Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Shashank Johri

22 Performance Analysis and Comparison of Various 1-D and 2-D Prime Codes for OCDMA Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Shashank Johri, Arpit Mehrotra

Abstract:

In this paper we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension i.e. time slots whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for OCDMA system on a single platform. Results shows that 1D Extended Prime Code (EPC) can support more number of active users compared to other codes but at the expense of larger code length which further increases the complexity of the code. Modified Prime Code (MPC) supports lesser number of active users at λc=2 but it has a lesser code length as compared to 1D prime code. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
21 Solid Dosages Form Tablet: A Summary on the Article by Shashank Tiwari

Authors: Shashank Tiwari

Abstract:

The most common method of drug delivery is the oral solid dosage form, of which tablets and capsules are predominant. The tablet is more widely accepted and used compared to capsules for a number of reasons, such as cost/price, tamper resistance, ease of handling and packaging, ease of identification, and manufacturing efficiency. Over the past several years, the issue of tamper resistance has resulted in the conversion of most over-the-counter (OTC) drugs from capsules to predominantly all tablets.

Keywords: capsule, drug delivery, dosages, solid, tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
20 Designing and Enacting an Adjunct Faculty Self-Study of Teaching Community

Authors: Anastasia P. Samaras, Allison Ward-Parsons, Beth Dalbec, Paula Cristina Azevedo, Anya Evmenova, Arvinder Johri, Lynne Scott Constantine, Lesley Smith

Abstract:

Two cycles of qualitative data were collected. Cycle One sources included participant survey results, participant postings on Blackboard forums, facilitator memos, and meeting notes as well as reflections and notes from whole-group meetings.

Keywords: adjunct faculty, professional development, self-study methodology, teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
19 Strength & Density of an Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Using Various Air Entraining Agent

Authors: Shashank Gupta, Shiva Garg

Abstract:

The purpose of the present paper is to study the changes in the strength characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and also the density when different expansion agents are used. The expansion agent so used releases air in the concrete thereby making it lighter by reducing its density. It also increases the workability of the concrete. The various air entraining agents used for this study are hydrogen peroxide, oleic acid, and olive oil. The addition of these agents causes the concrete to rise like cake but it reduces the strength of concrete due to the formation of air voids. The amount of agents chosen for concrete production are 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% by weight of cement.

Keywords: AAC, olive oil, hydrogen peroxide, oleic acid, steam curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
18 Invention of Novel Technique of Process Scale Up by Using Solid Dosage Form

Authors: Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

The aim of this technique is to reduce the steps of process scales up, save time & cost of the industries. This technique will minimise the steps of process scale up. The new steps are, Novel Lab Scale, Novel Lab Scale Trials, Novel Trial Batches, Novel Exhibit Batches, Novel Validation Batches. In these steps, it is not divided to validation batches in three parts but the data of trials batches, Exhibit Batches and Validation batches are use and compile for production and used for validation. It also increases the batch size of the trial, exhibit batches. The new size of trials batches is not less than fifty Thousand, the exhibit batches increase up to two lack and the validation batches up to five lack. After preparing the batches all their data & drugs use for stability & maintain the validation record and compile data for the technology transfer in production department for preparing the marketed size batches.

Keywords: batches, technique, preparation, scale up, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
17 Host Range and Taxonomy of Hairy Caterpillars (Erebidae: Lepidoptera) in Different Cropping Ecosystems

Authors: Mallikarjun Warad, C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy, P. R. Shashank

Abstract:

Studies were conducted to record the occurrence of different species of hairy caterpillar on different host plants in and around Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. Twelve genera of hairy caterpillars belonging to Arctiinae and Lymantriinae were recorded on different host plants and reared to adults in laboratory on their respective hosts. The Porthesia sp. feed on castor, Creatonotus gangis on cocoa, Perina nuda on fig, Pericalia ricini on pigeon pea, Utetheisa pulchella on sunhemp and Euproctis sp. on paddy and banana. Illustrations of immature and adults were made to associate them. Along with this, light traps were also set during the rainy season, to capture adults of hairy caterpillars. An illustrated identification key was provided for easy and accurate identification of adult of hairy caterpillars based on their morphological (male genitalial) characters. The study through a light on the existence of sexual dimorphism, polyphagous nature and diapause are the major hindrance in taxonomic identification. Hence, attempts were made to address these issues in the study.

