Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Neda Nabid

41 Seismic Performance of RC Frames Equipped with Friction Panels Under Different Slip Load Distributions

Authors: Neda Nabid, Iman Hajirasouliha, Sanaz Shirinbar

Abstract:

One of the most challenging issues in earthquake engineering is to find effective ways to reduce earthquake forces and damage to structural and non-structural elements under strong earthquakes. While friction dampers are the most efficient systems to improve the seismic performance of substandard structures, their optimum design is a challenging task. This research aims to find more appropriate slip load distribution pattern for efficient design of friction panels. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed on 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20-story RC frame using Drain-2dx software to find the appropriate range of slip loads and investigate the effects of different distribution patterns (cantilever, uniform, triangle, and reverse triangle) under six different earthquake records. The results indicate that using triangle load distribution can significantly increase the energy dissipation capacity of the frame and reduce the maximum inter-storey drift, and roof displacement.

Keywords: friction panels, slip load, distribution patterns, RC frames, energy dissipation

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40 A Methodology for Seismic Performance Enhancement of RC Structures Equipped with Friction Energy Dissipation Devices

Authors: Neda Nabid

Abstract:

Friction-based supplemental devices have been extensively used for seismic protection and strengthening of structures, however, the conventional use of these dampers may not necessarily lead to an efficient structural performance. Conventionally designed friction dampers follow a uniform height-wise distribution pattern of slip load values for more practical simplicity. This can lead to localizing structural damage in certain story levels, while the other stories accommodate a negligible amount of relative displacement demand. A practical performance-based optimization methodology is developed to tackle with structural damage localization of RC frame buildings with friction energy dissipation devices under severe earthquakes. The proposed methodology is based on the concept of uniform damage distribution theory. According to this theory, the slip load values of the friction dampers redistribute and shift from stories with lower relative displacement demand to the stories with higher inter-story drifts to narrow down the discrepancy between the structural damage levels in different stories. In this study, the efficacy of the proposed design methodology is evaluated through the seismic performance of five different low to high-rise RC frames equipped with friction wall dampers under six real spectrum-compatible design earthquakes. The results indicate that compared to the conventional design, using the suggested methodology to design friction wall systems can lead to, by average, up to 40% reduction of maximum inter-story drift; and incredibly more uniform height-wise distribution of relative displacement demands under the design earthquakes.

Keywords: friction damper, nonlinear dynamic analysis, RC structures, seismic performance, structural damage

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39 An Investigation about Rate Of Evaporation from the Water Surface and LNG Pool

Authors: Farokh Alipour, Ali Falavand, Neda Beit Saeid

Abstract:

The calculation of the effect of accidental releases of flammable materials such as LNG requires the use of a suitable consequence model. This study is due to providing a planning advice for developments in the vicinity of LNG sites and other sites handling flammable materials. In this paper, an applicable algorithm that is able to model pool fires on water is presented and applied to estimate pool fire damage zone. This procedure can be used to model pool fires on land and could be helpful in consequence modeling and domino effect zone measurements of flammable materials which is needed in site selection and plant layout.

Keywords: LNG, pool fire, spill, radiation

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38 Monotonicity of the Jensen Functional for f-Divergences via the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law

Authors: Neda Lovričević, Đilda Pečarić, Josip Pečarić

Abstract:

The Jensen functional in its discrete form is brought in relation to the Csiszar divergence functional, this time via its monotonicity property. This approach presents a generalization of the previously obtained results that made use of interpolating Jensen-type inequalities. Thus the monotonicity property is integrated with the Zipf-Mandelbrot law and applied to f-divergences for probability distributions that originate from the Csiszar divergence functional: Kullback-Leibler divergence, Hellinger distance, Bhattacharyya distance, chi-square divergence, total variation distance. The Zipf-Mandelbrot and the Zipf law are widely used in various scientific fields and interdisciplinary and here the focus is on the aspect of the mathematical inequalities.

