Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 191

Search results for: laminated waveguide

191 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh

Abstract:

Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
190 Control of Oxide and Silicon Loss during Exposure of Silicon Waveguide

Authors: Gu Zhonghua

Abstract:

Control method of bulk silicon dioxide etching process to approach then expose silicon waveguide has been developed. It has been demonstrated by silicon waveguide of photonics devices. It is also able to generalize other applications. Use plasma dry etching to etch bulk silicon dioxide and approach oxide-silicon interface accurately, then use dilute HF wet etching to etch silicon dioxide residue layer to expose the silicon waveguide as soft landing. Plasma dry etch macro loading effect and endpoint technology was used to determine dry etch time accurately with a low wafer expose ratio.

Keywords: waveguide, etch, control, silicon loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
189 Compact Low Loss Design of SOI 1x2 Y-Branch Optical Power Splitter with S-Bend Waveguide and Study on the Variation of Transmitted Power with Various Waveguide Parameters

Authors: Nagaraju Pendam, C. P. Vardhani

Abstract:

A simple technology–compatible design of silicon-on-insulator based 1×2 optical power splitter is proposed. For developing large area Opto-electronic Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices, the power splitter is a key passive device. The SOI rib- waveguide dimensions (height, width, and etching depth, refractive indices, length of waveguide) leading simultaneously to single mode propagation. In this paper a low loss optical power splitter is designed by using R Soft cad tool and simulated by Beam propagation method, here s-bend waveguides proposed. We concentrate changing the refractive index difference, branching angle, width of the waveguide, free space wavelength of the waveguide and observing transmitted power, effective refractive index in the designed waveguide, and choosing the best simulated results to be fabricated on silicon-on insulator platform. In this design 1550 nm free spacing are used.

Keywords: beam propagation method, insertion loss, optical power splitter, rib waveguide, transmitted power

Procedia PDF Downloads 592
188 Theory of Gyrotron Amplifier in a Vane-Loaded Waveguide with Inner Dielectric Material

Authors: Reyhaneh Hashemi, Shahrooz Saviz

Abstract:

In his study, we have survey the theory of gyrotron amplifier in a vane-loaded waveguide with inner dielectric material. Dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves emitted by a cylindrical waveguide that provided with wedge-shaped metal vanes projecting radially inward from the wall of the guide and exited in the transverse-electric mode was analysed. From numerical analysis of this dispersion relation, it is shown that the stability behavior of the fast-wave mode is dependent of the dielectric constant. With a small axial momentum spreed, a super bandwidth is shown to be attainable by a mixed mode operation. Also, with the utilization from the numeric analysis of relation dispersion. We show that in the –speed mode, the constant is independent de-electric. With the ratio of dispersion of smell, high –bandwith was obtained for the combined mode. And at the end, we were comparing the result of our work (vane-loaded) by the waveguide with a smooth wall.

Keywords: gyrotron amplifier, waveguide, vane-loaded waveguide, dielectric material, dispersion relation, cylindrical waveguide, fast-wave mode, mixed mode operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
187 Stress Analysis of Laminated Cylinders Subject to the Thermomechanical Loads

Authors: Şafak Aksoy, Ali Kurşun, Erhan Çetin, Mustafa Reşit Haboğlu

Abstract:

In this study, thermo elastic stress analysis is performed on a cylinder made of laminated isotropic materials under thermomechanical loads. Laminated cylinders have many applications such as aerospace, automotive and nuclear plant in the industry. These cylinders generally performed under thermomechanical loads. Stress and displacement distribution of the laminated cylinders are determined using by analytical method both thermal and mechanical loads. Based on the results, materials combination plays an important role on the stresses distribution along the radius. Variation of the stresses and displacements along the radius are presented as graphs. Calculations program are prepared using MATLAB® by authors.