Keywords: Erebidae, hairy caterpillars, male genitalia, taxonomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
16 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in Laser Irradiated Biological Samplebased on Dual-Phase-Lag Heat Conduction Model Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Shashank Patidar, Sumit Kumar, Atul Srivastava, Suneet Singh

Abstract:

Present work is concerned with the numerical investigation of thermal response of biological tissues during laser-based photo-thermal therapy for destroying cancerous/abnormal cells with minimal damage to the surrounding normal cells. Light propagation through the biological sample is mathematically modelled by transient radiative transfer equation. In the present work, application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method is extended to analyze transport of short-pulse radiation in a participating medium.In order to determine the two-dimensional temperature distribution inside the tissue medium, the RTE has been coupled with Penne’s bio-heat transfer equation based on Fourier’s law by several researchers in last few years.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, transient radiation transfer equation, dual phase lag model

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
15 Trend Detection Using Community Rank and Hawkes Process

Authors: Shashank Bhatnagar, W. Wilfred Godfrey

Abstract:

We develop in this paper, an approach to find the trendy topic, which not only considers the user-topic interaction but also considers the community, in which user belongs. This method modifies the previous approach of user-topic interaction to user-community-topic interaction with better speed-up in the range of [1.1-3]. We assume that trend detection in a social network is dependent on two things. The one is, broadcast of messages in social network governed by self-exciting point process, namely called Hawkes process and the second is, Community Rank. The influencer node links to others in the community and decides the community rank based on its PageRank and the number of users links to that community. The community rank decides the influence of one community over the other. Hence, the Hawkes process with the kernel of user-community-topic decides the trendy topic disseminated into the social network.

Keywords: community detection, community rank, Hawkes process, influencer node, pagerank, trend detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
14 Carbon Based Classification of Aquaporin Proteins: A New Proposal

Authors: Parul Johri, Mala Trivedi

Abstract:

Major Intrinsic proteins (MIPs), actively involved in the passive transport of small polar molecules across the membranes of almost all living organisms. MIPs that specifically transport water molecules are named aquaporins (AQPs). The permeability of membranes is actively controlled by the regulation of the amount of different MIPs present but also in some cases by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the channel. Based on sequence similarity, MIPs have been classified into many categories. All of the proteins are made up of the 20 amino acids, the only difference is there in their orientations. Again all the 20 amino acids are made up of the basic five elements namely: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen. These elements are responsible for giving the amino acids the properties of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity which play an important role in protein interactions. The hydrophobic amino acids characteristically have greater number of carbon atoms as carbon is the main element which contributes to hydrophobic interactions in proteins. It is observed that the carbon level of proteins in different species is different. In the present work, we have taken a sample set of 150 aquaporins proteins from Uniprot database and a dynamic programming code was written to calculate the carbon percentage for each sequence. This carbon percentage was further used to barcode the aqauporins of animals and plants. The protein taken from Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana preferred to have carbon percentage of 31.8 to 35, whereas on the other hand sequences taken from Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, Bos Taurus, and Rattus norvegicus preferred to have carbon percentage of 31 to 33.7. This clearly demarks the carbon range in the aquaporin proteins from plant and animal origin. Hence the atom level analysis of protein sequences can provide us with better results as compared to the residue level comparison.

Keywords: aquaporins, carbon, dynamic prgramming, MIPs

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
13 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: scale up, research, size, batch

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
12 Influence of Free Field Vibrations Due to Vibratory Pile Driving

Authors: Shashank Mukkoti, Mainak Majumder, Srinivasan Venkatraman

Abstract:

Owing to the land scarcity in the modern-day, most of the construction activities are carried out closed to the existing buildings. Most of the high-rise buildings are constructed on pile foundations to transfer the design loads to a strong stratum below the ground surface. Due to the proximity of the new and existing structures, noise disturbances are prominent during the pile installation. Installation of vibratory piles is most suitable in urban areas. The ground vibrations developed due to the vibratory pile driving may cause many detrimental effects on the surrounding structures based on the proximity of the sources and nature of the structures. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the severity of ground vibrations induced by vibratory pile driving. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed in the ABAQUS/ Explicit finite element program. The couple finite/infinite element method has been employed for the capturing of propagating waves due to the pile installation. The geometry of the pile foundations, frequency of the pile driving, length of the pile has been considered for the parametric study. The results show that vibrations generated due to the vibratory pile installation are either very close or more than the thresholds tolerance limits set by different guidelines.