Keywords: Jensen functional, monotonicity, Csiszar divergence functional, f-divergences, Zipf-Mandelbrot law

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37 How to Enhance Performance of Universities by Implementing Balanced Scorecard with Using FDM and ANP

Authors: Neda Jalaliyoon, Nooh Abu Bakar, Hamed Taherdoost

Abstract:

The present research recommended balanced scorecard (BSC) framework to appraise the performance of the universities. As the original model of balanced scorecard has four perspectives in order to implement BSC in present research the same model with “financial perspective”, “customer”,” internal process” and “learning and growth” is used as well. With applying fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) and questionnaire sixteen measures of performance were identified. Moreover, with using the analytic network process (ANP) the weights of the selected indicators were determined. Results indicated that the most important BSC’s aspect were Internal Process (0.3149), Customer (0.2769), Learning and Growth (0.2049), and Financial (0.2033) respectively. The proposed BSC framework can help universities to enhance their efficiency in competitive environment.

Keywords: balanced scorecard, higher education, fuzzy delphi method, analytic network process (ANP)

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36 Procalcitonin and Other Biomarkers in Sepsis Patients: A Prospective Study

Authors: Neda Valizadeh, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Arvin Najafi

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP), procalcitonin (PCT), proendothelin-1 (proET-1) levels with sepsis severity in Emergency ward patients. Materials and Methods: We assessed the predictive value of MRproANP, PCT, copeptin, and proET-1 in early sepsis among patients referring to the emergency ward with a suspected sepsis. Results-132 patients were enrolled in this study. 45 (34%) patients had a final diagnosis of sepsis. A higher percentage of patients with definite sepsis had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria at initial visit in comparison with no-sepsis patients (P<0.05) and were admitted to the hospital (P<0.05). PCT levels were higher in sepsis patients [P<0.05]. There was no significant differences for MRproANP or proET-1 in sepsis patients (P=0.47). Conclusion: A combination of SIRS criteria and PCT levels is beneficial for the early sepsis diagnosis in emergency ward patients with a suspicious infection disease.

Keywords: emergency, prolactin, sepsis, biomarkers

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
35 Location Detection of Vehicular Accident Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units Navigator

Authors: Neda Navidi, Rene Jr. Landry

Abstract:

Vehicle tracking and accident recognizing are considered by many industries like insurance and vehicle rental companies. The main goal of this paper is to detect the location of a car accident by combining different methods. The methods, which are considered in this paper, are Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units (GNSS/IMU)-based navigation and vehicle accident detection algorithms. They are expressed by a set of raw measurements, which are obtained from a designed integrator black box using GNSS and inertial sensors. Another concern of this paper is the definition of accident detection algorithm based on its jerk to identify the position of that accident. In fact, the results convinced us that, even in GNSS blockage areas, the position of the accident could be detected by GNSS/INS integration with 50% improvement compared to GNSS stand alone.

Keywords: driver behavior monitoring, integration, IMU, GNSS, monitoring, tracking

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34 Geometric Continuity in the Form of Iranian Domes, Study of Prominent Safavid and Sasanian Domes

Authors: Nima Valibeig, Haniyeh Mohammadi, Neda Sadat Abdelahi

Abstract:

Persian domes follow different forms depending on the materials used to construct and other factors. One of the factors that shape the form of a dome is the geometric proportion used in the drawing and construction of the dome. Some commonly used proportions are revealed by analysing the shapes and geometric ratio of the monuments’ domes. The proportions are achieved by the proficiency of the skilled architects of the buildings. These proportions can be used to reconstruct damaged parts of the historical monuments. Most of the research on domes is about the historical or stability features of domes, and less attention is made to the geometric system in domes. Therefore, in this study, we study the explicit and implicit geometric proportions in Iranian dome structures for the first time. The study is done based on a literature review and field survey. This research reveals that the permanent geometric rules are perfectly used in the design and construction of the prominent domes.

Keywords: geometry in architecture, architectural proportions, prominent domes, iranian golden ratio, geometric proportion

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
33 A FR Fire-Off with Polysilicic Acid for Pes/Co Blends

Authors: Raziye Atakan, Ebru Celebi, Gulay Ozcan, Neda Soydan, A. Sezai Sarac

Abstract:

In this study, a novel polymeric flame retardant chemical with phosphorous-nitrogen synergism was synthesized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydrophilic polyester resin (PR), phosphoric acid and dicyandiamide (DCDA). Polyester/Cotton (Pes/Co) blend fabrics were treated via pad-dry-cure process with this synthesized chemical. PVA (PR)-P-DCDA has shown that it is an effective flame retardant on the fabrics. In order to improve durable flame retardancy for cotton part of the blend, polysilicic acid and citric acid monohydrate auxiliaries were added in FR finishing bath at different concentrations. Flammability and characteristic properties of the sample were tested according to relevant ISO standard and procedures. To do so, ISO 6940 vertical flammability test, TGA, DTA, LOI and FTIR analysis have been performed. The obtained results showed that this new finishing formulation is a good char-forming agent for the PES/CO blends and polysilicic acid could be used for cellulosic blends with PVA (PR)-P-DCDA.