Keywords: isotropic materials, laminated cylinders, thermoelastic stress, thermomechanical load

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
186 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 562
185 The Fire Performance of Exposed Timber Panels

Authors: Bernice V. Y. Wong, Kong Fah Tee

Abstract:

Cross-laminated timber is increasingly being used in the construction of high-rise buildings due to its simple manufacturing system. In term of fire resistance, cross-laminated timber panels are promoted as having excellent fire resistance, comparable to that of non-combustible materials and to heavy timber construction, due to the ability of thick wood assemblies to char slowly at a predictable rate while maintaining most of their strength during the fire exposure. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of cross-laminated timber and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Charring rates for cross-laminated timber panels of those obtained experimentally were compared with those provided by Eurocode simplified calculation methods.

Keywords: timber structure, cross-laminated timber, charring rate, timber fire resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
184 Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications

Authors: Maidul Islam, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Gagan Kumar

Abstract:

We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.

Keywords: plasmonics, sensors, sub-wavelength structures, terahertz

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
183 Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application

Authors: Ahmed Nouainia, Mohamed Hajji, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide. A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz methods is achieved.

Keywords: method MoM-GEC, waveguide, shielding, equivalent circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
182 Behavior of Laminated Plates under Mechanical Loading

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine

Abstract:

In this study the use of two variable refined plate theories of laminated composite plates to static response of laminated plates. The plate theory accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains, and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factor. The validity of the present theory is demonstrated by comparison with solutions available in the literature and finite element method. The result is presented for the static response of simply supported rectangular plates under uniform sinusoidal mechanical loadings.

Keywords: bending, composite, laminate, plates, fem

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
181 Semiconductor Device of Tapered Waveguide for Broadband Optical Communications

Authors: Keita Iwai, Isao Tomita

Abstract:

To expand the optical spectrum for use in broadband optical communications, we study the properties of a semiconductor waveguide device with a tapered structure including its third-order optical nonlinearity. Spectral-broadened output by the tapered structure has the potential to create a compact, built-in device for optical communications. Here we deal with a compound semiconductor waveguide, the material of which is the same as that of laser diodes used in the communication systems, i.e., InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, which has large optical nonlinearity. We confirm that our structure widens the output spectrum sufficiently by controlling its taper form factor while utilizing the large nonlinear refraction of InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ. We also examine the taper effect for nonlinear optical loss.

Keywords: InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, waveguide, nonlinear refraction, spectral spreading, taper device

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
180 On Transferring of Transient Signals along Hollow Waveguide

Authors: E. Eroglu, S. Semsit, E. Sener, U.S. Sener

Abstract:

In Electromagnetics, there are three canonical boundary value problem with given initial conditions for the electromagnetic field sought, namely: Cavity Problem, Waveguide Problem, and External Problem. The Cavity Problem and Waveguide Problem were rigorously studied and new results were arised at original works in the past decades. In based on studies of an analytical time domain method Evolutionary Approach to Electromagnetics (EAE), electromagnetic field strength vectors produced by a time dependent source function are sought. The fields are took place in L2 Hilbert space. The source function that performs signal transferring, energy and surplus of energy has been demonstrated with all clarity. Depth of the method and ease of applications are emerged needs of gathering obtained results. Main discussion is about perfect electric conductor and hollow waveguide. Even if well studied time-domain modes problems are mentioned, specifically, the modes which have a hollow (i.e., medium-free) cross-section domain are considered.

Keywords: evolutionary approach to electromagnetics, time-domain waveguide mode, Neumann problem, Dirichlet boundary value problem, Klein-Gordon

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
179 Study of Waveguide Silica Glasses by Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Mohamed Abdelmounim Bakkali, Mustapha El Mataouy, Abellatif Aaliti, Mouhamed Khaddor

Abstract:

In the paper, we study the effects of introducing hafnium oxide on Raman spectra of silica glass planar waveguide activated by 0.3 mol% Er3+ ions. This work compares Raman spectra measured for three thin films deposited on silicon substrate. The films were prepared with different molar ratio of Si/Hf using sol-gel method and deposited by dip coating technique. The effect of hafnium oxide incorporation on the waveguides shows the evolution of the structure of this material. This structural information is useful to understand the luminescence intensity by means of ion–ion interaction mechanisms.