Keywords: FE model, pile driving, free field vibrations, wave propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
11 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi

Abstract:

Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
10 talk2all: A Revolutionary Tool for International Medical Tourism

Authors: Madhukar Kasarla, Sumit Fogla, Kiran Panuganti, Gaurav Jain, Abhijit Ramanujam, Astha Jain, Shashank Kraleti, Sharat Musham, Arun Chaudhury

Abstract:

Patients have often chosen to travel for care — making pilgrimages to academic meccas and state-of-the-art hospitals for sophisticated surgery. This culture is still persistent in the landscape of US healthcare, with hundred thousand of visitors coming to the shores of United States to seek the high quality of medical care. One of the major challenges in this form of medical tourism has been the language barrier. Thus, an Iraqi patient, with immediate needs of communicating the healthcare needs to the treating team in the hospital, may face huge barrier in effective patient-doctor communication, delaying care and even at times reducing the quality. To circumvent these challenges, we are proposing the use of a state-of-the-art tool, Talk2All, which can translate nearly one hundred international languages (and even sign language) in real time. The tool is an easy to download app and highly user friendly. It builds on machine learning principles to decode different languages in real time. We suggest that the use of Talk2All will tremendously enhance communication in the hospital setting, effectively breaking the language barrier. We propose that vigorous incorporation of Talk2All shall overcome practical challenges in international medical and surgical tourism.

Keywords: language translation, communication, machine learning, medical tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
9 Dual Mode Mobile Based Detection of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide for Determination of Live and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Shashank Gahlaut, Chandrashekhar Sharan, J. P. Singh

Abstract:

Increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a big concern for the treatment of pathogenic diseases. The effect of treatment of patients with antibiotics often leads to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the pathogens. The detection of antibiotic or antimicrobial resistant bacteria (microbes) is quite essential as it is becoming one of the big threats globally. Here we propose a novel technique to tackle this problem. We are taking a step forward to prevent the infections and diseases due to drug resistant microbes. This detection is based on some unique features of silver (a noble metal) nanorods (AgNRs) which are fabricated by a physical deposition method called thermal glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Silver nanorods are found to be highly sensitive and selective for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. Color and water wetting (contact angle) of AgNRs are two parameters what are effected in the presence of this gas. H₂S is one of the major gaseous products evolved in the bacterial metabolic process. It is also known as gasotransmitter that transmits some biological singles in living systems. Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon mono oxide (CO) are two another members of this family. Orlowski (1895) observed the emission of H₂S by the bacteria for the first time. Most of the microorganism produce these gases. Here we are focusing on H₂S gas evolution to determine live/dead and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. AgNRs array has been used for the detection of H₂S from micro-organisms. A mobile app is also developed to make it easy, portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, hydrogen sulfide, live and dead bacteria, mobile app

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
8 Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading

Authors: Pavan K. Emani, Shashank Kothari, V. S. Phanikanth

Abstract:

The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.