Keywords: flame retardancy, flammability, Pes/Co blends, polysilicic acid

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32 The Effect of Aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium Blossom Essential Oil on Premenstrual Syndrome in University Students: A Clinical Trial Study

Authors: Neda Jamalimoghadam, Naval Heydari, Maliheh Abootalebi, Maryam Kasraeian, M. Emamghoreishi , Akbarzadeh Marzieh

Abstract:

Background: The aim was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using Citrus aurantium blossom essential oil on premenstrual syndrome in university students. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial was controlled on 62 students from March 2016 to February 2017. The intervention with 0.5% of C. Aurantium blossom essential oil and control was inhalation of odorless sweet almond oil in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The screening questionnaire (PSST) for PMSwas filled out before and also one and two months after the intervention. Results: Mean score of overall symptoms of PMS between the Bitter orange and control groups In the first (p < 0.003) and second months (p < 0.001) of the intervention was significant. Besides, decreased the mean score of psychological symptoms in the intervention group (p < 0.001), but on physical symptoms and social function were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium blossom improved the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

Keywords: aromatherapy, Citrus Aurantium, premenstrual syndrome, oil, students

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31 A Multimodal Approach towards Intersemiotic Translations of 'The Great Gatsby'

Authors: Neda Razavi Kaleibar, Bahloul Salmani

Abstract:

The present study dealt with the multimodal analysis of two cinematic adaptations of The Great Gatsby as intersemiotic translation. The assessment in this study went beyond the faithfulness based on repetition, addition, deletion, and creation which limit the analysis from other aspects. In fact, this research aimed to pinpoint the role of multimodality in examining the intersemiotic translations of the novel into film by means of analyzing different applied modes. Through a qualitative type of research, the analysis was conducted based on the theory proposed by Burn as Kineikonic mode theory derived from the concept of multimodality. The results of the study revealed that due to the applied modes, each adaptation represents a sense and meaning different from the other one. Analyzing the results and discussions, it was concluded that not only the modes have an undeniable role in film adaptations, but rather multimodal analysis including different nonverbal modes can be a useful and functional choice for analyzing the intersemiotic translations.

Keywords: cinematic adaptation, intersemiotic translation, kineikonic mode, multimodality

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30 Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh Rituals as Creative Cultural Product in Tourism; Case Study: Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Neda Torabi Farsani, Mohammad Mortazavi, Maryam Masaeli

Abstract:

Nowadays intangible heritage as a creative product plays an important role in promoting tourism. The intangible heritage is transmitted from past generation to the present and future generation and constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, nature and history. In recent decade, intangible heritage especially Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh rituals as creative cultural product attract many tourists to a destination and they well-known as tourist attractions in Iran. The study was conducted in Isfahan city. This research has two major purposes: 1) to introduce Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual as tourist attraction and, 2) to investigate the attitude of domestic tourists towards Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual in Isfahan city. On the basis of the results of this study, it can be concluded that the domestic tourists are interested in gaining experience and increasing their knowledge in Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual.

Keywords: Isfahan, Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual, tourist attitude, Iran

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29 Distribution of Laurencia caspica, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Cladophora glomerata along the Southern Parts of the Caspian Sea and Their Relation with Environmental Factors

Authors: Neda Mehdipour, Mohammad Hasan Gerami, Reza Rahnama, Ali Hamzehpour, Hanieh Nemati

Abstract:

Laurencia caspica (red macroalgae) Enteromorpha intestinalis and Cladophora glomerata (green macroalgae) are three major macroalgae that grow along the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea. We investigated spatial and temporal variation of these three macroalgal species on hard substrates and their relation with environmental factors in 2014. Sampling was done seasonally from spring to winter 2014 from eight sites. Results indicated that of these three species had heterogeneity distribution along southern parts of the Caspian Sea. In addition, C. glomerata was dominant taxa in all stations and had maximum contribution in dissimilarities between sampling sites. According to BIO-ENV salinity, pH and Silicate were the best subset variables for explaining changes in the abundance over time of the hard-substrates macroalgae fauna under study. However, the position of species in Redundancy Analysis (RDA) plot revealed that L. caspica associated with temperature, E. intestinalis with pH and C. glomerata associated with phosphate and silicate.