Keywords: optical amplifiers, non-bridging oxygen, erbium, sol-gel, waveguide, silica-hafnia

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
178 Thermal Elastic Stress Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Composites

Authors: Mustafa Reşit Haboğlu, Ali Kurşun , Şafak Aksoy, Halil Aykul, Numan Behlül Bektaş

Abstract:

A thermal elastic stress analysis of steel fiber reinforced aluminum laminated composite plate is investigated. Four sides of the composite plate are clamped and subjected to a uniform temperature load. The analysis is performed both analytically and numerically. Laminated composite is manufactured via hot pressing method. The investigation of the effects of the orientation angle is provided. Different orientation angles are used such as [0°/90°]s, [30°/-30°]s, [45°/-45°]s and [60/-60]s. The analytical solution is obtained via classical laminated composite theory and the numerical solution is obtained by applying finite element method via ANSYS.

Keywords: laminated composites, thermo elastic stress, finite element method.

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177 Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures

Authors: D. G. Piliposyan

Abstract:

Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.

Keywords: piezoelectric layered structure, periodic phononic crystal, bandgap, bloch waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
176 Numerical Modelling of Laminated Shells Made of Functionally Graded Elastic and Piezoelectric Materials

Authors: Gennady M. Kulikov, Svetlana V. Plotnikova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on implementation of the sampling surfaces (SaS) method for the three-dimensional (3D) stress analysis of functionally graded (FG) laminated elastic and piezoelectric shells. The SaS formulation is based on choosing inside the nth layer In not equally spaced SaS parallel to the middle surface of the shell in order to introduce the electric potentials and displacements of these surfaces as basic shell variables. Such choice of unknowns permits the presentation of the proposed FG piezoelectric shell formulation in a very compact form. The SaS are located inside each layer at Chebyshev polynomial nodes that improves the convergence of the SaS method significantly. As a result, the SaS formulation can be applied efficiently to 3D solutions for FG piezoelectric laminated shells, which asymptotically approach the exact solutions of piezoelectricity as the number of SaS In goes to infinity.

Keywords: electroelasticity, functionally graded material, laminated piezoelectric shell, sampling surfaces method

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175 Time/Temperature-Dependent Finite Element Model of Laminated Glass Beams

Authors: Alena Zemanová, Jan Zeman, Michal Šejnoha

Abstract:

The polymer foil used for manufacturing of laminated glass members behaves in a viscoelastic manner with temperature dependence. This contribution aims at incorporating the time/temperature-dependent behavior of interlayer to our earlier elastic finite element model for laminated glass beams. The model is based on a refined beam theory: each layer behaves according to the finite-strain shear deformable formulation by Reissner and the adjacent layers are connected via the Lagrange multipliers ensuring the inter-layer compatibility of a laminated unit. The time/temperature-dependent behavior of the interlayer is accounted for by the generalized Maxwell model and by the time-temperature superposition principle due to the Williams, Landel, and Ferry. The resulting system is solved by the Newton method with consistent linearization and the viscoelastic response is determined incrementally by the exponential algorithm. By comparing the model predictions against available experimental data, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of the laminated glass units.

Keywords: finite element method, finite-strain Reissner model, Lagrange multipliers, generalized Maxwell model, laminated glass, Newton method, Williams-Landel-Ferry equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
174 Investigation of the Material Behaviour of Polymeric Interlayers in Broken Laminated Glass

Authors: Martin Botz, Michael Kraus, Geralt Siebert

Abstract:

The use of laminated glass gains increasing importance in structural engineering. For safety reasons, at least two glass panes are laminated together with a polymeric interlayer. In case of breakage of one or all of the glass panes, the glass fragments are still connected to the interlayer due to adhesion forces and a certain residual load-bearing capacity is left in the system. Polymer interlayers used in the laminated glass show a viscoelastic material behavior, e.g. stresses and strains in the interlayer are dependent on load duration and temperature. In the intact stage only small strains appear in the interlayer, thus the material can be described in a linear way. In the broken stage, large strains can appear and a non-linear viscoelasticity material theory is necessary. Relaxation tests on two different types of polymeric interlayers are performed at different temperatures and strain amplitudes to determine the border to the non-linear material regime. Based on the small-scale specimen results further tests on broken laminated glass panes are conducted. So-called ‘through-crack-bending’ (TCB) tests are performed, in which the laminated glass has a defined crack pattern. The test set-up is realized in a way that one glass layer is still able to transfer compressive stresses but tensile stresses have to be transferred by the interlayer solely. The TCB-tests are also conducted under different temperatures but constant force (creep test). Aims of these experiments are to elaborate if the results of small-scale tests on the interlayer are transferable to a laminated glass system in the broken stage. In this study, limits of the applicability of linear-viscoelasticity are established in the context of two commercially available polymer-interlayers. Furthermore, it is shown that the results of small-scale tests agree to a certain degree to the results of the TCB large-scale experiments. In a future step, the results can be used to develop material models for the post breakage performance of laminated glass.

Keywords: glass breakage, laminated glass, relaxation test, viscoelasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
173 Parametric Study on Dynamic Analysis of Composite Laminated Plate

Authors: Junaid Kameran Ahmed

Abstract:

A laminated plate composite of graphite/epoxy has been analyzed dynamically in the present work by using a quadratic element (8-node diso-parametric), and by depending on 1st order shear deformation theory, every node in this element has 6-degrees of freedom (displacement in x, y, and z axis and twist about x, y, and z axis). The dynamic analysis in the present work covered parametric studies on a composite laminated plate (square plate) to determine its effect on the natural frequency of the plate. The parametric study is represented by set of changes (plate thickness, number of layers, support conditions, layer orientation), and the plates have been simulated by using ANSYS package 12. The boundary conditions considered in this study, at all four edges of the plate, are simply supported and fixed boundary condition. The results obtained from ANSYS program show that the natural frequency for both fixed and simply supported increases with increasing the number of layers, but this increase in the natural frequency for the first five modes will be neglected after 10 layers. And it is observed that the natural frequency of a composite laminated plate will change with the change of ply orientation, the natural frequency increases and it will be at maximum with angle 45 of ply for simply supported laminated plate, and maximum natural frequency will be with cross-ply (0/90) for fixed laminated composite plate. It is also observed that the natural frequency increase is approximately doubled when the thickness is doubled.

Keywords: laminated plate, orthotropic plate, square plate, natural frequency (free vibration), composite (graphite / epoxy)

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
172 Efficient Study of Substrate Integrated Waveguide Devices

Authors: J. Hajri, H. Hrizi, N. Sboui, H. Baudrand

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of SIW circuits (Substrate Integrated Waveguide) with a rigorous and fast original approach based on Iterative process (WCIP). The theoretical suggested study is validated by the simulation of two different examples of SIW circuits. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of measurement and with software HFSS.

Keywords: convergence study, HFSS, modal decomposition, SIW circuits, WCIP method

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171 Parameters Optimization of the Laminated Composite Plate for Sound Transmission Problem

Authors: Yu T. Tsai, Jin H. Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, the specific sound transmission loss (TL) of the laminated composite plate (LCP) with different material properties in each layer is investigated. The numerical method to obtain the TL of the LCP is proposed by using elastic plate theory. The transfer matrix approach is novelty presented for computational efficiency in solving the numerous layers of dynamic stiffness matrix (D-matrix) of the LCP. Besides the numerical simulations for calculating the TL of the LCP, the material properties inverse method is presented for the design of a laminated composite plate analogous to a metallic plate with a specified TL. As a result, it demonstrates that the proposed computational algorithm exhibits high efficiency with a small number of iterations for achieving the goal. This method can be effectively employed to design and develop tailor-made materials for various applications.