Keywords: collapse load analysis, inelastic buckling, liquefaction, pile group

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
7 Development and Characterization of Cobalt Metal Loaded ZSM-5 and H-ZSM-5 Catalyst for Fischer -Tropsch Synthesis

Authors: Shashank Bahri, Divyanshu Arya, Rajni Jain, Sreedevi Upadhyayula

Abstract:

Petroleum products can be obtained from syngas catalytic conversion using Fischer Tropsch Reaction. The liquid fuels obtained from FTS are sulphur and nitrogen free and thus may easily meet the increasing stringent environment regulations. In the present work we have synthesized Meso porous ZSM-5 supported catalyst. Meso structure were created in H-ZSM-5 crystallites by demetalation via subsequent base and acid treatment. Desilication through base treatment provides H-ZSM-5 with pore size and volumes similar to amorphous SiO2 (Conventional Carrier). Modifying the zeolite texture and surface chemistry by Desilication and acid washing alters its accessibility and interactions with metal phase and consequently the CO adsorption behavior and hydrocarbon product distribution. Increasing the mesoporosity via desilication provides the micro porous zeolite with essential surface area to support optimally sized metal crystallites. This improves the metal dispersion and hence improve the activity of the catalyst. Transition metal (Co) was loaded using wet impregnation method. Synthesized catalysts were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, Powdered X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET Method analytical techniques. Acidity of the catalyst which plays an important role in FTS reaction was measured by DRIFT setup pyridine adsorption instead of NH3 Temperature Programmed Desorption. The major difference is that, Pyridine Adsorption can distinguish between Lewis acidity and Bronsted Acidity, thus giving their relative strengths in the catalyst sample, whereas TPD gives total acidity including Lewis and Bronsted ones.

Keywords: mesopourus, fischer tropsch reaction, pyridine adsorrption, drift study

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
6 Assessment of Hydrogen Demand for Different Technological Pathways to Decarbonise the Aviation Sector in Germany

Authors: Manish Khanra, Shashank Prabhu

Abstract:

The decarbonization of hard-to-abate sectors is currently high on the agenda in the EU and its member states, as these sectors have substantial shares in overall GHG emissions while it is facing serious challenges to decarbonize. In particular, the aviation sector accounts for 2.8% of global anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. These emissions are anticipated to grow dramatically unless immediate mitigating efforts are implemented. Hydrogen and its derivatives based on renewable electricity can have a key role in the transition towards CO₂-neutral flights. The substantial shares of energy carriers in the form of drop-in fuel, direct combustion and Hydrogen-to-Electric are promising in most scenarios towards 2050. For creating appropriate policies to ramp up the production and utilisation of hydrogen commodities in the German aviation sector, a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of supply-demand sites is essential. The objective of this research work is to assess the demand for hydrogen-based alternative fuels in the German aviation sector to achieve the perceived goal of the ‘Net Zero’ scenario by 2050. Here, the analysis of the technological pathways for the production and utilisation of these fuels in various aircraft options is conducted for reaching mitigation targets. Our method is based on data-driven bottom-up assessment, considering production and demand sites and their spatial distribution. The resulting energy demand and its spatial distribution with consideration of technology diffusion lead to a possible transition pathway of the aviation sector to meet short-term and long-term mitigation targets. Additionally, to achieve mitigation targets in this sector, costs and policy aspects are discussed, which would support decision-makers from airline industries, policymakers and the producers of energy commodities.

Keywords: the aviation sector, hard-to-abate sectors, hydrogen demand, alternative fuels, technological pathways, data-driven approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
5 Investigation on the Energy Impact of Spatial Geometry in a Residential Building Using Building Information Modeling Technology

Authors: Shashank. S. Bagane, H. N. Rajendra Prasad

Abstract:

Building Information Modeling (BIM) has currently developed into a potent solution. The consistent development of BIM technology in the sphere of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry has enhanced the effectiveness of construction and decision making. However, aggrandized global warming and energy crisis has impacted on building energy analysis. It is now becoming an important factor to be considered in the AEC industry. Amalgamating energy analysis in the planning and design phase of a structure has become a necessity. In the current construction industry, estimating energy usage and reducing its footprint is of high priority. The construction industry is giving more prominence to sustainability alongside energy efficiency. This demand is compelling the designers, planners, and engineers to inspect the sustainable performance throughout the building's life cycle. The current study primarily focuses on energy consumption, space arrangement, and spatial geometry of a residential building. Most commonly residential structures in India are constructed considering Vastu Shastra. Vastu designs are intended to integrate architecture with nature and utilizing geometric patterns, symmetry, and directional alignments. In the current study, a residential brick masonry structure is considered for BIM analysis, Architectural model of the structure will be created using Revit software, later the orientation and spatial arrangement will be finalized based on Vastu principles. Furthermore, the structure will be investigated for the impact of building orientation and spatial arrangements on energy using Green Building Studio software. Based on the BIM analysis of the structure, energy consumption of subsequent building orientations will be understood. A well-orientated building having good spatial arrangement can save a considerable amount of energy throughout its life cycle and reduces the need for heating and lighting which will prove to diminish energy usage and improve the energy efficiency of the residential building.