Keywords: macroalgae, distribution, environmental factors, Caspian Sea

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28 The Different Types of French Language in the Processes of Acquisition: Specifically about The Humor

Authors: Akbarnejad Neda

Abstract:

A foreign language acquisition occurs when we can tell a joke and understand it. Most jokes are told in slang and common language. In the process of foreign language acquisition, an autonomous learner try to learn the standard language. But there is a colossal divergence between the usage of the different types of language in society. Here, we investigate the french slang and common language and examine the accurate perception of their usage. We illuminate the slang language in the french literature that provide considerably different types of language for an autonomous learner. We provide furthermore evidence from the french novels that demonstrate properly the different types of language and give in one sentence its social meanings. For example, the famous Queneau expression « Doukipudonktant » present the impact of slang language in society. The characters in the novel transfer the slang and the common language and their accurate usages. We present that the language of the autonomous learner depends on the language of the text that is read. Because literature is a vehicle of the culture and the expression demonstrate their real significations and usage in the culture, slang and common language have a crucial role in the culture and all of them are manifested in the oral language.

Keywords: common language, french, humor, slang language

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27 Mineralogy and Classification of Altered Host Rocks in the Zaghia Iron Oxide Deposit, East of Bafq, Central Iran

Authors: Azat Eslamizadeh, Neda Akbarian

Abstract:

The Zaghia Iron ore, in 15 km east of a town named Bafq, is located in Precambrian formation of Central Iran in form of a small local deposit. The Volcano-sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Cambrian age, belonging to Rizu series have spread through the region. Substantial portion of the deposit is covered by alluvial deposits. The rocks hosting the Zaghia iron ore have a main combination of rhyolitic tuffs along with clastic sediments, carbonate include sandstone, limestone, dolomite, conglomerate and is somewhat metamorphed causing them to have appeared as slate and phyllite. Moreover, carbonate rocks are in existence as skarn compound of marble bearing tremolite with mineralization of magnetite-hematite. The basic igneous rocks have dramatically altered into green rocks consist of actinolite-tremolite and chlorite along with amount of iron (magnetite + Martite). The youngest units of ore-bearing rocks in the area are found as dolerite - diabase dikes. The dikes are cutting the rhyolitic tuffs and carbonate rocks.

Keywords: Zaghia, iron ore deposite, mineralogy, petrography Bafq, Iran

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26 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Highly Porous Scaffold for Biomedicine

Authors: Neda Sinaei, Davood Zare, Mehrdad Azin

Abstract:

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biocompatible and biodegradable polymers produced by a wide range of bacterial strains. These biopolymers are significantly studied for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications because of their fascinating physicochemical properties. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) scaffold that has been extracted from a novel bacteria using oil wastewater was selected to study. Some physical parameters affecting scaffold properties such as PHB concentration, solvent evaporation speed, and ultrasonic time were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the porosity. Afterward, the biocompatibility of PHB scaffold was assessed. Initial results showed the highly porous PHB scaffold structure with a variety of pore sizes. Subsequent results indicated that more unique pore sizes can be obtained by optimizing physical factors. It would be noticed that the morphology of the pore structure was accordingly affected by ultrasonic time. Hence, In vitro cell viability tests on the PHB scaffold using human foreskin fibroblasts revealed strong cell attachment and proliferation supports. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cost-effective PHB scaffold has the potential using as a biomaterial cell adhesion substrate in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Polyhydroxybutyrate, biocompatible, scaffold, porous, tissue engineering

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25 Stereotypes in Perception of Otherness in Balkans Literature from the Last Part of 20ᵗʰ Century

Authors: Magdalena Kostova-Panayotova, Neda-Maria Panayotova

Abstract:

The article is focused on a problem that tends to be extremely characteristic and essential to European literature – the relations between the Balkan Peninsula and Europe and the stereotypes the Balkans evoke – a melting pot, a powder keg, a bridge, a crossroads, along with other negative definitions. The stereotypes and visions are examined as the layered images of a particular nation. The work deals with the Balkan writers’ way of confronting stereotypes by reversing the image of the ‘dark’ Balkans and the ‘bright’ Europe and thus establishing the Balkans as a place of beauty, music, and poetry. In many aspects, the European image of the Balkans (the so-called Balkanism) is comparable to the European attitude to the Orient (the so-called Orientalism). On the basis of the analysis of specific texts by Balkan authors, the article proves that the identity of the person of the late 20th and early 21st century is something individual and much more complicated than a patriotic self-definition because the identity of the contemporary person is multilayered. It is not flattering to be a bridge, a crossroads or a corner. However, a person is a creature of transition. Our idea demonstrates that the state of transition always brings both weakness and strength – it is the Balkans that connect Europe to the world.

Keywords: image, Slavs, Balkans, identity of the modern Balkan person

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24 Numerical Study on the Ultimate Load of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular KK-Joints at Fire-Induced Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari-Dodaran

Abstract:

A total of 270 nonlinear steady-state finite element (FE) analyses were performed on 54 FE models of two-planar circular hollow section (CHS) KK-joints subjected to axial loading at five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). The primary goal was to investigate the effects of temperature and geometrical characteristics on the ultimate strength, modes of failure, and initial stiffness of the KK-joints. Results indicated that on an average basis, the ultimate load of a two-planar tubular KK-joint at 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC is 90%, 75%, 45%, and 16% of the joint’s ultimate load at ambient temperature, respectively. Outcomes of the parametric study showed that replacing the yield stress at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature to apply the EN 1993-1-8 equations for the calculation of the joint’s ultimate load at elevated temperatures may lead to highly unconservative results that might endanger the safety of the structure. Results of the parametric study were then used to develop a set of design formulas, through nonlinear regression analyses, to calculate the ultimate load of two-planar tubular KK-joints subjected to axial loading at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: ultimate load, two-planar tubular KK-joint, axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation

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23 Analysis of Organizational Factors Effect on Performing Electronic Commerce Strategy: A Case Study of the Namakin Food Industry

Authors: Seyed Hamidreza Hejazi Dehghani, Neda Khounsari

Abstract:

Quick growth of electronic commerce in developed countries means that developing nations must change in their commerce strategies fundamentally. Most organizations are aware of the impact of the Internet and e-Commerce on the future of their firm, and thus, they have to focus on organizational factors that have an effect on the deployment of an e-Commerce strategy. In this situation, it is essential to identify organizational factors such as the organizational culture, human resources, size, structure and product/service that impact an e-commerce strategy. Accordingly, this research specifies the effects of organizational factors on applying an e-commerce strategy in the Namakin food industry. The statistical population of this research is 95 managers and employees. Cochran's formula is used for determination of the sample size that is 77 of the statistical population. Also, SPSS and Smart PLS software were utilized for analyzing the collected data. The results of hypothesis testing show that organizational factors have positive and significant effects of applying an e-Commerce strategy. On the other hand, sub-hypothesizes show that effectiveness of the organizational culture and size criteria were rejected and other sub-hypothesis were accepted.

Keywords: electronic commerce, organizational factors, attitude of managers, organizational readiness

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22 The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach

Authors: Neda Dekamei, Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Bigdeli

Abstract:

Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.

Keywords: backward running, balance, plantar flexion, pre seniors

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21 Selective Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitrogen over Nickel Oxide-hydroxide /Graphite Prepared with an Electro Deposition Method

Authors: Marzieh Joda, Narges Fallah, Neda Afsham

Abstract:

Graphite-supported two different of morphology α and β -Ni (OH)₂ electrodes were prepared by electrochemical deposition at appropriate potentials with regard to Ni (II)/Ni (III) redox couple under alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively, for selective oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen in the direct electro-oxidation process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the electrolyte containing NH₃ indicated mediation of electron transfer by Ni (OH)₂ and the electrode surface was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectrometer (RS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results of surface characterization indicated the presence of α polymorphs which is the stable phase of Ni (OH)₂ /Graphite. Cyclic voltammograms gave information on the nature of electron transfer between nitrogen species and working electrode and revealed that the potential has depended on both nature ammonia oxidation and that of concentration. The mechanism of selective ammonia conversion to nitrogen and byproducts, namely NO₂- and NO₃- was established by Cyclic voltammograms and current efficiency. The removal efficiency and selective conversion of ammonia (0.1 M KNO₃ + 0.01 M Ni(NO₃)₂, pH 11, 250°C) on Nickel Oxide-hydroxide /Graphite was determined based on potential controlled experiments.

