culture of corruption, participating in corruption, political alienation, political culture

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2528 Sustainability as a Criterion in the Reconstruction of Libya’s Public Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Haitam Emhemad, Brian Agnew, David Greenwood

Abstract:

Amongst the many priorities facing Libya following the 2011 uprising is the provision of a transport infrastructure that will meet the nation’s needs and not undermine its prospects for economic prosperity as with many developing economies non-technical issues such as management, planning and financing are the major barriers to the efficient and effective provision of transport infrastructure. This is particularly true in the case of the effective incorporation of sustainability criteria, and the research upon which this paper is based involves the examination of alternative ways of approaching this problem. It is probably fair to say that criteria that relate to sustainability have not, historically, featured strongly in Libya’s approach to the development of its transport infrastructure. However, the current reappraisal of how best to redevelop the country’s transport infrastructure that has been afforded by recent events may offer the opportunity to alter this. The research examines recent case studies from a number of countries to explore ways in which sustainability has been included as a criterion for planning and procurement decisions. There will also be an in-depth investigation into the Libyan planning and legislative context to examine the feasibility of the introduction of such sustainability criteria into the process of planning and procurement of Libya’s transport infrastructure.

Keywords: Libya reconstruction, sustainability criteria, transport infrastructure, public transport

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