Keywords: building information modeling, energy impact, spatial geometry, vastu

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
4 Ultrasonic Atomizer for Turbojet Engines

Authors: Aman Johri, Sidhant Sood, Pooja Suresh

Abstract:

This paper suggests a new and more efficient method of atomization of fuel in a combustor nozzle of a high bypass turbofan engine, using ultrasonic vibrations. Since atomization of fuel just before the fuel spray is injected into the combustion chamber is an important and crucial aspect related to functioning of a propulsion system, the technology suggested by this paper and the experimental analysis on the system components eventually proves to assist in complete and rapid combustion of the fuel in the combustor module of the engine. Current propulsion systems use carburetors, atomization nozzles and apertures in air intake pipes for atomization. The idea of this paper is to deploy new age hybrid technology, namely the Ultrasound Field Effect (UFE) to effectively atomize fuel before it enters the combustion chamber, as a viable and effective method to increase efficiency and improve upon existing designs. The Ultrasound Field Effect is applied axially, on diametrically opposite ends of an atomizer tube that gloves onto the combustor nozzle, where the fuel enters and exits under a pre-defined pressure. The Ultrasound energy vibrates the fuel particles to a breakup frequency. At reaching this frequency, the fuel particles start disintegrating into smaller diameter particles perpendicular to the axis of application of the field from the parent boundary layer of fuel flow over the baseplate. These broken up fuel droplets then undergo swirling effect as per the original nozzle design, with a higher breakup ratio than before. A significant reduction of the size of fuel particles eventually results in an increment in the propulsive efficiency of the engine. Moreover, the Ultrasound atomizer operates within a control frequency such that effects of overheating and induced vibrations are least felt on the overall performance of the engine. The design of an electrical manifold for the multiple-nozzle system over a typical can-annular combustor is developed along with this study, such that the product can be installed and removed easily for maintenance and repairing, can allow for easy access for inspections and transmits least amount of vibrational energy to the surface of the combustor. Since near-field ultrasound is used, the vibrations are easily controlled, thereby successfully reducing vibrations on the outer shell of the combustor. Experimental analysis is carried out on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on flowing jet turbine fuel using an ultrasound generator probe and results of an effective decrease in droplet size across a constant diameter, away from the boundary layer of flow is noted using visual aid by observing under ultraviolet light. The choice of material for the Ultrasound inducer tube and crystal along with the operating range of temperatures, pressures, and frequencies of the Ultrasound field effect are also studied in this paper, while taking into account the losses incurred due to constant vibrations and thermal loads on the tube surface.

Keywords: atomization, ultrasound field effect, titanium mesh, breakup frequency, parent boundary layer, baseplate, propulsive efficiency, jet turbine fuel, induced vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
3 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek

Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar

Abstract:

Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.

Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
2 Effect of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation on Perceived Stress and Sleep Quality in Adults

Authors: Divya Kanchibhotla, Shashank Kulkarni, Shweta Singh

Abstract:

Chronic stress and sleep quality reduces mental health and increases the risk of developing depression and anxiety as well. There is increasing evidence for the utility of meditation as an adjunct clinical intervention for conditions like depression and anxiety. The present study is an attempt to explore the impact of Sahaj Samadhi Meditation (SSM), a category of Automatic Self Transcending Meditation (ASTM), on perceived stress and sleep quality in adults. The study design was a single group pre-post assessment. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used in this study. Fifty-two participants filled PSS, and 60 participants filled PSQI at the beginning of the program (day 0), after two weeks (day 16) and at two months (day 60). Significant pre-post differences for the perceived stress level on Day 0 - Day 16 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.46) and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.76) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced reduction in the perceived stress. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small to medium, but on the 60th day, a medium to large effect size of the intervention was observed. In addition to this, significant pre-post differences for the sleep quality on Day 0 - Day 16 and Day 0 - Day 60 (p < 0.05) clearly demonstrated that by practicing SSM, participants experienced improvement in the sleep quality. Compared with Day 0 assessment, participants demonstrated significant improvement in the quality of sleep on Day 16 and Day 60. The effect size of the intervention observed on the 16th day of assessment was small, but on the 60th day, a small to medium effect size of the intervention was observed. In the current study we found out that after practicing SSM for two months, participants reported a reduction in the perceived stress, they felt that they are more confident about their ability to handle personal problems, were able to cope with all the things that they had to do, felt that they were on top of the things, and felt less angered. Participants also reported that their overall sleep quality improved; they took less time to fall asleep; they had less disturbances in sleep and less daytime dysfunction due to sleep deprivation. The present study provides clear evidence of the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological interventions such as SSM in reducing stress and improving sleep quality. Thus, ASTM may be considered a useful intervention to reduce psychological distress in healthy, non-clinical populations, and it can be an alternative remedy for treating poor sleep among individuals and decreasing the use of harmful sedatives.

Keywords: automatic self transcending meditation, Sahaj Samadhi meditation, sleep, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1 Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Metastatic Effect of Aqueous Fraction from Euchelus Asper Methanolic Extract

Authors: Sweta Agrawal, Sachin Chaugule, Gargi Rane, Shashank More, Madhavi Indap

Abstract:

Angiogenesis and metastasis are two of the most important hallmarks of cancer. Hence, most of the cancer therapies nowadays are multi-targeted so as to reduce resistance and have better efficacy. As synthetic molecules arise with a burden of their toxicities and side-effects, more and more research is being focussed on exploiting the vast natural resources of drugs, in the form of plants and animals. Although, the idea of using marine organisms as a source of pharmaceuticals is not new, the pace at which marine drugs are being discovered, has definitely up surged! In the present study, we have assessed the anti-angiogenic and in vitro anti-metastatic activity of aqueous fraction from the extract of marine gastropod Euchelus asper. The soft body of Euchelus Asper was extracted with methanol and named EAME. Partition chromatography of EAME gave three fractions EAME I, II and III. Biochemical analysis revealed the presence of proteins in EAME III. Preliminary analysis had revealed the anti-angiogenic activity was exhibited by EAME III out of the three fractions. Hereafter, EAME III (concentration 25µg/ml-400µg/ml) was tested on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model for the detailed analysis of its potential anti-angiogenic effect. In vitro testing of the fraction (concentration 0.25µg/ml - 1µg/ml), involved cytotoxicity by SRB assay, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and anti-proliferative effect by scratch wound healing assay on A549 lung carcinoma cells. Apart from this, a portion of treated CAM as well as conditioned medium from treated A549 were subjected to gelatin zymography for assessment of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Our results revealed that EAME III exhibited significant anti-angiogenic activity on CAM which was also supported by histological observations. During histological studies of CAM, it was found that EAME III caused reduction in angiogenesis by altering the extracellular matrix of the CAM membrane. In vitro analysis disclosed that EAME III exhibited moderate cytotoxic effect on A549 cells and its effect was not dose-dependent. The results of flow cytometry confirmed that EAME III caused cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line as almost all of the treated cells were found in G1 phase. Further, the migration and proliferation of A549 was significantly reduced by EAME III as observed from the scratch wound assay. Moreover, Gelatin zymography analysis revealed that EAME III caused suppression of MMP-2 in CAM membrane and reduced MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression in A549 cells. This verified that the anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic effects of EAME III were correlated with the suppression of MMP-2 and -9. To conclude, EAME III shows dual anti-tumour action by reducing angiogenesis and exerting anti-metastatic effect on lung cancer cells, thus it has the potential to be used as an anti-cancer agent against lung carcinoma.

Keywords: angiogenesis, anti-cancer, marine drugs, matrix metalloproteinases

Procedia PDF Downloads 175