Keywords: Electro deposition, Nickel oxide-hydroxide, Nitrogen selectivity, Ammonia oxidation

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20 CFD Modeling of Mixing Enhancement in a Pitted Micromixer by High Frequency Ultrasound Waves

Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Ebrahim Ebrahimi, Neda Azimi

Abstract:

Use of ultrasound waves is one of the techniques for increasing the mixing and mass transfer in the microdevices. Ultrasound propagation into liquid medium leads to stimulation of the fluid, creates turbulence and so increases the mixing performance. In this study, CFD modeling of two-phase flow in a pitted micromixer equipped with a piezoelectric with frequency of 1.7 MHz has been studied. CFD modeling of micromixer at different velocity of fluid flow in the absence of ultrasound waves and with ultrasound application has been performed. The hydrodynamic of fluid flow and mixing efficiency for using ultrasound has been compared with the layout of no ultrasound application. The result of CFD modeling shows well agreements with the experimental results. The results showed that the flow pattern inside the micromixer in the absence of ultrasound waves is parallel, while when ultrasound has been applied, it is not parallel. In fact, propagation of ultrasound energy into the fluid flow in the studied micromixer changed the hydrodynamic and the forms of the flow pattern and caused to mixing enhancement. In general, from the CFD modeling results, it can be concluded that the applying ultrasound energy into the liquid medium causes an increase in the turbulences and mixing and consequently, improves the mass transfer rate within the micromixer.

Keywords: CFD modeling, ultrasound, mixing, mass transfer

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19 Effects of Geometrical Parameters on Static Strength of Tubular KT-Joints at Fire Condition

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari Dodaran

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the structural behavior of tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading at fire induced elevated temperatures. At first, a finite element (FE) model was developed and validated against the data available from experimental tests. Then, a set of 810 FE analyses were performed to study the influence of temperature and dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. The joints were analyzed under two types of axial loading and five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). Results show that the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of KT-joints decrease considerably by increasing the temperature. In the joints having bigger values of the β, the temperature elevation leads to less reduction in ultimate strength; while in the joints with bigger values of the γ, the temperature elevation results in more reduction in ultimate strength. The influence of the θ on the ultimate strength is independent from the temperature. To our knowledge, there is no design formula available for determining the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures. Hence, after parametric study, two equations were developed through nonlinear regression, for calculating the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loads, fire condition, parametric formula, static strength, tubular KT-joint

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18 Peltier Air Conditioning System for Preventing Ambient Heating: An Alternative to Gas Air Conditioners

Authors: Siamak Eskandari, Neda Ebadi

Abstract:

After discovering and using Freon as refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners, researchers have been working hard to minimize massive environmental damage caused by this type of systems, including ozone depletion, heat production, and urban warming. However, there is a growing concern for global warming and climate change and its impacts on climates. Although gas air conditioners can provide comfort in short term, there are long-term consequences and effects, including global warming, polar ice melting, sea level rising, rising sea surface temperatures, reduction in seasonal precipitation, tropical storms, and drought. In this theoretical and practical study, Peltier electronic chip was used with no gas in the structure and operation. In fact, cooling and heating are based on bipolar electronics. With an innovative method, Peltier air conditioners provide cooling in warm seasons and heating in cold seasons in buildings. Such a system prevents ambient warming. The problem of air circulation between high buildings in large cities and draught will be considerably resolved through the use of the silent fan in the system. In addition, the system is designed and developed in accordance with international standards such as LEED and Energy Star.