Keywords: sound transmission loss, laminated composite plate, transfer matrix approach, inverse problem, elastic plate theory, material properties

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170 An Investigation of Aluminum Foil-Epoxy Laminated Composites for Rapid Tooling Applications

Authors: Kevlin Govender, Anthony Walker, Glen Bright

Abstract:

Mass customization is an area of increased importance and the development of rapid tooling applications is pivotal to the success of mass customization. This paper presents a laminated object manufacturing (LOM) process for rapid tooling. The process is termed 3D metal laminate printing and utilizes domestic-grade aluminum foil and epoxy for layered manufacturing. A detailed explanation of the process is presented to produce complex metal laminated composite parts. Aluminum-epoxy composite specimens were manufactured from 0.016mm aluminum and subjected to tensile tests to determine the mechanical properties of the manufactured composite in relation to solid metal specimens. The fracture zone of the specimens was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize the fracture mode and study the interfacial bonding of the manufactured laminate specimens.

Keywords: 3D metal laminate printer, aluminum-epoxy composite, laminated object manufacturing, rapid tooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
169 Semiconductor Variable Wavelength Generator of Near-Infrared-to-Terahertz Regions

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

Power characteristics are obtained for laser beams of near-infrared and terahertz wavelengths when produced by difference-frequency generation with a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) waveguide made of gallium phosphide (GaP). A refractive-index change of the QPM GaP waveguide is included in computations with Sellmeier’s formula for varying input wavelengths, where optical loss is also included. Although the output power decreases with decreasing photon energy as the beam wavelength changes from near-infrared to terahertz wavelengths, the beam generation with such greatly different wavelengths, which is not achievable with an ordinary laser diode without the replacement of semiconductor material with a different bandgap one, can be made with the same semiconductor (GaP) by changing the QPM period, where a way of changing the period is provided.

Keywords: difference-frequency generation, gallium phosphide, quasi-phase-matching, waveguide

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168 Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Glass Cylindrical Shell with Hinged Free Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ebru Dural, M. Zulfu Asık

Abstract:

Laminated glass is a kind of safety glass, which is made by 'sandwiching' two glass sheets and a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer in between them. When the glass is broken, the interlayer in between the glass sheets can stick them together. Because of this property, the hazards of sharp projectiles during natural and man-made disasters reduces. They can be widely applied in building, architecture, automotive, transport industries. Laminated glass can easily undergo large displacements even under their own weight. In order to explain their true behavior, they should be analyzed by using large deflection theory to represent nonlinear behavior. In this study, a nonlinear mathematical model is developed for the analysis of laminated glass cylindrical shell which is free in radial directions and restrained in axial directions. The results will be verified by using the results of the experiment, carried out on laminated glass cylindrical shells. The behavior of laminated composite cylindrical shell can be represented by five partial differential equations. Four of the five equations are used to represent axial displacements and radial displacements and the fifth one for the transverse deflection of the unit. Governing partial differential equations are derived by employing variational principles and minimum potential energy concept. Finite difference method is employed to solve the coupled differential equations. First, they are converted into a system of matrix equations and then iterative procedure is employed. Iterative procedure is necessary since equations are coupled. Problems occurred in getting convergent sequence generated by the employed procedure are overcome by employing variable underrelaxation factor. The procedure developed to solve the differential equations provides not only less storage but also less calculation time, which is a substantial advantage in computational mechanics problems.

Keywords: laminated glass, mathematical model, nonlinear behavior, PVB

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167 Aseismic Stiffening of Architectural Buildings as Preventive Restoration Using Unconventional Materials

Authors: Jefto Terzovic, Ana Kontic, Isidora Ilic

Abstract:

In the proposed design concept, laminated glass and laminated plexiglass, as ”unconventional materials”, are considered as a filling in a steel frame on which they overlap by the intermediate rubber layer, thereby forming a composite assembly. In this way vertical elements of stiffening are formed, capable for reception of seismic force and integrated into the structural system of the building. The applicability of such a system was verified by experiments in laboratory conditions where the experimental models based on laminated glass and laminated plexiglass had been exposed to the cyclic loads that simulate the seismic force. In this way the load capacity of composite assemblies was tested for the effects of dynamic load that was parallel to assembly plane. Thus, the stress intensity to which composite systems might be exposed was determined as well as the range of the structure stiffening referring to the expressed deformation along with the advantages of a particular type of filling compared to the other one. Using specialized software whose operation is based on the finite element method, a computer model of the structure was created and processed in the case study; the same computer model was used for analyzing the problem in the first phase of the design process. The stiffening system based on composite assemblies tested in laboratories is implemented in the computer model. The results of the modal analysis and seismic calculation from the computer model with stiffeners applied showed an efficacy of such a solution, thus rounding the design procedures for aseismic stiffening by using unconventional materials.