Keywords: energy, Building cooling and heating, peltier, leed, energy star

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17 Evaluating the Fire Resistance of Offshore Tubular K-Joints Subjected to Balanced Axial Loads

Authors: Neda Azari Dodaran, Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

Results of 405 finite element (FE) analyses were used in the present research to study the effect of the joint geometry on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of tubular K-joints subjected to axial loading at fire-induced elevated temperatures. The FE models were validated against the data available from experimental tests. Structural behavior under different temperatures (200ºC, 400ºC, 500ºC, and 700ºC) was investigated and compared to the behavior at ambient temperature (20ºC). A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. Afterwards, ultimate strength data extracted from the FE analyses were compared with the values calculated from the equations proposed by available design codes in which the ultimate strength of the joint at elevated temperatures is obtained by replacing the yield stress of the steel at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature. It was indicated that this method may not have acceptable accuracy for K-joints under axial loading. Hence, a design formula was developed, through nonlinear regression analyses, to determine the ultimate strength of K-joints subjected to balanced axial loads at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation, static strength, tubular K-joint

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16 Production of Novel Antibiotics by Importing eryK and eryG Genes in Streptomyces fradiae

Authors: Neda Gegar Goshe, Hossein Rassi

Abstract:

The antibacterial properties of macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin and tylosin) depend ultimately on the glycosylation of otherwise inactive polyketide lactones. Among the sugars commonly found in such macrolides are various 6-deoxyhexoses including the 3-dimethylamino sugars mycaminose and desosamine (4-deoxymycaminose). Some macrolides (such as tylosin) possess multiple sugar moieties, whereas others (such as erythromycin) have two sugar substituents. Streptomyces fradiae is an ideal host for development of generic polyketide-overproducing strains because it contains three of the most common precursors-malonyl-CoA, methylmalonyl-CoA and ethylmalonyl-CoA-used by modular PKS, and is a host that is amenable to genetic manipulation. As patterns of glycosylation markedly influence a macrolide's drug activity, there is considerable interest in the possibility of using combinatorial biosynthesis to generate new pairings of polyketide lactones with sugars, especially 6-deoxyhexoses. Here, we report a successful attempt to alter the aminodeoxyhexose-biosynthetic capacity of Streptomyces fradiae (a producer of tylosin) by importing genes from the erythromycin producer Saccharopolyspora erythraea. The biotransformation of erythromycin-D into the desired major component erythromycin-A involves two final enzymatic reactions, EryK-catalyzed hydroxylation at the C-12 position of the aglycone and EryG-catalyzed O methylation at the C-3 position of macrose .This engineered S. fradiae produced substantial amounts of two potentially useful macrolides that had not previously been obtained by fermentation.

Keywords: Streptomyces fradiae, eryK and eryG genes, tylosin, antibiotics

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15 Production of Novel Antibiotics of Tylosin by Importing eryK and eryG Genes in Streptomyces fradiae

Authors: Neda Gegar Goshe, M. Moradi, Hossein Rassi

Abstract:

The antibacterial properties of macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin and tylosin) depend ultimately on the glycosylation of otherwise inactive polyketide lactones. Among the sugars commonly found in such macrolides are various 6-deoxyhexoses including the 3-dimethylamino sugars mycaminose and desosamine (4-deoxymycaminose). Some macrolides (such as tylosin) possess multiple sugar moieties, whereas others (such as erythromycin) have two sugar substituents. Streptomyces fradiae is an ideal host for development of generic polyketide-overproducing strains because it contains three of the most common precursors-malonyl-CoA, methylmalonyl-CoA and ethylmalonyl-CoA-used by modular PKS, and is a host that is amenable to genetic manipulation. As patterns of glycosylation markedly influence a macrolide's drug activity, there is considerable interest in the possibility of using combinatorial biosynthesis to generate new pairings of polyketide lactones with sugars, especially 6-deoxyhexoses. Here, we report a successful attempt to alter the aminodeoxyhexose-biosynthetic capacity of Streptomyces fradiae (a producer of tylosin) by importing genes from the erythromycin producer Saccharopolyspora erythraea. The bio transformation of erythromycin-D into the desired major component erythromycin-A involves two final enzymatic reactions, EryK-catalyzed hydroxylation at the C-12 position of the aglycone and EryG-catalyzed O methylation at the C-3 position of macrose. This engineered S. fradiae produced substantial amounts of two potentially useful macrolides that had not previously been obtained by fermentation.

Keywords: tylosin, eryK and eryG genes, streptomyces fradiae

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14 The Relationship between First-Day Body Temperature and Mortality in Traumatic Patients

Authors: Neda Valizadeh, Mani Mofidi, Sama Haghighi, Ali Hashemaghaee, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani

Abstract:

Background: There are many systems and parameters to evaluate trauma patients in the emergency department. Most of these evaluations are to distinguish patients with worse conditions so that the care systems have a better prediction of condition for a better care-giving. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between axillary body temperature and mortality in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple traumas and with other clinical and para-clinical factors. Methods: All patients between 16 and 75 years old with multiple traumas who were admitted into Emergency Department then hospitalized in the ICU were included in our study. An axillary temperature in the first and the second day of admission, Glasgow cola scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, Serum glucose levels, and white blood cell counts of all patients at the admission day were recorded and their relationship with mortality were analyzed by SPSS software with suitable statistical tests. Results: Axillary body temperatures in the first and second day were statistically lower in expired traumatic patients (p=0.001 and p<0,001 respectively). Patients with lower GCS had a significantly lower first-day temperature and a significantly higher mortality. (p=0.006 and p=0.006 respectively). Furthermore, the first-day axillary temperature was significantly lower in patients with a lower first-day systolic blood pressure (p=0.014). Conclusion: Our results showed that lower axillary body temperature in the first day is associated with higher mortality, lower GCS, and lower systolic blood pressure. Thus, this could be used as a predictor of mortality in evaluation of traumatic patients in emergency settings.

Keywords: fever, trauma, mortality, emergency

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13 Spatial Information and Urbanizing Futures

Authors: Mohammad Talei, Neda Ranjbar Nosheri, Reza Kazemi Gorzadini

Abstract:

Today municipalities are searching for the new tools for increasing the public participation in different levels of urban planning. This approach of urban planning involves the community in planning process using participatory approaches instead of the long traditional top-down planning methods. These tools can be used to obtain the particular problems of urban furniture form the residents’ point of view. One of the tools that is designed with this goal is public participation GIS (PPGIS) that enables citizen to record and following up their feeling and spatial knowledge regarding main problems of the city, specifically urban furniture, in the form of maps. However, despite the good intentions of PPGIS, its practical implementation in developing countries faces many problems including the lack of basic supporting infrastructure and services and unavailability of sophisticated public participatory models. In this research we develop a PPGIS using of Web 2 to collect voluntary geodataand to perform spatial analysis based on Spatial OnLine Analytical Processing (SOLAP) and Spatial Data Mining (SDM). These tools provide urban planners with proper informationregarding the type, spatial distribution and the clusters of reported problems. This system is implemented in a case study area in Tehran, Iran and the challenges to make it applicable and its potential for real urban planning have been evaluated. It helps decision makers to better understand, plan and allocate scarce resources for providing most requested urban furniture.

Keywords: PPGIS, spatial information, urbanizing futures, urban planning

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12 Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Mixing Enhancement by Stimulation of Ferrofluid under Magnetic Field

Authors: Neda Azimi, Masoud Rahimi, Faezeh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to investigate the effect of ferrofluid stimulation on hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of two immiscible liquid phases in a Y-micromixer. The main purpose of this work was to develop a numerical model that is able to simulate hydrodynamic of the ferrofluid flow under magnetic field and determine its effect on mass transfer characteristics. A uniform external magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the flow direction. The volume of fluid (VOF) approach was used for simulating the multiphase flow of ferrofluid and two-immiscible liquid flows. The geometric reconstruction scheme (Geo-Reconstruct) based on piecewise linear interpolation (PLIC) was used for reconstruction of the interface in the VOF approach. The mass transfer rate was defined via an equation as a function of mass concentration gradient of the transported species and added into the phase interaction panel using the user-defined function (UDF). The magnetic field was solved numerically by Fluent MHD module based on solving the magnetic induction equation method. CFD results were validated by experimental data and good agreements have been achieved, which maximum relative error for extraction efficiency was about 7.52 %. It was showed that ferrofluid actuation by a magnetic field can be considered as an efficient mixing agent for liquid-liquid two-phase mass transfer in microdevices.

Keywords: CFD modeling, hydrodynamic, micromixer, ferrofluid, mixing

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