Keywords: laminated glass, laminated plexiglass, aseismic stiffening, experiment, laboratory testing, computer model, finite element method

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166 CRLH and SRR Based Microwave Filter Design Useful for Communication Applications

Authors: Subal Kar, Amitesh Kumar, A. Majumder, S. K. Ghosh, S. Saha, S. S. Sikdar, T. K. Saha

Abstract:

CRLH (composite right/left-handed) based and SRR (split-ring resonator) based filters have been designed at microwave frequency which can provide better performance compared to conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency, 2.45 GHz. Both CRLH and SRR are unit cells used in metamaterial design. The primary aim of designing filters with such structures is to realize size reduction and also to realize novel filter performance. The CRLH based filter has been designed in microstrip transmission line, while the SRR based filter is designed with SRR loading in waveguide. The CRLH based filter designed at 2.45 GHz provides an insertion loss of 1.6 dB with harmonic suppression up to 10 GHz with 67 % size reduction when compared with a conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency. One dimensional (1-D) SRR matrix loaded in a waveguide shows the possibility of realizing a stop-band with sharp skirts in the pass-band while a stop-band in the pass-band of normal rectangular waveguide with tailoring of the dimensions of SRR unit cells. Such filters are expected to be very useful for communication systems at microwave frequency.

Keywords: BPF, CRLH, harmonic, metamaterial, SRR and waveguide

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165 Transient Analysis of Laminated Rubber Bearing Bridge during High Intensity Earthquake

Authors: N. M. Amin, W. N. A. W. Sulaiman

Abstract:

The effectiveness of the seismic response between 3D solid elements model and simplified beam elements model has been investigated. At present, the studies of the numerical modelling using 3D solid element are minimal due to numerical software constraint. The finite element analysis using 3D solid element was chosen to study displacement response of laminated rubber bearing (LRB) during high intensity Kobe earthquake. In this research a simply supported bridge (single span), fixed at support was analysed by using transient analysis subjected to real time history loading of Kobe earthquake.

Keywords: laminated rubber bearing, solid element, simplified beam element, transient analysis

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164 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee

Abstract:

Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

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163 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

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162 Dynamic Response of Magnetorheological Fluid Tapered Laminated Beams Reinforced with Nano-Particles

Authors: Saman Momeni, Abolghassem Zabihollah, Mehdi Behzad

Abstract:

Non-uniform laminated composite structures are being used in many engineering applications where the structures are subjected to unpredicted vibration. To mitigate the vibration response of these structures, recently, magnetorheological fluid (MR), is added to non-uniform (tapered) thickness laminated composite structures to achieve a new generation of the smart composite as MR tapered beam. However, due to the nature of MR fluid, especially the low stiffness, MR tapered beam exhibit lower stiffness and in turn, lower natural frequencies. To achieve the basic design requirements of the structure without MR fluid, one may need to apply a predefined magnetic energy to the structures, requiring a constant source of energy. In the present work, a passive initial stiffness control of MR tapered beam has been studied. The effects of adding nanoparticles on the dynamic response of MR tapered beam has been investigated. It is observed that adding nanoparticles up to 3% may significantly modify the natural frequencies of the structures and achieve dynamic behavior of the structures before addition of MR fluid. Two Models of tapered structures have been taken into consideration. It is observed that adding only 3% of nanoparticles backs the structures to its initial dynamic behavior.

Keywords: non uniform laminated structures, MR fluid, nanoparticles, vibration, stiffness

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